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s .,_ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 




LIBRARY 



MUSEUM OF COMPARATIVE ZOOLOGY. 



I^SSl, 




Cn (nroryj^ <5j1, /^|^_^T^ 



INDIAN MUSEUM NOTES. 



ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES, 



EDITED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



Volume IV. 




Published by Authority of the Government of India, 
Department of Revenue and Agriculture. 



CALCUTTA : 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1 900. 






.V 



JUN 12 1903 

PREFACE TO VOLUME IV. 



THIS volume of Indian Museum Notes on Economic Entomology 
has been compiled by the late Mr. Edward Barlow, under the 
immediate supervision of the Superintendent of the Museum. 

Among other original matter, it contains several systematic 
papers, and a large series of miscellaneous notes in which numerous 
insect-pests of this country are described, and their habits and the 
nature of their ravages indicated ; several reports on the results of 
some of the remedial experiments that have been tried on insects 
hurtful to Indian agriculture ; and eighteen photo-etched plates in 
which a large number of insects of economic interest are figured. 

The illustrated systematic papers include four by Mr. G. B. 
Buckton, F.R.S., on Homoptera^c\\\t^y ox\. Aphidx; an important 
one on Coccidse by Mr. E, E. Green, who is now Government 
Entomologist for Ceylon ; two on certain destructive Uomoptera, by 
the late Mr. W. M. Maskell; one on some noxious Tineid Moths, by 
Lord Walsingham, F.R.S.; two, by Messrs. Kerremans and Desbro- 
ches des Loges, on some destructive Beetles; one, by Herr E. 
Brenske, in which a number of new Indian species of the plant- 
damaging Cockchafer family are described ; and, finally, a paper by 
Mr. D. W. Coquillet, on a parasitic species of Tachinid fly which is 
likely to prove useful to planters by destroying certain caterpillars 
that ravage tea-bushes. Almost a:ll these papers are based on mate- 
rial furnished by the Museum, and to the gentlemen — all of whom 
are high authorities in their special subjects — who have contributed 
them, the best thanks of all who are concerned for the welfare of 
Indian Entomology in its economic aspects are due. 

The Miscellaneous Notes on Inspect Pests are in this volume for 
the first time systematically arranged under headings relating to the 
several industries affected. They include, in regular order, accounts 
of insects affecting Tea, the various Crops and Cereals, Fruit-trees, 
Timber -trees, and Domestic Animals. A paper on insects which are 
beneficial to agriculture by devouring insect-pests is also included 
in this series, more in the hope of drawing attention to the important 
subject of Natural Remedies than with the intention of handling the 
matter critically. 

It is with great regret tha.t the editor has here to place on record 
the death of Mr. Edward Barlow, which occurred shortly after the 
^ih fasciculus of this volume had been sent to press. 

^ A. ALCOCK, Major, I. M.S., 

Calcutta ; I o • , r . 

f c:>uperiniendent, 

The 6th June, igoo. ) Indian Museum, 



CONTENTS OF VOL. IV. 



Notes on a new Homopterous Insect of the Family Fulgoridje : Pag^ 

by G. B. Buckton, F.R.S i 

Catalogue of Coccidse collected in Ceylon 5 by E. E. Green, F.E.S, . ■* 

" Remedies for Plant Diseases." (Reprint) , . . . . ii 

Miscellaneous Notes from the Entomological Section, ^ Indian 

Museum : by E* Barlow ........ 13 

An Exhibit Collection of Economic Insects in the Indian Museum : 

by E. Barlow .......... 41 

A new species of Buprestid Beetle ; by C. Kerremans • . . 48 

Note on two New Species of Gal! Aphids : by G. B. Buckton, F.RS. « 50 

A New Species of Homopterous Insect of the Family Aleurodidse : 

by W. M. Maskell 52 

Note on the " Potu " or " Pipsa " Simulium indicum, Bechr: by 
Lionel de Niceville, F.E.S., CM. Z.S., etc. 54 

Notes on Insect Pests from the Entomological Section, Indian 

Museum : by E. Barlow .*-...«. -6 

" Indian forest flies. " (Reprint) ....... 79 

** Coccids preyed upon by Birds." (Reprint) « , , , . 81 
*' The common crow of the United States as an enemy to Insects." 

(Reprint) 83 

"On Hawks and Owls as Enemies to Insects." (Reprint) . . loi 

** On the formation of New Colonies by Termes lucifugus" (Reprint) • 102 

Description of two new species of Tineina from Bengal : by the 
Right Honourable Lord Walsingham, M.A., F.R.S., etc.j , , 103 

On the possible utilization of the Calcutta Green Bug as food for 

Birds, etc. : by F. Finn, B.A., F.Z.S 108 

Description of three New Species of Indian Coleoptera of the Family 
Curculionidse : by J. Desbroches des Loges . . . .in 

Some Comparative Trials of Insecticide Pumps in relation to the 
Treatment of ^ Tea-blights ; and Experiments in the Treatment of 
Red Spider : by W. J. Fleet . , , , . . .115 

Notes on Insect Pests from the Entomological Section, Indian 

Museum : by E. Barlow .... ^ ... 118 

"Description of three species of Indian Aleurodidae ": by W. M. 

Maskell. (Reprint) ......... 143 

« The Bot-fly of the Indian Elephant." (Reprint) . . . .146 

" Food of Woodpeckers of the United States." (Reprint) . . . 147 

Diagnoses Melolonthidarum Novarum ex India Orientali : by 

Ernst Brenske . . . . . . . . . .176 

Notes on Insect Pests from the Entomological Section, Indian Museum : 
by E. Barlow ...... ^ .. . 180 

[ V ] 



Page 

"The Horse Bot-flies." Extracts from a report by H. Osborn. 

(Reprint) ....#...... 222 

List of the Melolonthini contained in the Collection of the Indian 

Museum : by E. Barlow ...•.•.. 234 

Description of a New Pear-tree Aphis from Ceylon : by G. B. Buck- 
ton, F.R.S., etc., with Introductory Note by E. E. Green, F.E.S. • 274 

Notes on two new species of Aphids from India : by G. B. Buckton, 

F.R.S., etc. . • . 277 

Description of a New Parasitic Tachinid Fly from Ceylon : by 

D. W, Coquillett 279 



[ vi ] 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES IN VOL. IV. 



Plate I^ 

Fio. I. AssAMiA DENTATA, n. sp. (i) imago : (2) elytrum with hooks : (3) 
lower wing with hooks : (4) head showing (a) antennae ; (b) 
clypeus with keels ; and rostrum at {r) : (5) Lower end of tibia 
and tarsus of hind leg. 

Plate II — 

Fig. I. Maruca testualis, Geyer. (a) moth ; {h) chrysalis 5 (c) cater- 
pillar. 

„ 2. Perina nuda, Fabr., (o) and (6) moths $ and $ ; (c) chry- 
salis ; (d) caterpillar. 

„ 3. Thiacidas postica. Walk., (a) and {b) moths $ and ? ; (c) 
chrysalis ; {d) caterpillar. 

„ 4. Hypsa alciphron. Cram., (a) moth; {b) chrysalis; (c) cater- 
pillar. 

„ 5, Hymenia recurvalis, Fabr., (c) moth; {b) chrysalis. 

Plate III— 

Fig. I. Mahasena graminivora, n. sp., (a) moth $ ; (5) moth ? ; (c) 
larva. 

„ 2. EuMETA crameri. West, [a) moth $ ; {b) larval case of $, 

„ 3. Rhopalosiphum dianthi, Schr., (a) apterous viviparous ? ; (h) 
pupa ; (c) winged viviparous ? . 

„ 4. Millepede. 



Plate IV— 



Fig. I Pemphigus napjeus, n. sp., (a) apterous ? or foundress; (5) 
pupa ; (c) imago or winged ? ; {d) antenna of the apterous 
? ; (e) rostrum of the apterous $;(/") antenna of the 
imago ; [g) tarsi of the imago ; (h) Gall. 

„ 2. Pemphigus immunis, n. sp., (a) pupa ; {b) imago or winged 
viviparous ¥ ; (c) antenna of the imago ; {d) Galls. 



Plate V — 



Fig. I. Thosea recta, Hamps., (a) larva and cocoon on tea twig ; (5) 

and (c) moths $ and $ . 
(d). Ichneumonid parasite of T/ioifffl r^c^fl (twice enlarged) . 
„ 2. Xyloborus fornicatus, Eichcff. (a) larva ; (i) pupa ; {c) and 

(d) images $ and ? ; (e) affected tea stem. 
„ 3. Carteria decorella, Mask., [a) adult females in tests on twig; (b) 

tests of 2nd stage, females and males, on twig; (c) tests of 

adult females, enlarged ; {d) test of male, enlarged ; (e) adult 

male ; (/) antenna of male (after Maskell). 
„ 4. Synclera multilinealis, Guen. moth, natural size. 

[ vli ] 



Plate V-^contd, 

Fig, 5. Dactylopius longifilis, Comstock. Female, enlarged (after 
Comstock). 

Plate VI— 

Fig. I. PoDONTiA 14-PUisrcTATA, Linn., (c) larva ; (6) pupa ; (r) imago, 
id) earthen pupa cell. 

„ 2. AsPiDioTUS Ficus, (Riley) Comstock., {a) scales, on leaves of orange, 
natural size ; (6) scale of female, enlarged ; (c) scale of male, 
enlarged ; (d) young larva, enlarged ; (e) adult male, enlarged 
(after Comstock). 

„ 3. Argas reflexus, Fabr. Upper, under, and side views, enlarged. 

Plate VII— 

Fig. I. Cryptophlebia carpophaga, Wlsm,, n. sp., {a) larva ; (i) and 
(c) moths $ and $ ; {S) pod of Cassia fistula with chrysalis 
skins protruding from it, 

„ 2. Ereunetis ? seminivora, Wlsm,,'"n. sp., {a) larva ; {b) chrysalis ; 
(c) moth ? ; {d) pod of Cassia occidentalis with a chrysalis skin 
protruding from it. 

Plate VIII— 

Fig. I. Myllocerus maculosus, Desbr. de Loges., n. sp., (a) and {h) 
weevil, dorsal and side views (enlarged) ; (c) weevil, natural size ; 
{d) antenna (enlarged). 

„ 2. Myllocerus setulifer, Desbr. de Loges, n. sp,, (a) and {b) 
weevil, dorsal and side views (enlarged) ; (c) weevil natural 
size ; (rf) antenna, enlarged. 

H 3. Leucomigus antennalis, P'aust, (a) and {b) weevil, dorsal and 
side views ; (c) antenna (all enlarged). 

Plate IX— 

Fig. I Strawson's" Coronette." 
„ 2. Vermorel's " Torpille." 
„ 3. „ " Eclair." 

„ 4. Strawson's" Notus." 
„ 5. „ " Antipest." 

„ 6. Chiswick Co.'s Sprayer. 

Plate X — 

Coolie using Vermorel's " Eclair." 

Plate XI— 

Fig. I. AcANTHOPSYCHE (Brachycyttarus) subteralbata, Hamps,, (a) 

larva-case ; {b) moth $ . 

„ 2. Leptispa pygmjea, Baly, (a) and (6), beetle, dorsal and side views 
(enlarged). 

„ 3. Ar/eocerus fasciculatus, Degeer, (a) larva ; (b) pupa; (c) and 
{d), beetle, dorsal and side views. 

„ 4. Adoretus cardoni, Brenske, (a) and {b), beetle, dorsal and side 
views ; (c) antenna (enlarged). 

[ viii ] 



Plate XII— 



Fig. I. Aleurodes barodensis, Mask., (a) larvas, pupse, and eggs on 
leaf (enlarged) ; (b) larva, dorsal view ; (c) diagram of larva, 
showing arrangement of pores ; (d) margin of larva and pupa ; 
(e) vasiform orifice, operculum and lingula. 

1, 2, Aleurodes eugenic, var. aurantii Mask., (a) pupse on leaf ; 
(b) pupa-case, showing enclosed insect ; (c) diagram of pupa- 
case, showing radiating patches ; {d) one of the radiating patches, 
enlarged ; (e) margin of pupa-case ; (/ ) vasiform orifice, oper- 
culum and lingula (diagram). 

„ 3. Aleurodes cotesii, Mask., (a) larvae and pupse on leaf ; {b) 
larva, dorsal view (enlarged) ; (c) marginal and dorsal pores 
of larva ; {d) pupa-case, dorsal view (enlarged) ; {e) margin of 
pupa-case ; (/ ) pupa-case, side view ; (g) vasiform orifice, 
operculum, and lingula (diagram). 



Tlate XIII— 



Fig. I. Holotrichia imitatrix, Brensk., n. sp., (a) and (b), beetle, dorsal 
and side views (natural size) ; (c) antenna (enlarged). 

„ 2. Holotrichia andamana, Brensk., n. sp., (a) and (b), beetle, dorsal 
and side views (natural size) ; (c) antenna (enlarged). 

„ 3. Serica CALCUTT.3E, Brensk., n. sp., (a) and (&) beetle, dorsal and 
side views (natural size) ; (c) antenna (enlarged). 

„ 4. Serica assamensis, Brensk., n. sp., (a) and (&) beetle, dorsal and 
side views ; (c) antenna ; {d) hind leg (all enlarged). 



Plate XIV— 



Fig. I. EupRocTis latifascia, Walk., (a) larva; (b) and (c) moths $ 
and ?. 

„ 2. Thosea cervina, Moore, (a) and (6) larva, dorsal and side views ; 
(c) cocoon ; (d) and (e) moths $ and ? . 

„ 3. Thosea divergens, Moore, (a) cocoon ; {b) and (c) moths $ 
and $. 

„ 4. Belippa lohor, Moore, (a) cocoon ; (b) and (c) moths $ and $ . 



Plate XV— 



Fig. I. Cremastogaster rogenhoferi, Mayr., (a) ant ; (b) nest (quarter 
natural size). 

„ 2. Plutella maculata. Curt., (a) and (b) larva, dorsal and side 
views; (c) chrysalis ; (d) moth ; (e) piece of cauliflower attacked 
by larvas. 

„ 3. Eriococcus paradoxus, var. indica, Mask., piece of twig covered 
with larva scales. 



Plate XVI— 



Fig. I. Lachnus pyri, Buck,, n. sp., (a) half grown larva; (b) winged 
female, March brood ; (c) antenna {d) winged female, June 
brood ; (e) Apterous adult, June brood (all enlarged). 

■ [ ix ] 



Plate XVII— 

Fig. I. Chaitophorus maculatus. Buck., n. sp., (a) apterous female ; 
(b) head; (c) wings ; (d) nectary (e) hind femur (all enlarged). 

„ 2. Rhizobius jujube, Buck., n. sp., (a) Apterous adult ; {b) young 
insect ; (c) part of the head and antenna ; (rf) tarsus with single 
claw. 

Plate XVIII— 

Fig. I. ExoRisTA heterusije, Coqutllett., n. sp., (a) Ry ; (b) and (c) front 
and side views of the face ; (d) puparium. 

„ 2. Heterusia cingala, Moore, (a) and (i), moths $ and ? ; (c) larva 
{d) cocoon. 



INDEX TO VOLUiME IV. 



Abies smithiana . 

„ webbiana 
Acacia 

,, arabica 

,, jnelanoxylon 
Acanthacese 
Acanthopsyche subteralbata 

(Brachycyttarus) 
Acarina . . • . 

Acarus .... 
Acredula caudata . 

Acridiidae . . 43, 86, 87, 93 
Acridium aeruginosum 

,1 melanocorne . . 
,) peregrinum 



,1 succinctum 
Adiantum . 
Adoretus cardoni 
^cidium abietinum 
Aeschnidse , 

Aethriostoma undulata 
Agave 

Agriotes mancus 
Agrotis biconica . 
„ segetis . 
„ suffusa 
Alai . 
Albizzia . . 

,, stipulata 
Ake . , 

Aleurodes . , 
„ barodensis 
), citri 
„ cotesii 
„ eugeniae 
)t )) vai 

fagi . 
„ melicyti 
„ piperis 
,) proletella 
II sp. 
Aleurodidse 



43,46 
128, 200 



23; 



aurantii 



43, 



42 



62 



Page 

19 

21 

2 

45,75 
2 
6 

118 

118 

30 

216 

81 

215, 216 

43 

43 

65, 127, 

218, 219 

43 

7 

136 

20 

94 

45 

4 

92 

194, 195 
194, 19s 
'; 63, 194 

39 

8, 28 

i34 

39 
313 

M3i 213 

144 

US 

52, 144 

144 

MS 

53 

213 

S3 

213 

M3r213 



AUorhina nitida . 
Aloa lactinea . 
Amarantus mangostanus 
Ambrosia . i 

„ sp. 
Amelanchier canadensis 
Ampelopsis 
Amphimallus 
Amygdalus persicse 
Ancistrosoma . 

„ farinosum 

Ancylonycha . 
Andraca bipunctata 
„ trilochoides 
Andropogon 
Anisodactylus 
Anisonyx . 
„ crinitas 
„ longlpes 
„ ursus . 
Anomala . 
Anona squamosa 
Anonsepestis bengalelle 
Anoplotermes • 
Anoxia . . 
„ anketeri . 
„ cerealis 
„ deserti * 
„ glauca 
„ orientalis . 
„ pilosa . 
„ testacea . 
,, villosa 
„ zemindar . 
Anthocephalus cadamba 
Anthomyia peshawarensis 
Anthrenus vorax 
Antidesma bunius 
Antigouon . 
Ants, food for crows 
Aonidia corniger 
Aphelinus these . 
Aphendala divaricata 
Aphendala recta . 



155: 



Page 

165 
32 
16 

161, 166 
168 

157, 160 
»5S 

265, 273 

23 

250, 273 

250 

257, 273 

41 

41 

3 

88 

234. 273 

234 

234 

23s 

92 

44 

44 

102 

268, 273 

268 

268 

268 

268 

268 

26S 

268 

268 

268 

134 

46, 219 

45 

6, 10 

8 

91,92 

5 

219 

182, 183 

56 



[ xi ] 



Aphidse 
Aphides 

Aphis chrysanthemi 
„ coffeae • 

„ dianthi 
„ dubia . 

,, floris rapse 
„ persicje . 
„ persicsecola 
„ rapse 
„ subterranea 
„ vastator 
Aphodius t 
Aphonus 
Apogonia . 

„ andamana 
„ angustata 
„ brunnea 
„ carinata 
,1 cribricollis 
„ destructor 
„ ferruginea 
„ kombirana 
„ IsevicoUis 
„ metasternalis 
„ tnoesta . 
„ proxima 
,, splendida 
„ uniformis 
„ vicina . 
,, villosella 
Aquitegia vulgaris 
Arseocerus 

„ cacao . 
,, capillicornis 
,, cassiae 
„ cofFeae 
,, crassicornis 
„ fasciculatus 
„ griseus 
i. japonicus . 
I, rticestus 
» peregrinus . 
I) saltatorius . 
II sambucinus var. 
Aralia nudicaulis 
Arancaria ... 



Page 

43.45 
1 54 
136 
218 

23 

24 

24 

23,24 

24 

24 

277 
24 
85,88 
92 
250, 273 
250 
250 
251 
251 
251 
251 
251 
251 
252 
252 
252 
252 
252 
252 
252 

253 
197 
126 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
125, 126 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
127 
168 
7 



Areca catechu , 
Areca-nut beetle . 
Areca triandra 
Argas . 

,, persicus . 
,, reflexus 
Artocarpus integrifolia 
Arundinaria . . 

Asactopholis . 

„ bicolor 
Asopidse , . 
Aspidiotus . . 
„ aurantii 

„ dictyospermi 



var. arecae 



„ ficus . 

„ flavescens 

„ nerii . 

„ occultus 

„ osbeckiae 

,, these . 

„ trilobitiformis 

,, zonatus 
Assamia dentata . 
Asterodiaspis 

„ quercicola 

Astycus lateralis . 

„ obtusus . 

„ rutilans . 
Atractomorpha crenulata 
Aulacophora abdominalis 
Autoserica calcuttse 

,, nagana 

Avena sativa 



Bajri . . 

Bamboo coccid 
Basilianus cantori 
Bees . . 

Begonia . 
Belippa 

„ laleana . 

„ lohor 
Bengal rice hispa 
Benzoin benzoin . 
Beta maritima 



44, 



69. 



Page 
126 
125 
120 

i7 

46, 76, 77 
14 
4,5,6 
255, 273 
25s 
43 
35.119 
4 
119 
119 
70, 78, 113 
187 

4 

4 

4 

42, 187 

4 

81,82 

I 

81 

81,82 

184 

184 

184 

29,43 

65 
176 

176 

192 



40 
216 

92 

9 
183 

183 

183 

42 

iS7i 160 

197 



[ xii ] 



• - . 


Page 






Page 


Beta vulgaris . . • 


197 


Calosoma . 




88 


Betula cylindrostachys 


13s 


„ calidum 




86, 165 


Bhowara . . • • 


. 37, 38 


„ orientale 




46, 218 


Bhunga .... 


39 


„ scrutator 




85 


Bibionidse ...» 


92 


„ wilcoxi 




86 


Blissus leucopterus . . 


94 


Calotermes ' . 




102 


Bombyces .... 


»4, 15 


Campanotus escuriens 




168,174 


Bordeaux mixture . 


. ",136 


„ Pennsylvanicus 


9» 


Botys annuligeralis 


63 


Canna . 




136 


„ multilinealis 


63 


„ indica 




25 


Brachycyttarus subteralbata 


118 


Capsella bursa-pastoris 




197 


Brachyllus . . . 


. 26s, 273 


Capsicum fructeocens . 




33 


,, ulcerosus 


265 


Capsidse , . , 


. • 


42 


Brachymeria euploea . 


219 


Carabidae . . , 




38, 89, 95 


Brachyscelidse . . , 


S8 


Carabus 


, 


88 


Bracbytrypes achatinus 


43 


Carpomyja parctalina 




44 


Brahmina ... 


• 263, 273 


Carteria decoreiia 




58 


„ calva . 


263 


„ lacca 




46 


,, cardoni 


264 


Caryota urens . . 




9 


„ comata 


264 


Cassia fistula 




105, 106 


„ cotesi 


264 


„ occidentalis 


105, 106 


, 107, 217 


„ flabellata 


264 


Ca?tanopsisrufescens . 




13s 


„ obscura . • 


264 


Castor oil borer 




36 


„ shillongensis 


177 


Caterpillar destructive to 


cress 


23 


„ siamensis . 


264 


„ „ Himalayan fir 


19 


,, sikkimensis 


264 


» ), rape 


. 


22 


,, tavoyensis . 


265 


Cecidomyia destructor 


. 


94 


„ thoracica 


265 


Celosterna scabrator var. 


spinator 


45 


Brassica campestris . 


197 


Celtis occidentalis 


. 


160, 174 


„ napus . 


197 


Ceophlaeus pileatus 


148, 152 


, 153. 173 


„ oleracea . 


. 39. 197 


Cephalandra indica 


. 


36 


„ rapa . 


197 


Cephaleta bunneiventris 


. 


219 


,, rapse . 


22, 25 


„ fusciventris . 


. 


219 


Brevipalpus . . 


e 217 


„ purpureiventris 


. 


219 


Bringal borer . • 


43 


Cephenomyia . 


. 


146 


Bunias kakile . . 


197 


Cercopidae . 


. 


94 


Buprestis . 


168 


Ceronema banksiae 


. 


1 88 


Butea frondosa . 


135 


„ sp. 


. 


188 






Ceroplastes . . 


, 


. . 188 


O 




,, actiniformis 


. 


8 


Cactus .... 


197 


„ ceriferus . 


. 


. 8, 187 


Cajanus indicus . . 


39 


„ floridensis . 


. 


. 8, 188 


Cakile maritima . 


197 


,, vinsonii 


. 


188 


Calandra oryzse . . 37 


, 39, 42, 219 


Certhia familiaris . 


. 


81 


Calceolaria pinnata 


197 


Chaitophorus 


. 


277 


Callicarpa lanata . 


4 


„ maculatus 


. 


277 


Callistemme i 


197 


Chalcididse , . 


. 


219 


Calodexia lasiocampse 


219 


Chalcis euploea 


. 


219 



[ ^»» ] 



Chalcis (Brachymeria) euploea 
Chamaeraphi sp. . 
Chartucerus musciform 
Chauliognathua 
Chenopodiura 
Cheroot borer 
Chilo simplex 
Chilocorus circumdatus 
Chin fly 

Chinch bug . 

Chionaspis acuminata 
,, aspidistrse 



var, 
biclavis 
braziliensis 
elseagni 
eugenise var 

»» > 

exercitata 
graminis 
minuta 
prunicola 



var, these 



theae 
vitis 



Chlsenins . • 

Chlorita flavescens 
Chortogonus sp. . 

„ trachyteru3 
Chrysobothris 

M sp. 

Chrysotnela sp. 
Chrysomelidse 
Chrysops dispar . 
Cicada 

Cicendala sexpunctata 
Cicendelidae • 

Cicer arietinum . 
Cirrhospilus coccivorus 
Citrus . 

„ aurantium 

„ pomela . 
Clania 

„ crameri . 

,, sikkima . 

,, variegata 
Click beetles 
CliBiocampa 
Ciybia . 



muscendse 



Htzse 
varicosa 



Page. 
219 

157 

219 

93 

161, 166 

28 

217 

218 

232 

94 

3 

38 
2 
2 
2 

3 

2 

3 
3 
3 
3 

60 
60 

42, 219 

3 

85, 86, 8s 
42 
29 
43 
21S 
215 
66 

93 
45 
94 

46, 218 

86 

39 

219 

7, 197 
144 

4 
215 

41 

41 

41 

92,9s 
98 

265, 273 



PwVGE 

Clytia pilosa .... 265 

Cnethnocampa basifurca . # 15 

,, curvata . . 15 

Cobboldia . . . « 146 

„ elephantis . . , 146 

Coboea . . . . • 9 

Coccidse . . • 3, 42, 58, 60, 81, 82' 

Coccinellidse , . , . 28, 93 

Cocculus indicus ... 4 

Coccus cacti var. ceylonicus . 7> 212 

„ lacca ...» 77 

Coelostema . a ^ 2'iJ 

„ scabrata . , . 213" 

„ sp. ... 213 

Coffee borer • • . . 42" 

Colaptes auratus . 148, 152, 153, 15& 

,, cafer . . . 174 

„ „ saturatior , . 174 

„ chrysoides . • . ij^ 

Colaspis brunnea ... 93" 

Coleoptera 28, 57, 82, 88, 93, 95, 154, 1:59, aiS 

Copparis aphylla ... 65 

Copris 

,, onthophagus 
Cornus alternifolia 

„ asperifolia . 155, 157 

,, candidissima 
„ florida i55j 157, 160, 166, 
Corvus americanus 
Corydalus 

Corymbites cylindriformis 
Cotesia flavipes 
Cotton borer 
Crabonidse • 

Crambidss . 

Crambus 
Cremastogaster sp. 

„ contetita 

„ lineolata 

I) rogenhoferi 

Crickets 

Criocerus impressa . 
Crochiphora testulalis 
Crocus . » 
Crossocosmia sericaria 
Crotalaria juncea , 

Croton . • • 

Cucumber . • 

„ beetle 



88 

155' 

160, 168 

166 

172, 174 

85 

85^ 

92 

219 

36 

92- 

43 
91 
la 

185- 

»74 

185 

9J 
121 

13 

197 

136 

33 

7 

3& 

6S 



[ xiv ] 









PAGE 




Pagb 


Cucumio sativa .... 33 | 


Dinoderus sp. . • . . 


37 


Cucurbitaceae 






33 


„ pilifrons . . 


13s 


Culex sp. 






46 


„ . minutus . . , 


135 


Curculionidae 






89 


Diospyros virginiana . 


174 


Custard apple pest 






44 


Oiphucephala . • • • 


248, 273 


Cutworms 






90 


„ edwardsi . . 


248 


Cynipidse . « 






74 


Diptera . . .82, 92, 94 


154, 218 


Cyphochilus 






255. 273 


Dodoncea viscosa , , 


6 


„ candicus 




255 


Dolichos bengalensis . . , 


65 


„ proximus 




256 


„ lablab . . .13, 


33, 39, 43 


„ pygidialis 




256 


Donacia flavipes • . • . 


93 


„ sikkimensis 




256 


Dorcas . . . . ■ 


75 


„ waterhousi 




256 


Dorylus 


198 


CypVionotus 




268, 273 


„ curtisii . 
„ fulvus 


198 
198 




„ „ var. labiatus . 


216 


D 


„ oberthuri . . . 


198 




,, orientalis . 


198 


Dactylopius adonidum 




7,76 


Doryp'nora 10 — lineata . 


• 93. 97 


„ . longifilis . 




7,75 


Drymonia denotata , . 


15 


„ scrobicularum . 




8 


Dryobatea borealis 


174 


,, talini 




7 


„ nuttalii . . 


174 


Dacus ferrugineus 




37 


„ pubescens . ,148 


152,153 


Dalbergia . 




4,9 


„ scalaris bairdi . 


174 


„ sissoo . 




214 


„ villosus . 148, 152 


, 153, 156 


Damalia caricse 




16 


Dung beetles , , , 


88 


Dasychira thwaitesi . , 




42, 219 


DykhiwSaw 


30 


Dejeania • • . 




250, 273 


Dysdercus cingulatus . , 


• 37, 43 


„ alsiosia , 




250 






Demoticusstri gipennis 




219 


E 




Dermestes vulpinus , 




45 


Ectinohoplia . . . 


, 238, 273 


Dhalia poka 




189 


„ nigra 


238 


Dianthus 




197 


„ rufipes , . 


238 


„ caryophyllus 




25,197 


„ variolosa . . 


238 


„ prolifer . 




197 


Elseangus latifolia 


• 3 


Diapromropha melanopus 




121 


Elseo carpus , . * 


8 


„ pallens . 




184 


Elateridce . . . .85, 


86, 92, 95 


Diapus impressus 




44 


Eleodes .... 


92 


Diaspidinae. 




60 


Empelatira .... 


. 265, 273 


Diaspis calyptroides var. cacti 


. 211,212 


„ fairmairei . , 


265 


„ ,, „ opunticol. 


1 212 


Encyrtus nietneri . , 


• 219 
. 219 


„ circulata . . 




4 


,, paradisicus 


„ lanata . . 




4 


Enome arapla 


136 


Diatrsea saccharalis . 34, 


3S, 43 


, 200, 219 


Epacromia dorsalis 


43 


Dichelus . . . 




• 237, 273 


Epicserus imbricatus . . 


90 


„ gonager 




237 


Epilachna 




„ podagricus 




237 


„ dodecastigma . 


27 


„ villosus 




237 


„ sp. . . . 


66 


Dictyospermum album 




119 


Ereunetis .... 


107 


Digitalis sonchus . 


. 




197 


„ seminivora . . 


107 



[ KV ] 





Page 


Eriesthis .... 


. 236,273 


,, vestita . 


236 


Eriococcus arancariae . 


7 


„ paradoxus . . 


. 210 


,, „ var. indica 


210 


Erysimum barbarea . 


197 


Eucirrus .... 


254. 273 


,, mellyi • • 


254 


Eugenia jambolana 


52.53 


Eumenidse ... 


92 


Eumeta crameri 


17 


„ nietneri 


18 


Euphrobia antiquorum 


6 


,, neriifolia 


33 


Euphoria • . . 


92 


„ fulgida 


86,92 


Euprepocnemis bramina 


190 


Euproctis . • 


185, 186 


, abdominalis . 


i€o, 181 


„ antica 


180 


„ combinata . 


14 


„ latifascJa 


180 


„ postica . • 


180, 181 


Enschistul . . • 


91 


Eutermes • . > • 


102 


Exorista heterusiae 


279 



F 



Ficushispida , . . . 


15 


Fiorinia palmae . . . . 


5 


„ saprosmse 


5 


„ scrobicularum 


5 


,, secreta . . 


S 


Flies .... 


92 


Forest flies ... 


79 


,, pests .... 


134 


Formica . ." i . 


91 


Formicidse . . . 


91 


Fumaria officinalis , , , 


197 


Fungi 


II 


FulgoridsB . . • « 


1,42,94 



a 



Gsertnera koenigi! 
Galerucidae . 

Galium moUogo • 
GalleriansB • 



5 
217 
197 
217 



Gall fly attacking teak 
Gangara thyrsis , 

Gas treatment for scale insects 
Gastrophilus elephantis 

„ equi . 222, 230 

„ hsemorrhoidalis 230, 231 

„ nasalis . 

„ pecorum . .231 

Gaylussacia sp . . 
Gelonium lanceolatum 
Geotrypes . , 

„ spiendidus , 
Geranium robertianum 
Ghong . • . 
Gibbum scotias 
Glycyphana sp. . , 
Goniaspidius . . 

„ bidens 

„ bidentatus . 

„ tridentatus 

„ relhaniae . 

„ variabilis . 
Gossypium arboreum 

,, herbaceum 
Grasshoppers • 
Green fly blight 
Grevillea . • 

Grewia asiatica . 

,, orientalis . 

Ground beetles 
„ spider 
Gryllidae ... 
Gryllodes melanocephalus 
Gryllotalpa 
Guizotia abyssinea 
Gymnogaster indica 



Hsemorrhoidal botfly . 
Haplonycha . . 

„ crinita . 

Haplosonyx elongatus 
Helicteres isora . 

Heliothidse . • 

Heliothis armigera 34. 43. 64, 94 

sp. 
Heliotropium peruvianum 



Page 
74 

44 

II 

146 

232, 233 

232, 233 

232, 233 

232, 233 

160,166 

2 

?9 
86 
197 
27 
43 
66 

237.273 

2J7 

237 

237 

237 

237 

33^ 

33,43 

87 

42 

8 

217 

4,5 
88 

86,90 

43 

44 

8S 

128 

179 



230 

249, 273 
249 

30 

210 

16 

131, 122 

34 

197 



[ xvi ] 



Helopeltis theiovora . 


42 


Hoplia graminicola 




Hemerobidae 


9 


Hoplia ochracea 




Hemiptera . . 


»54 


„ orientalis 




Hepialidse . , 


22 


„ philanthus 




Heptophylla 


.253, 273 


„ pilicoilis . 




„ picea 


253 


„ pollinosa 




Heterocampa nigroscripta 


15 


,1 pulveruienta 




Heterocera 


43 


„ retusa 




Heteronyx . 


.249, 273 


„ squamosa . 




,, obesus 


249 


„ viridissima 




,, oblongus 


249 


„ viridula . 




Heteroptera 


42,43, 94 


Hoplosternus 




Heterusia cingala 


279 


„ bifurcatus 


Hieroglyphus furcifer . 


29, 43» 190 


„ chinensis 


Hippobosca . • 


. 79, 80 


„ flabeliata 


)i segyptiaca 


. 79. 80 


„ furcicandus 


„ var. bengalensis 


80 


„ japonica 


„ bactriana 


79 


„ Isevipennis 


,, camelina . 


79 


„ shillongensis 


„ canina 


79 


Horse bot flies . , 


„ equina 


, 79, 80 


Hyacinthus 


Hispa senescens . 


. 26, 42 


„ orientalii . 


Histeridse . • 


86 


Hyblsea puera . 


Hog plum beetle 


68 


Hydrocampa albifascialia 


Holomelia . . • 


.263, 273 


„ aquitilis . 


„ mirabilis . 


263 


Hymenia diffascialis . 


Holotrichia 


•257» 273 


„ recurvalis 


,, alcocki . 


177 


Hymenoptera . 3a, 92, 


„ andamana . 


178 


Hypocrita v. caricas 


,, imitatrix 


. . 178 


Hyp.osidra sp, , . , 


„ problematica 


. 178 


Hypsa alciphron . 


,, scrobipennis 


178 


„ (Damalis) caricse 


„ singhalensis 


179 




Homaloplia 


•247, 273 




„ floricola 


247 


I 


,, limbata 


247 




„ marginata 


247 


Icerya segyptiaca 


,, oigromarginata 


247 


,, crocea 


„ ruricola 


247 


„ pilosa 


„ spirsese 


247 


„ purchasi . 


Homoptera 25, 35, 42, 43, 44, 4 


S, 58, 60, 93, 94 


„ tangalla 


Hoplia . . . . 


92, 238, 273 


Idiocsrus 


„ advena . . 


238 


,, atkinsonii 


,, argentea 


.239, 240 


„ clypealis 


„ bilineata . 


238. 


,, niveosparsus 


,, cserulea . 


239 


Ilex cassine . 


„ concolor . ' , 


239 


,, crenata . 


,, farinosa 


239 


,, opaca . , 


„ formosa 


. , 239 


„ verticillata 





93, 



15^; 



Page 

239 

239 
240 

240 
240 

240 
,239, 24a 
240 

239 
240 
t77, 240 
269, 273 
269 
269 
269 
270 
270 
270 
270 
222 
X97 

25 
214 

17 

13 

17 

1 6, 17 

159, 218 

16 

120 

15, 16 

16 



7, 27, 218 
7 
7 

. 28, 218 

7 

25 

25 

2^5 

25 

174 

188 

163 

. i6oj 172 



[ xvii ] 









Page 






Pagb 


Ixodidse 


• • • 


95 


Lachnosterna problematica . 


260 








i» 


quercina . 


259 




J 




II 


rustica . 


261 






7 


1, 


scabrifrons 


261 


Jasminum . 
Jassidse 
Jowari • 


• • • 


42, 94, 108 
39 


1, 


scrobiculata 
scutellata 
sericata . 


261 
261 
262 


Julodis senipes . • 


49 
. 43, 48 


)i 


serrata . . . 


262 


„ atkinsonii . • 




sikkimensis 


262 


Julus . 


. 


. 93. 168 




sinse , . . 


262 


Juniperus virginiana 


. 160, 172 


>i 


sinensis , . , 


262 








11 


standfussi . 


262 




K 




>) 


standingeri . . 


262 


Kankrol fruit pests 


198 


;» 


stoliczkse 


263 


Katra 


. 


32 


,) 


striduBans 


263 


Kerosene oil 


smulsion . . 


12, 78, 136 


1, 


tenasserima 


263 


Khati dhaka poka . . 


18 


Lachnus 


• • « • 


275 


Kuji fly 


• • 


66 


II 


platanicola . . 


27s 








)) 


pyri 


274, 275 




L 




)) 


viminalis . 


275 


Lachnosterna 


85, 87, 88, 96. 


165, 168, 


Lamellicorn beetles * « 


92,9s 






187, 


257. 273 


Lamoria 


infumatella . 


217 


II 


andamana 




257 


Lampides elpis , 


44 


II 


atkinsonii , 




257 


Lampyridse . . . . 


93 


II 


aurosericea 




258 


Lapargsticti . . . 


86 


f) 


bidentata 




2S8 


Lasioderma testaceunsj. 


28 


II 


biehli 




258 


Lasioserica . . . • 


241, 273 




brevicollis 




25 


>i 


brseti . 


241 


II 


cavifrons 




258 


>i 


calva 


241 


II 


clypealis 




258 


1) 


pilosella « • 


242 


1) 


consanguinea 




258 


Lecanium .... 3 


6, 81, 119 


II 


cotesi 




259 


11 


acHtissrmum 


10 


» 


fervens . 




259 


). 


antidesmEB . • 


10 


»i 


fervida . 




259 


1) 


caudatum . . 


10 


II 


flavosericea 




259 


)) 


coffese ... 8 


, 218, 219 


It 


fusca 


9 


8, 99, 259 


)) 


expansum • 


9 


II 


glabriclypeata 




. 260 


II 


formicarii . . 


10 


i> 


glabrifrons 




260 


)i 


genevense . . 


82 


II 


imitatrix 




260 


II 


geometricum 


9 


» 


impressa , 


186, 


187, 261 


,, 


longulum . 


8 


II 


intermedia 




261 


I, 


mangiferse . 


9 


>) 


iridipennis 




261 


>t 


marginatum . 


9 


II 


lata 




2S9 


1) 


nigrum 


9 


II 


longicarinata , 




259 


II 


ophiorrhizse . 


10 


i» 


nigropunctata 




259 


II 


piperis . 


10 


>i 


obscura . 




260 


11 


planum . 


9 


II 


pagana * , 




260 


,, 


„ var. maritimum 


9 


II 


pilosa . , 




260 


II 


tessellatum . . 


9 


» 


plagiata . 




. 260 




viride . 


8 



[ xviii ] 



Leda poka , 
Lepidiota . 

„ alba , 

„ bimacniata 

„ crenulata 

„ griffithi 

„ luctuosa 

„ punctatipennis 

„ rugosa 

„ rugosipennis 

„ stigma 
Lepidoptera , "^ 

Lepisia . 

„ rupicola 
Lepitrix 

„ abbreviata 

,, bi]ateralis 

„ fuscipes 

„ lineata . 

„ nigripes 

,, quadrata 

„ stigma, 

„ thoracica 
Leptispa pygmaea 

,, filiformis 
Leptocorisa acuta , 25, 

Leucania extranea 

„ loreyi , 

„ unipuncta 

Leucaniid^ . 

Leucinodes orbonalis 
Leucomigus antennalis 
Leucopholis 

,, crassa 

,, irrorata 

„ plagiata 

„ poilinosa 

,, teteranus 

Lilium . • 

Limacodidae . 

Limonius plebejus 
Liogryllus bimaculatus 
Liparetrus . . 

,, discipennis 

„ hirsutus 

„ xanthotrichus 
Litzea 

„ zeylanica 
Lixus concavus . 



187 



42, 46; 
19 



Page 
190 

254, 273 
255 
254 

254 
254 
254 
254 
255 
25s 
255 
91,93 

238, 273 
238 

235, 273 
23s 
235 
236 

235 
236 

235 
236 

23s 
122, 123 

123 

121, 218 

192, 2J9 

67 

1 9 1 , 1 92 

22,68 

35- 43 

112 

256, 273 

256 

256 

257 
256 

257 

7 

56, 209 

92 

■ 44 

248, 273 

248 

248 

249 

5,9 
2,6 

£0 



Page 



Locust reports • 


. , 


31 


London purple 


II, 12, 23, 


25. 125. 137 


Lucanus 




92 


„ lunifer 




44 


Lycosidse . . 




86, 90, 95 


Lygseidse 




43 


Lymantriidse 




. 14.15 



M 



Macrops .... 


90 


Magnolia grandiflora . 


161 


Mahasena graminivora 


. 19. 45 


Mahna .... 


25 


Mallotus philippinensis 


217 


Mangifera indica. , 


7.44 


Mango caterpillar 


209 


„ tree borer 


133 


„ weevil . 


' 44, 73 


Mantidse .... 


94 


March flies 


92 


Margaronid^ 


43 


Marietta leopardina 


219 


Maruca aquatilis . 


. 13,43 


„ testulalis 


. »3,43 


Mashi .... 


35 


Masi . . . , . 


35 


Masicera .... 


136 


)i castanea 


• 2ig 


1, dasychirae 


219 


,) subnigra 


219 


Mava 


39 


May beetles 


88,95 


Medicago sativa . . . . 


277 


Melanerpes carolinus 148, 152, 153 


164, 167 


,, erythrocephalus 148,15 


2,153,162 


,, formicivorus bairdi 


174 


1, torquatus . 


174 


,1 uropygialis 


174 


Melanotus fuscus 


135 


Melasoma populi . 


45 


Melolontha. . . . . 


270, 273 


„ argus 


270 


„ difficilis . 


271 


1) guttigera . . . 


270 


„ hippocastani 


271 


„ majalis 


271 


„ manillarum 


271 


„ melolontha 


271 



[ xix ] 



Melolontha pectoralis . 
„ pennata . 

„ rangunensis 

,, serrulata . 

„ sulcipenttis 

„ vulgaris 

Melolonthini . . 

Membracidce 
Mentha hirsuta . 
Microlepidoptera 
Millipede injurious to crops 
Miltogramma i2-punctata 
Mimastra cyanura 
Misembryanthemum 
Mobar . . . 

Monochelus 

,, squamulatus 
Monomorium pharaonis 
Monophlebus zeylanicus 
Morkhai 
Moras 

„ indica 
„ rubra 
Mosquito blight 
Mova . 
Munga . 

Muscidje 

Musscenda frondosa 
Myllocerus maculosus 

„ setulifer 

Myosotis scorpioides 
Myriapoda . 
Myrtus 
Mytilaspis . 

„ citricola 

), elongata 

,, pallida . 

,, ponriorum 

N 

Narcissus . 
Nemobius . 

Neocerambyx holosericeus 
Nephelium longana 
Neuroptera 
Nicotiana tabacum 
Njiangbyruai 
Njianguar . . . 

Noctua caricse , . 



Page 




Page 


271 


Noctuids . . . . , 


68,90 


271 


Notarcha multilinealis . 


64 


179. 271 


Nyiaugrieg . . . . 


30 


271 


Nyiang Saw Khlich 


30 


271 


Nyssa aquatica . . • I57 


160, 174 


271 






217 







94 






197 


Odina wodier , . . , 


»35 


19 


Odoiporus . . . 


^35 


30 


Odontria .... 


• 249,273 


2x9 


,, striata .,.-•. 


249 


217 


„ . zelandica . .. 


249 


25, 197 


Odynerus .... 


92 


38 


Oedalus marmoratus . 


43 


237. 273 


Oegus .... 


134 


237 


Oides bipunctata 


121 


30 


Oiketicus crameri 


18 


6 


Olene mendosa . , 


219 


39 


Ophiorrhiza pectinata . , 


8, 10 


160, 166 


Ophthalmoserica 


242, 273 


214 


,, umbrinella 


242 


168 


Opuntia .... 


7 


42 


Oracharis saltator . , 


168 


39 


Orange scale insect . , 


69 


38 


„ tree pests . ' . 


»33 


92 


Orbitelarise 


95 


2 


Orthezia insignis . ... 


6,26 


III 


„ nacrea . , . . 


6, 25, 26 


III 


Orthoptera • . • 29. 3 


0, 94, 154 


■ 197 


Oryctes rhinoceros 


37, 38, 36 


93 


Oryza sativa . . . , 


33,39 


197 


Osbeckia . . . . , 


4 


60 


Ostrya virginiana 


15s 


4,5 


OtocHnius .... 


241, 273 


4 


„ gracilipes 


241 


5 


Oxya velox .... 3 


0,43, 216 


81, 82 


Oxycarenus lugubris . 


43, 193 


197 


P 




93 






44 


Pachmephorus . 


189 


21 


Pachycnema . . . . 


236, 273 


93.94 


„ albispila . . 


236 


33 


,, alternans . 


236 


30 


„ crassipes . 


236 


30 


„ flaviventris 


236 


16 


Pachytylus cinerascens . 1 


43 



XX 





Page 




Page 


Papaver sommferurti . 


123 


Phymatidse . . . » • 


94 


,, rhasas .... 


197 


Phytolacca decandra . , 15S, 


157, 160 


Papilio erithonius 


44 


Phytonomus punctarua . . 


90 


Parasa lepida ...» 


21,42 


Picea 


JS7 


Paria canella ...» 


93 


Picoides arcticus .... 


174, 175 


Paridse . . . . • 


81 


„ americanus dorsalis . 


174, 175 


Paris green . * . . 1 1 


, 12, 136 


Pieris rapse .... 


93, 100 


Parthenocissus quinquefolia . 


15s. iS7 


Pimela sylvatica . . . . 


197 


1 60, 1 68, 


172, 174 


Pinus echinata .... 


168 


Parus coeruleus 


81 


„ longifolia . 


184,215 


„ a lustris . . < • 


18 


Pipsafly . . . . . 


54 


Paspalum scrobiculatum 


36 


Pistacia terebrinthus , . . 


45 


Passalus 


92 


Pisum sativum • . . , 


192 


Passer domesticus . 


82 


Pittosporum undulatum . 


211 


Passiflora . . . • • 


10 


Planchonia . . . . 


216 


Pear tree aphis . . • • 


274 


„ bambuscse . . . 


5 


Pemphig^us 


SO 


,, delicata 


5 


„ bursaris • . 


S> 


,, niilaria var, longa . 


5 


,, edificator . . • 


45 


,, solenphorides 


6,216 


„ immunis . . • 


SI 


.. sp 


216 


„ napseus 


50,51 


Plantago lanceolata . 


197 


„ spirotheca . 


SO 


Platynaspis villosa . . , 


218 


Pennisetum typhoideum 


33,39 


Platypeplum . . , , 


»os 


Pentatomidae . . 75, 86, 


31, 94, 95 


Plocederus obesus 


^35 


Perina basalis . . . • 


14 


„ pedestris , 


135 


,, nuda . , . 1 


14 


Plusia brassicse . , 


93 


Peritrichia , . . . « 


235> 273 


Plutella cruciferarum . 


197 


„ capicola . • 


23s 


„ maculata . 


. 196, 197 


„ nigrita 


23s 


Podisus .... 


91 


„ ursus • 


235 


Podontia 14-punctata . 


68 


Phalsena angustalis 


17 


Poecilocera picta . . , ' 


43 


„ fascialis . * . . 


17 


Polistes .... 


. 92,168 


J, nigrella 


17 


Polygonum convolvulus 


161 


,, recurvalis 


17 


,, lapathifolium 


161 


Phalanbyu .... 


27 


„ persicaria 


. 161, 197 


Phansecus carnifex 


86 


Polyphylla .... 


. 269, 273 


Pharyngomyia 


147 


fuilo . 


269 


Phaseolus aconitifolius 


33 


,, pulverea . 


269 


Phleum . . . • 


161 


Populus nigra , . , 


So 


Phoebe attenuata . . . 


lis 


Pore-kaida .... 


39 


Phromnia marginalia . 


42 


Potato aphis . . 


198 


Phyllotocus 


. 241, 273 


„ tuber mite 


30 


,, erythropterus 


241 


Potentilla anserina • 


197 


„ macleayi 


241 


Poti-gaung .... 


68 


„ prseustus . . 


241 


Potu fiy . . . . 


• 46, 54 


„ rufipennis . 


241 


Poutzolzia 


8 


Phyllotreta nemorum . 


82 


Prionus brevicornis . 


166 


„ undulata . 


82 


Prunus serotina . . 157, 16 


0, 166, 172 


Phylloxera vastratrix . „ 


277 


„ virginiana . 157, 16 


0, 164, 166 



XXI 



Pseudococcus adonidum 
„ mangiferae 

Pseudotrematodes 

Psiloptera fastuosa 

Psychotria • 

„ thwaitesii 

Psylla cistellata 

Psyllidse . 

Pteromalus oryzss 

Pterophodidse 

Pterostichus 

sayi . 

Puit 

Pulvinaria 

„ psidii . 

„ tessellata 

„ tomentosa 



Pyralidae 
Pyronota 



festiva 



Quercus 



Page 
218, 219 

7 

265, 273 

44 

3, 5 

9 

44 

44 
219 

43 
88 
86 

30 

187 

8 

8 

8 

217 

248, 273 



161, i66 



Ranunculus acris 






197 


„ bulbosus 
,, hirsutus 






• 2S, 197 
197 


„ repens 






197 


Red scale of Florida 






70 


Red spider 


• 4 


2| 114 


. >I5, 117 


ReduviidjE 






94 


Rhinaspis 

,, schranki 
Rhizobius jujubse 






• 250, 273 

250 

• 277, 278 


Rhizopertha pusilla 






45 


Rhizotrogus 






265, 273 


„ sestivus 






265 


,, aprilinus 






266 


„ assimilis 






266 


II ater 






265 


,, autumnalis . 
„ beiudschistan 


JS 




267 
266 


II bilobus . 




266 


II bimacuiatus 




260 


„ carbonarius 




267 
267 


„ frivaldozkyi 


. 





Rhizotrogus gracilis . 
„ inanis , 

„ maculicollis 
,, marginatus 
„ paganus . 
„ rufescens , 
„ ruficornis . 
„ semirufus . 
,, solstitial is 
„ tauricus 

,, tenebrioides 
Rhopalosiphum dianthi 
Rhus copallina . 

„ glabra 
„ radicans . 
II sp. 

,> vernix . 

Rhynchophora 
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus 
Rice borer 
„ hispa 
„ sapper 
„ weevil 
Ricinus communis 
Robinia , 

Rodolia fumida . 

I, rosipennis . 
Roji 
Rubus 
Ruscus androgynus , 

S 

Sabal serrulata . 
Saccharum officinale . 
Salgonea morio . . 

Salixeiegans . , 

Salo . , , 

Sambucus 

,, canadensis . 

„ pubens . 

Saprosoma . . . 
Sapsucker . . 
Sawfly attacking cabbage 
Scarabidse 

Schizodactylus monstrosus 
Schizonycha . , 

,, crenata 

,1 fuscescens 

,, rhizotrogcides 



22, 24 

I57» 
^55. 



iSS 



157- 



42, 



Pags 
266 
266 
266 
267 
267 
267 
267 
267 
267 
267 
267 

.43, 197 
166, 174 
160, 166 
157. 160 

iSS 
160, 17-J 

90 

38 

36 
62 

I 46, 121 
42 
33 
28 
28, 218 
28, 218 
33 

'S7» 160, 166 
197 



168 

144 

'35 

45 

39 

1 66 

160, 168 

160 

S 
147 

32 
86 

43 

253- 273 

253 

253 
177.253 



[ xxii ] 









Page 








Page 


Schonherria rangunensi 


s . . 179 


Sitodrepa panicea ... 45 


ScoIyMdse 






57 


Sitones . . 






90 


ScutelHsta cyanea 






219 


Smilax glauca 






. 160, 174 


Serica . . 




92 


, 242, 273 


,j rotundifolia 






174 


„ adnexa 






242 


Solanum melongena 






33 


,, alcocki 1 






, 217, 242 


1, tuberosum 






197 


„ andamana 






242 


Soldier beetles . 






93 


„ assamensis 






176, 242 


„ bugs 




9». 94. 95 


„ (Autoserica) calcuttse 


176 


Sonda-kida , 






39 


V » nagana 


176 


Spergula arvensis 






197 


„ calcuttse 


. 176,243 


Sphenarches caffer 






43 


„ clypeata 






243 


Sphenophorus 






90 


„ ferruginea 






243 


Sphenoptera gossypii 






43 


„ festina 






243 


Sphyrapicus ruber 






«74 


„ fumosa 






243 


,, varius I 


47, 14 


B, 152, 


153, 169 


gigantea 






243 


Spoladea recurvalis 






17 


„ himalayica . 






243 


Spondias mangifera 






68, 134 


„ immutabilis 






244 


Staphylinus , 






88 


„ indica 






244 


Stenia testulalis , 






13 

248, 273 


„ inornata . 






244 


Stethaspis . . 






„ insularis 






244 


,, suturalis 






248 


„ Iseticula , 






244 


Stilpnotia subtincta 






14 


„ lugubris 






244 


Strobilanthus sp. 






2 


„ maculosa 






245 


Sugarcane borer . 






43 


,, marginella . 






24s 


„ pest . 






199 


„ marmorata . 






245 


Sunga , 






40 


,, mutabilis 






244. 24s 


Symplocos thesefolia , 






^35 


,, nagana 






»75 


Synclera multilinealis 






63,64 


„ penangica , 






246 


Syrphidse . , 






94 


„ pruninosa 






245 


Syrphus nietneri 






2f8 


„ rufocuprea . 






245 


„ splendens , 






218 


„ sempiterna , 






466 




„ severini 






245 


T 


„ sikkimensis 






246 




„ sphserica 






246 


Tachina . • , . , ^ 


„ tridens . 






246 


Tachinidse . 






94 


„ truricata , 






246 


Talinum . 






7 


„ umbrina 






247 


Tanymecus confertus , 






90 


Shorea robusta , 






44, 135 


,1 indicus 


• 4, 


3, 123 


124, 188 


Silpha 






88 


Teak borer . , 






22 


Silphidse . • • 






86 


Tectoma grandis 






44 


Silvanus surinamensis . 






45 


Telephorus . , 






93 


Simulia . . . 






54,55 


Tenebrionidse 






92 


Simulium indicum 






46, 54 


Termes . . 






. 102, 174 


Sinapis alba . 






197 


,, lucifugus 






102 


„ arvensis . . 






197 


„ taprobanes 






36 


„ nigra 






197 


Terminalia belerica 






27 


Sinoxylon sp. . . 






27 


„ tomentosa . 






44 


Siriocauta testulalis . 






13 


Termitld^ , 






94 



[ Kxiii J 





Page. 




Page 


Tetranthera 


3 


u 




Tetranychus . . • 


217 




„ bioculatus . 


. 42, 114 


Udhai valvee . . , 


39 


Tettigidse .... 


I 

87 


Urappuchchi . . , 


. 131, 132 


Tettix .... 






Thala .... 


25 


y 




Thalictrum minus 


197 




Theophilla huttoni . 


66 


Vaccinium sp, . , 


160 


Thiacidas postica 


14, IS 


Vedalia cardinalis . 


. 28, 2l8 


Thomisidae 


95 

182 

181,182 


„ fumida var. roseipennis 


. 27, 218 


Thosea .... 
„ cervina , • 


Verbascum thapsus . . i 
Verbina . . 


55. i6i, 172 
197 


„ cotesi 


41 


Viburnum prunifolium . 


174 


„ dlvergens 


182, 183 
181 


Vigna catiang . , 


39 


,, duplexa . 


Vinson ia stellifer 


8 


„ recta 


41^56 


Virachola isocrates . 


44 


Tineidae .... 


107 


Vitis . . . . 


3 


Tineina 


105, 107 


„ cordifolia . . 160, 1 


66, 168, 174 


Tipniidse 


92,95 






Tobacco borer . . • 


36 


W 




Tol 


29,39 


Walkeriana compacta . 


6 


Tortricidaa .... 


105 


„ euphorbias 


6 


Trabula vishnu . . 


136 


„ floriger 


6 


Tricholepis 


257. 273 


,1 poleii . r 


6 


„ grandis 


2S7 


„ senex . . 


6 


„ niveopilosa . 

„ pubera 

,, puberina . • 


257 
257 
257 


Wasps .... 

Weevils . . , , 
Wheat weevil . . 


92 
• goi 95 
. 42 


Trifolium repens . . 


161 










Wire-worms . . , 


ga 


Trinoxia .... 


, 272, 273 




„ cyphonotoides • 


272 


X 




Triodonta . . . . . 


247. 273 






aquila . . . . 


247 


Xyleborus dispar 


S7 


Triticum sativum . . . 


45 


„ fornicatus . 


• 42, 57 


Trochiiium ommatiseforme . 


44 


Xylocopa .... 


38 


Trogosita mauritanica . • 


45 


Xylotrechus . . 


174 


Tropseolum tricolor . . • 


197 


„ quadripes. . 


42 


Trycolyga .... 


66 






„ bombycis 


66 


Z 




Tryxalis turrita ... 2 


5, 43. 216 






Tulipa .... 


197 


Zea mays .... 


33 


Tur 


40 


Zebronia salomealis 


63 


Tussilago . . . . . 


197 


Zeuzera coffese . . . 


41 


Tylophora asthmatica 


4 


Zinckenia recurvalis . . 


17 


Tyroglyphus siro . . 


2l6 


Zizyphus jujubse . 


. 14. 278 



[ xxiv ] 



NOTICE. 

- — * — - 

The serial Indian Museum Noies, issued by the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, under the authority of the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agricultural Department, is to take the place of 
Notes on Economic Entomology^ of which two numbers have appeared. 
For the views expressed, the authors of the respective notes are alone 
responsible. 

The parts of the serial are published from time to time as materials 
accumulate. Communications are invited ; they should be written on 
one side only of the paper and addressed to — 

THE EDITOR, 

Indian Museum Notes, 

Calcutta. 

Correspondence connected with Economic Entomology should be 
accompanied by specimens of the insects to which reference is made. 
Caterpillars, grubs, and other soft-bodied insects can be sent in strong 
spirit ; chrysalids and cocoons alive, and packed lightly in leaves or 
grass ; other insects, dried and pinned, or wrapped in soft paper. 
Live insects should be sent when there is a reasonable probability 
of their surviving the journey. Caterpillars, grubs, and other im- 
mature insects can often be only approximately determined ; they 
should therefore, where possible, be accompanied by specimens of 
the mature insects into which they transform ; when this is not pos- 
sible, they should still be sent, as they can always be determined ap- 
proximately, and uncertainty must necessarily arise in discussing 
insects when actual reference to the specimens cannot be made. 

Insects forwarded for determination should, in all cases, be accom- 
panied by a detailed report showing precisely in what their economic 
importance is believed to consist. 

Calcutta ; 
1st March i8g^. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate I — 

Fig. I. Assamia dentata, n. sp. 



I 11 


— 




Fig. 


I. 


Maruca testulalis, Geyer. 


j> 


2. 


Penna nuda, Fabr. 


>» 


3- 


Thiacidas postica, Walk. 


»» 


4- 


Hypsa alciphron, Cram. 


j» 


5- 


Hymenia recurvalis, Fabr. 



Plate III— 

Fig. 1. Mahasena graminivora, n. sp. 
„ 2. Eumeta crameri, WesLw. 
„ 3. Rhopalosiphum dianthi, Schr. 
„ 4. A millepede. 



CONTENTS. 



Notes on a new Homopterous Insect of the family Fulgorid^ 
by G. B. Buckton, F.R.S 

Catalogue of Coccid^ collected in Ceylon, by Mr. E. E 
Green ...... i .. . 

Remedies for Plant Diseases (Reprint) .... 

Miscellaneous Notes from the Entomological Section, by 
Mr. Edward Barlow . 



page. 



2 
II 



13 



INDIAN MUSEUM NOTES, 

ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES, 

NOV S;3 liio'/ 

Volume IV.— No. i. 

/ mL . 




Publifiktb bg ^uthontB of the ^obtrnmtnt of Inbm, 
g^partmcnf of '^.z'Qznm anb ^^Qmulture. 



CALCUTTA: 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERiNTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTINQ, INDIA. 

1896. 



Price Eight Annas. 



Vol IV.] [No. L 

NOTICE OF A NEW INDIAN HOMOPTERON/ 

By G. B. BUCKTON. 
TRIBE TETTIGIDyE. 

Family Fulgorid^, Burm. 
Assamia dentata^ n, sp. 

PLATE I. 

Generic characfer.—FsiCe with three keels, the central keel passing 
over the vertex. Antenna second joint globular, ending with a 
fine seta and placed below the eyes. Thorax large and corrugated. 
Abdomen short and stout, deeply ringed, and ending with a complete 
pygofer. Legs long, the hind tibiae crowned at the lower ends with 
leaf-like spurs. Tarsi three-jointed, last joint furnished with two 
claws and bristles. Wings voluminous and prettily clouded with 
brown. Costal edges of both elytra and wings, with a row of fine 
teeth. Venation of wings peculiar and represented in figures 2 and 3. 

Rostrum long and cylindrical, containing three bristles. 

A. dentata. — Body shining black, wings brocaded with brown j 
legs, part of the abdominal rings and antennae yellow. Pygofer of 
^ complex. 

Expanse of imago, 14 millemetres. 
Attacks the leaves of Palm tree. 
Dibrugarh, Assam. 

Explanation of drawings. 

Fig. I.— The imago which shows the long clypius and also the 

form of the pygofer in profile. 
Figs. 2 and 3. — The elytron and lower wing with hooks. 
Fig, 4.— Head showing antennae («), clypius with keels (^), and 

rostrum at [f). 
Fig, 5. — Lower end of tibia and tarsus of hind leg. 



^ [The specimens from which this species is described were forwarded to the 
Museum by Rev. C. Dowding, Chaplain of Dibrugarh, Assam, who found them in 
considerable numbers on the under-side of the leaves of a kind of palm tree, — Ed.'\ 

I A 



Indian Museum Noies. \ Vol. I?. 



CATALOGUE OF COCCID^ COLLECTED IN 

CEYLON. 

BY Mr. E. E. green. 

[The following list of Coccidse, which contains many und escribed species, is 
to be regarded as preliminary to a more exhaustive paper with figures of all the 
new species, now in course of preparation by the same author. — Ed.\ 

1. Chionaspis braziliensis^ Sign.— On cultivated ferns, Strohilan- 
thus sp., and Acacia melanoxylon, occurring, when present, in 
enormous numbers, the males usually predominating. A remarkable 
exception being in the case of specimens found on the Acacia which 
were all females. 

Locality Punduloya. 

2. C. biclavis, Comst.— Very common on stems of Cinchona 
and Tea, sometimes in such numbers as to considerably injure the 
plants. Found also occasionally on stems of Grevillea and Coffee ; 
never on leaves, though the American type is described from 
examples found on leaves of fig, Male unknown. The female 
shield very inconspicuous, from the fact that it is always covered 
with the superficial fibres and loose material of the bark upon which 
it rests. 

Locality Punduloya. 

3. C. aspidistra, Sign,, van musscsndce^ n. var.-^— Found on stems 
and twigs of Musscenda frondosa. Differs from type chiefly in the 
character of the female shield, which is opaque, greyish white, and 
covered with the hairs and fibres of the bark instead of being of a 
"clear transparent yellow" as in Signoret's type. The male puparia 
are crowded together in large groups, each individual attached by the 
anterior extremity only, the rest of the body elevated. 

Locality Punduloya. 

4. C eugenise. Mask., var. varicosa, n. var.— Found on under surface 
of leaves of Gelonuim lanceolatum. Differs from type chiefly in 
character of female shield, which is proportionately broader and 
marked with ramifying raised creases resembling veins. 

Locality Punduloya. 

5. C eu^eniaSf Mask., var. litseae, n. var. — Found on under surface 
of leaves of Litzea zeylanica. Differs from type in the female 
shield being very thin and semi-transparent. Male with 3 knobbed 
digitules on feet. 

Locality Punduloya. 



No. 1,] Catalogue of Coccidz collected in Ceylon, 

6. C, vitis, n. sp. — Found on under surface of leaves of Viiz's 
producing discoloration of the leaf, the punctured parts turning pale 
yellow. Very occasionally found on upper surface of leaves of 
Elseagniis. Female shield thin, colourless and semi-transparent. 
Pygidial lobes small but prominent. Female insect pale yellow 
before gestation ; afterwards reddish. Male with 4 knobbed digitules 
on feet. 

Locality Punduloya. 

7. C. graviinis^ n. sp. — On lemon-grass [Andropogon). Punc- 
tured area of leaf turning dark purple. Female shield enowy white ; 
insect reddish orange. Pellicles of male puparium dark brown. 
Adult male with 3 knobbed digitules on feet. 

Locality Punduloya. 

8. C. minuta^ n. sp.^On Tetranihera. A very small species, 
appearing to the naked eye like minute yellowish specks on under 
surface of the leaf. Female shield colourless and transparent. Male 
puparium also very thin and transparent. Adult female insect very 
pale yellow. Male with 3 knobbed digitules on feet. 

Locality Punduloya, 

9. C, acuminata, n. sp. — Found on both surfaces of leaves of 
Ardisia and several unidentified plants. Female shield very long 
and narrow with a median ridge, yellowish brown. Insect very pale 
yellow, tinged with bright orange in older individuals. Pygidia 
lobes very small. Male puparium strongly carinate, the furrows 
coloured reddish, giving a general pink tinge to the mass. Feet 
with 3 knobbed digitules. Terminal point of antenna with 3 
knobbed hairs. 

Locality Punduloya. 

10. C. elxagniy n. sp. — On Elseagnus latijolia under surface of 
leaves. Female shield thin, whitish, but closely covered with the stellate 
hairs of the leaf. Insect bright yellow. Pygidium reddish. Pygidial 
lobes large and prominent. Male with 3 knobbed digitules on feet. 

Loeality Punduloya. 

11. C, exercitata, n. s-p. — On both surfaces of leaves of Tea, 
Psycaotria and other plants, in colonies consisting usually of one, or 
a very few females and a large number of males ; the white carinated 
male puparia being disposed very regularly in parallel lines. Female 
shield long and narrow, reddish brown. Insect dull purplish red t 
pygidium with single median lobe. Male with 2 knobbed digitules 
on feet. 

Locality Punduloya. 



4 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV« 

12. Aspidiotus nerit, Bouche. — Common on Tea, Loranthus-, 
Dalbergia^ Palms, etc. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo. 

13. A. aurantUf mask. — On Agave (American aloe) and Citrus 
pomela. 

Locality Punduloya. 

14. A. osbeckiie, n. sp. — On stems of Osbeckia, not common. 
Allied to neriif but differs in the opaque brownish shield, and the 
marginal hairs of the insect. Male with black apodema. Feet with 
4 knobbed digitules. Terminal joint of antenna with 5 knobbed 
hairs. 

Locality Punduloya. 
i<,. A, occultuSy n. sp.— In minute galls on leaves of Grewia 
orietitalis. Female pale yellow : no grouped spinnerets. Male with 
4 digitules on feet, and 3 knobbed hairs on terminal joint of antenna. 
Locality Punduloya. 

16. A, trilobitiformis, n, sp. — On leaves of unidentified tree. 
Female shield broad and flat, opaque, reddish brown. Insect very 
regularly and symmetrically formed ; segments strongly marked : a 
deep transverse groove behind the cephalic segments. Pygidium 
with well-marked reticulated patch on upper surface. 

Locality Punduloya. 

17. Diaspis lanata^ Morg. and Ckll. — Very common on stems of 
geranium, Callicarpa lanata, and Tylophora asthmatica. Very des- 
tructive to cultivated geranium, the stems often being completely 
covered with the white male puparia. 

Locality Punduloya, 

18. D, circulata, n. sp. — Common on young tea plants, and on 
the twigs of older bushes : also on Cinchona and Osbeckia. Female 
shield yellowish : pellicles usually dark, with a small whitish central 
boss surrounded by several concentric raised circles. Insect yellow. 
Male unknown. 

Locality Punduloya. 

19. Mytilaspis citricola^ Packard. — On orange, and leaves of 
Cocculus indicus. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy. 

20. M. elongata, n. sp.— On leaves of Arundinaria. Female 
shield very long and narrow, snowy white. Insect also very long ; 
almost linear ; pale yellow to orange. Male with 4 knobbed 
digitules on feet, and 6 knobbed hairs on terminal joint of antenna. 

Locality Punduloya. 



No. 1.] Catalogue of Cocctdse collected in Ceylon. 5 

21. M. pallida, n. sp. — On leaves of unidentified shrubs. Allied 
to M, citricola. Female shield proportionately longer, smoother and 
more regular, very pale yellowish or brownish. Insect creamy white : 
pygidium pale reddish. Male pale lilac : foot with 3 knobbed 
digitules : terminal joint of antenna with 3 knobbed hairs. 

Locality Punduloya. 

22. Aonidia corniger, n. sp.^On upper surface of leaves of 
Psychotria and Litzea, A very remarkable form, the first pellicle 
bearing a series of 16 long, glassy, colourless horn-shaped processes. 
Adult female pale lilac : completely enclosed within second pellicle : 
pygidiums without spinnerets : margin produced into tooth-like 
processes. 

Locality Punduloya. 

23. Fiorinia saprosmse^ n. sp. — On under surface of leaves of 
Saprosma. Female shield almost completely occupied by the second 
pellicle, which is pale orange coloured. Male puparia concealed 
beneath a mass of loose white filaments. Female insect pale 
yellow : minute jointed tubercles on margins of abdominal segments. 

Locality Punduloya. 

24. F, secreia, n. sp. — In small galls on leaves of Grewia 
orientalis. Female insect yellow : pygidium long and pointed, with a 
prominent double median lobe : no grouped spinnerets. 

Locality Punduloya. 

25. F. scrobtcularum, n. sp. — In glandular pits at base of veins 
on leaves of Gssrtnera kcenign. Female shield very narrow in 
front, widened behind : pale yellowish with reddish median area, 
insect pale yellow : pygidium with deep median cleft. 

Locality Pujnduloya. 

26. F. palmary n. sp.— On fronds of Cocoanut palm. Differs from 
F, saprosma in smaller size, and in possession of a long stout spine- 
like process on rudimentary antennjae. 

Locality Punduloya. 

27. Planchonia bambusse, Boisd. — On stems of Giant Bamboo. 
Male unknown. 

Locality Punduloya. 

28. P. miliaria, Boisd., var. longa, n. var. — On Arundinaria, 
Differs from type in proportionately greater size and length. Male 
yellow. Terminal joint of antenna with 3 knobbed hairs. 

Locality Punduloya. 

29. P, delicata^ n, sp.—On leaves of Arundinaria. Much less 
convex than P, bambusas ; sometimes almost flat. Male reddish ; 



6 Indian Museum Notes, [^ol. IV# 



antennae with 6 very long whip-like hairs, and 3 knobbed hairs on 
terminal joint. 

Locality Punduloya. 

30. P. solenophoroideSy n. sp. — On leavesof Arundtnad^ra, a min- 
ute species. Hinder part of female test narrowed and elevated. 
Snsect bright yellow. Male pale yellow ; foot with 3 digitules : 
antenna with 3 knobbed hairs at apex. 

Locality Punduloya. 

31. Walkeriana floriger^ Walk. — On stems of Litzea zeylanica. 
Locality Punduloya. 

32. W.compacta, n. sp.— On stem of unidentified tree. With- 
out the silky filaments and tufts of W, floriger. Short, stout, compact, 
conical white processes on dorsum. 

Locality Kelani valley. 

33. W, euphorbia, n. sp. — On branches of Euphorbia antiquo- 
yum. Very convex behind j narrowed and depressed in front. Short 
curved conical processes in concentric series. 

Locality Hambantota. 

34. W. poleiit n. sp.— On stems and twigs of Dodonaea vtscosa. 
Pinkish grey : short, conical, truncate yellowish processes : very con- 
vex dorsally : laterally compressed : inner side of femur with stout 
spines. 

Locality Cbilaw. 

35. W. senex, n. sp.— On stems and tw'igs of Dodonasa viscosa. 
Broader, flatter than W, Poleii : processes very long and curling, 
white or brownish. 

Locality Chilaw. 

36. Orthezia insignis, Doug!.— On numerous ornamental shrubs, 
affecting especially Acanthaceas. A very destructive species. 
Male slaty-grey with a brush of long silky filaments from extrem- 
ity of abdomen. This species has been redescribed from Ceylon 
specimens by Mr. Buckton under the name of O, nacrea ; but I can 
find no distinguishing points between this and the species from Kew. 
In fact our specimens are doubtless the direct descendants from the 
Kew insect, as they first appeared in the plant-houses of the Govern- 
ment Botanical Gardens at Peradeniya. 

Locality Kandy. 

37. Monophlebus zeylanicus, n. sp. — On trunks of Antidesma 
hunius. Female bright orange-red : rather long and narrow. Insects 
of second stage occupying small cells in the living tissue of the bark. 

Locality Punduloya, 



No. 1.] Catalogue of Coccidse collected in Ceylon. f 

38. Icerya segyptiaca, Dougl.— On leaves of variegated Croton. 
Locality Chilaw. 

39. /. tangalla, n. sp.— On leaves of unidentified plant. Differs 
from segyptiaca in absence of dorsal waxy cushions, and the marginal 
processes being very short, stout and truncate^ 

Locality Tangalla. 

40. /. crocea, n. sp.— On leaves of Citrus, Croton and Cocculus, 
Body reddish orange : dorsal area covered with bright yellow mealy 
secretion, with double marginal series of yellow waxy tufts and 
numerous delicate silky filaments. 

Locality Punduloya. 

41. /. pilosa, n. sp.-— On a species of wiry grass growing on sea- 
shore. Body dull crimson : dorsal area completely covered with 
white granular powder and short white filaments : skin with blackish 
hairs. 

Locality Chilaw. 

42. Eriococcus arancartse, Mask. — On Arancaria^ occurring 
locally in enormous numbers, making infested trees quite unsightly 
from the sooty fungus that accompanies the insect. 

Localities Newera, Eliya. 

43. Coccus cacttf Anct.., var. ceylom'cus, n, var. — On Opuntt'a. 
Differs from type in proportions of antennae in different stages, 
Male, with a pair of longish knobbed hairs on each of last seven 
joints of antenna. 

Locality Hambantota. 

44. Pseudococcus mangiferse, n. sp,— On Mangifera indica. Fe- 
male pale yellow, dorsal area covered with white mealy powder, 
except on a subtriangular median patch : a marginal series of stout 
white fragile processes. Male very pale yellow. 

Locality Punduloya. 

45. Dactylopius adonidum, Lin. — On nearly every cultivated 
plant and in every part of Ceylon. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo, Chilaw, Hambantota. 

46. D. longifilis^ Comst. — On Jasminum and Adiantum. 
Localities Punduloya, Kandy, 

47. D. talini, n. sp.— On Taltnum, Lilium, Croton, Female 
purplish brown, sparsely dusted with white powder : a single pair of 
longish stout filaments at abdominal extremity : numerous long, very 
delicate, colourless, glassy filaments. 

Localities Colombo, Kandy, Chilaw, 



8 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 



48. D. scrohicularum^ n. sp.— In glandular pits at base of veins 
of leaves of Elaeocarpus. Dark slaty-grey, sparsely covered with 
whitish powder, abdominal segments only with stout white processes, 
which protrude from the opening of the cell in which the insect 
lives. 

Locality Punduloya. 

49. Vinsonia stelltfer, Westw. — On leaves of Mango, Ficus 
antimesma^ Cocoanut palm and other shrubs. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo. 

50. Ceroplastes floridensis^ Comst. — On Tea, Mango and Citrus. 
Locality Punduloya. 

51. C. ceriferuSf Anders.—On stems oi Antigouon and Poutzolzia. 
Specimens from the hills less than half size of those from low country. 

Localities Punduloya, Chilaw. 

52. C actiniformis, n. sp.— On leaves of Cocoanut palm. Very 
convex. Median area of test with radiating purple lines. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy. 

53. Pulvinaria psidii^ Mask. — On Guava, Tea, Cinchona and 
numerous shrubs and plants. Occurring in enormous numbers and 
doing considerable injury to infested plants. 

Locality Punduloya. 

54. P. tessellata, n. sp.— On leaves of Ophiorrhiya pectinata. 
Female scale with tessellated markings ; bright green ovisac, fluted. 

Locality Punduloya. 

55. P, tomentosUy n. sp. — On unidentified tree. Female scale 
olive-brown ; median area rather thickly covered with small balls of 
tightly curled woolly filaments, ovisac with deep median longitudinal 
furrow. 

Locality Punduloya. 

56. Lecanium coffee, Walk. — Common on leaves and stems of Tea, 
Coffee, various ferns, and numerous other plants. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo, etc. 

57. L. longulum, Dougl. — On branches and twigs of Albizzia and 
Grevillea, 

Locality Punduloya. 

58. Z. viride. Green. — On Coffee, Cinchona and numerous shrubs 
and trees. A very injurious species. But though it has killed out 
the coffee in whole districts, it has fortunately not seriously attacked 
Tea. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo, etc. 



No. 1.] Catalogue of Coccidse cdllected in Ceylon. 9 

59- L. mangiferae^ Green.— On leaves of cultivated mango trees. 
Locality Punduloya. 

60. L. nigrum^ Nietner.— Rather common on various shrubs and 
plants, Croton, Asparagus, Begonia^ CobcsUf etc. Though originally 
described from coffee, it is now very seldom seen upon this plant. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo, etc. 

61. L. tessellatum, Sign.«»- Rather common on leaves of Caryoia 
urens. Found also on Cinnamon and some other shrubs. 

Localities Punduloya, Colombo. 

62. L, planum, n. sp.— On upper surface of leaves of unidentified 
tree. Bright castaneous to dark chocolate brown. Flat, broad. Sub- 
triangular : pointed in front. Antennae 6-jointed. Margin with con- 
tinuous fringe of very delicate overlapping fan-shaped scales. 
Dermal cells small and circular on median area, oblong and irregular 
towards margin. Male puparium divided into 18 plates. Adult male 
without caudal filaments. 

Locality Punduloya, 

63. L. planum, var. marittmum, n. var.— Found on both surfaces 
of leaves of a thorny shrub growing on the sea-shore (within reach of 
surf). Differs from type in smaller size and absence of dermal cells. 
Scale protected by a secretion that becomes tough and gelatinous 
under treatment with potash. 

Locality Bentota. 

64. L, geometricum, n. sp.— On leaves of unidentified shrub. 
Pale castaneous, or fulvous. Flattish, sub-circular, median dorsal area 
with concentric series of polygonal depressed spaces. Antennas 6- 
jointed. Marginal fringe of overlapping fan-shaped scales. Dermal 
cells oblong, irregular. 

Locality Punduloya. 

65. L. marginatumy n, sp.— On upper surface of leaves of Psy- 
chotria thwaitesii. Pale fulvous to castaneous, a sub-marginal zone 
almost colourless. Oval, pointed in front. Antennae 6-jointed. 
Marginal fringe of overlapping semi-circular scales. No dermal cells. 
Male with long caudal filaments ; costal nervure of wing bright car- 
mine. 

Locality Punduloya. 

66. Z. expansum, n. sp. — On leaves of Litzea and Dalbergia, A 
very large flattish species. Longest diameter nearly \ inch. Margin 
with continuous fringe of fan-shaped scales. Antenna obscurely 6(?)- 
jointed. Legs wanting. 

Locality Punduloya. 



lo Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 



€7. L. antidesms, n. sp. — A single specimen found on leaf of Anti- 
desma hunius. Very flat, but opaque : reddish brown with a thin 
greyish powdery film. Antennae 8-jointed. Margin with simple 
stoutish hairs. A distant series of short, fine, white cottony filaments 
springing from glandular spots near margin. 

Locality Punduloya. 

68. L. caudatum, n. sp. — Very abundant on leaves of Passifloray 
occasionally on Coffee. Convex oblong, oval ; broadest behind. Colour 
varying with age from bright orange to deep chestnut brown; the 
paler specimens with a dark brown longitudinal and several transverse 
bands. Three or four very long white thread-like filaments springing 
from anal aperture, frequently extending two or three times length 
of insects. The hairs from ano-genital ring very conspicuous, stout 
and dark coloured j marginal hairs dilated and toothed. Antennae- 
7-jointed. 

Locality Punduloya, 

69. L. acutissimum^ n. sp. — On under surface of leaves of Co-- 
coanut and other palms. Very narrow ; pointed in front and behind 
of the shape and size of a carroway seed. Reddish brown ta black,. 
Antennae 6-jointed. Single stigmatic spine. 

Localities Punduloya, Kandy, Colombo. 

70. L, piperisy n, sp. — On leaves of wild pepper, upper surface. 
Female broadly oval , flatfish, with prominent median longitudinal, and 
two transverse ridges. Pale fulvous to pale reddish brown. Antennae 
8-jointed, Stigmatic spines in deep cleft, four to six, Male pupa- 
rium divided into 18 waxy plates. 

Locality Punduloya. 

71. Z.. ophiorrhtzx, n. sp.— On leaves and stems of Ophiorrhiza 
pectinata. Oblong, pointed in front. Pale fulvous with dark reddish, 
reticulated pattern. Stigmatic spines three, the central one very long 
and prominent. Antennae 8-jointed. Male puparium composed of 
9 glassy plates, a median longitudinal series of prominent points. 

Locality Punduloya. 

72. Z. formicarii, n. sp.— On stems of Tea and other shrubs, 
always sheltered by nests of a small brown ant {Cremastogaster, sp.). 
Highly convex, almost globular; dull brown. 

Locality Punduloya. 



No. 1,] Remedies for plant diseases. u 



REMEDIES FOR PLANT DISEASES. 

[The following are some reliable formulse for the treatment of fungi and 
insect pests. They have been taken from the Report of the Agriculturoi Experi- 
ment Station of the University of California, and are reprinted here for the 
benefit of the many inquirers in this country to whom the original reports are not, 
perhaps, accessible. It should be very constantly borne in mind that " Paris 
Green " and " London Purple " contain the powerful poison arsenic, and should 
therefore be used with the greatest caution, especially in the case of plants any 
part of which is used in the preparation of food or drink. The same caution 
applies, though with less emphasis, to *' Bordeaux mixture," which contains an 
irritant copper salt.] 



For powdery MILDEWS use SULPHUR, dusting it on the 
plants. 

For fungi in general use BORDEAUX MIXTURE, made as 
follows : For every lo gallons take i pound of lime and i pound of 
bluestone. Dissolve these separately in hot water and mix when 
cool, adding the rest of the water. Spray on the plants. Or spray 
with AMMONIACAL COPPER CARBONATE SOLUTION, made 
as follows : Dissolve i ounce of copper carbonate in 6 ounces of 
ammonia and add lo gallons of water. 

For FUNGI and SCALE INSECTS use LIME, SALT AND 
SULPHUR MIXTURE, a winter wash composed of lime 8 pounds, 
salt 3 pounds, and sulphur 4 pounds, for each 12 gallons of water. 
Mix one-fourth of the water, one-fourth of the lime, and all the sul- 
phur, and boil for one and a half hours ; put the salt with the rest of 
the lime and slake with hot water ; add to the above and boil half 
an hour longer ; add the remainder of the water and apply as a spray. 

For SCALE INSECTS use RESIN SOAP as follows: For 
100 gallons for summer use take resin 18 pounds, caustic soda 
(98%) 2>\ pounds, and fish oil 2\ pints ; for "winter use, resin 30 
pounds, caustic soda 65 pounds, and fish oil 4^ pints. The material 
is put in a kettle and covered with four or five inches of water. 
The lid is put on and the mixture boiled two hours or more, and then 
the rest of the water is added, a little at a time. Spray on the plants. 
Or use the GAS TREATMENT: Cover the plant with an oiled 
tent, and for each 100 cubic feet of contents place in a bowl beneath 
the tent § ounce of water, \ ounce of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol), 
and \ ounce of potassium cyanide (58°/q). Be careful not to inhale 
the poisonous gas, not to allow it to escape from the tent for half 



12 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

an hour. The leaves may be injured if used during the middle of 
the day. 

For insects in general use KEROSINE EMULSION, as 
follows : Make a soap solution of half a pound of soap to a gallon of 
water. Heat it to boiling and add two gallons of kerosine. Pump 
it through the spray pump, with good pressure, for five or ten min- 
utes. For use add ten times as much water as you have of emulsion. 
Apply as a spray. Sour milk may be used instead of the soap solu- 
tion. The emulsion is made more effective by the addition of a very 
small amount of arsenic to the soap solution, or of buhach to the 
kerosine, 

FOR fruit or ieaf-eating INSECTS use PARIS GREEN or LON- 
DON PURPLE as a powder at the rate of i to 5 pounds to the acre, 
distributed by walking or riding over the field, carrying a pole, at both 
ends of which are hung muslin bags containing the poison. Asa 
spray use i pound to 200 gallons of water. In spraying these ar- 
senites the nozzle should be held at some distance from the plant 
and no more should be applied after the leaves begin to drip. Do 
not use these on crops where the poison would be injurious to 
health. 



No. 1- ] Miscellaneous Notes. 13 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

FROM THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION, BY 
MR. EDWARD BARLOW. 

MARUCA TESTULALIS, Geyer. 
Plate II, Fig. /, a moth, b chrysalid, c caterpillar. 

On the 4th December 1894 specimens of Asiatic bean {Dolichos 
lablab) from the Calcutta bazar, bored by caterpillars, were received 
in the Indian Museum. Some of the affected pods that were split 
open for examination contained young caterpillars, each pod harbour- 
ing but one insect. The colour of the caterpillars in this stage was 
of a light pinkish-brown with semi-transparent hairless bodies. 

On the 8th idem all the larvae appeared to be full fed, and 
changing their colour into a light pea-green hue, left their respective 
pods and began to pupate on the side of the breeding cage, making 
for themselves flimsy cocoons of glistening white silk. 

The moths, which emerged after eight days' incubation, proved to 
be identical with the species Maruca testulalis^ Geyer. 

The following is Mr. F. Moore^s description of the above : — 

Crochiphora testulalis, (Hiibner) Geyer, Zutrage Samml. Exot. 
Schmett., iv. 12, 315, fig. 629-30 (1832). 

Stenia testulalis^ Guenee, Delt. et Pyral. p. 247 ; Walker, Catal, 
Lep. Het. B. M. xvii, p. 420. 

Siriocauta testulalis, Lederer, Pyral. Wien. Ent. Monat. vii^, 
p. 424; Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1884, p. 299; Snellen, 
Tijd, voor Ent. 1884, p, 39. 

Hydrocampa aquatilts, Boisduval, in Guerin-Meneville's Icon. 
Reg. Anim. Ins. pi. 90, fig. 9 (1844). 

Maruca aquatilis, Walker, Catal. Lep. Het. B. M. xviii, p. 540 

(1859). 

Fore wing ochreous-brown, clouded with darker brown; a trans- 
verse discal black-bordered hyaline-white band extending from 
costal vein to lower median, a similar white oblique pyriform spot 
within the cell, and a punctiform spot below its middle : hind wing 
hyaline-white, with an irregular black-bordered ochreous-brown 
marginal band. Cilia brown anteriorly, white posteriorly, with a 
slender black inner line. Body ochreous-brown above ; palpi 
ochreous-brown above, white beneath ; legs whitish with brown 
bands. 

Expanse y% to i inch. 

The Indian Museum possesses specimens from Calcutta, Khan-f 
dala, Kulu, Sibsagar, Dansiri, Ceylon. 



14 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV« 

PERINA NUDA, Fabr. 
Piute II, Fig. 2, ab moths J", and ? c chrysalid, d caterpillar. 

On the 9th August 1894 specimens of a caterpillar found de- 
structive to jack tree {Artocarpus integrifolia, Linn.) in a miniature 
garden adjoininaj the Indian Museum compound, were brought under 
notice through one of the Museum insect collectors. 

A number of the caterpillars received began to pupate on the 
second day of their confinement, perfect insects emerging on the 
17th idem. 

The moth which belongs to the group Bombyces (Fam. Lyman- 
triidae) appears to be identical with Perina nuda-, Fabr. 

The following is Mr. G. F. Hampson's description of the 
above : — 

Perina nuda, Fabr. Mant. Ins. II, p. 117; Moore, Lep. Ceyl. II, 
pU 114, figs. I, i€iy b (larva) ; C. and S. No. 867. 

Stilpnotia suhtincta, Wlk. Cat. IV, p. 843. 

Perina basaiis, Wlk. Cat. IV, p. 966. 

Euproctis combinata, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p. 347. 

Male. — Head and legs orange ; antennae black ; thorax grey and 
brown ; abdomen brown, the segments fringed with white ; anal 
tuft orange. Forewing hyaline, with a patch of brown scales on 
inner basal area. Hind wing dark brown, with the apical area 
hyaline. 

Female. — Pale ochreous ; the anal tuft orange ; fore wing irro- 
rated with brown scales below the cell. 

Larva, — Greyish green, with short dorsal tufts of black hair and 
long anterior and posterior tufts ; lateral tufts of grey and black hair ; 
a dark sap-green dorsal band broken by a white line on thoracic 
somites and with red spots on its edge ; 5th to i ith somites with 
subdorsal blue tubercles. 

Pupa, — Greenish ; all the somites, except the two medial, red- 
brown below with paired black spots. 

Hab. — China and throughout India and Ceylon. Exp. male 38, 
female 50 millim. 

THIACIDAS POSTICA, Walk. 

Plate II, Fig. J, a b moths ^ and ? , c chrysalid, d caterpillar. 

On the 28th June 1894 numerous specimens of a hairy caterpillar 
were brought in by one of the Museum collectors, with the informa- 
tion that he had picked them off the leaves of a plum tree 
{Zizyphus jujuba) in the suburbs of Calcutta while engaged ia 
collecting insects. 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 15 

The caterpillars that were received were put in a breeding cage 
and duly supplied with plum leaves up to the 8th of July, when they 
began to pupate, forming cocoons constructed partly of hair and 
partly of a kind of silk-like brown thread. 

On the 1 8th instant moths commenced to emerge, which, however, 
appeared to be unrepresented in the Indian Museum collection, 
so specimens were submitted to Mr. F. Moore, who has kindly 
examined them and identifies them as belonging to the species 
Thiacidas posti'ca, Walk, (group Bombyces, Fam, Lymantriidse). 

The following is Mr. G. F. Hampson's description of the moth : 

Thiacidas postica, Wlk. Cat. V, p. 1028; Swinh. P. Z. S. 1885: 
pi. 21, figs. I, la, 2 ; C. and S. No. 1060. 

Drymonia denotata, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p. 414; C. &, S. No. 1165. 

Heterocampa nigroscripta, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p^ 423. 

Cnethocampa curvata, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p. 429, C. & S. 
No. 1046. 

Cnethocampa basifurca, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p. 430; C. & S. 
No. 1044. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen greyish brown. Fore wing greyish 
fcrown, with obliquely curved subbasal and antemedial black double 
lines angled below median nervure ; a double postmedial line 
excurved round end of cell and bent inwards below the cell with 
some streaks from it to outer margin. Hind wing with an indistinct 
curved postmedial line ; a brown patch at anal angle with a dark 
streak on it; some strigse on margin. 

Hab. — Throughout India and Burma. Exp., male 38, female 44 
miUim. 



HYPSA ALCIPHRON, Cram. 

Plate IJ, Fig. 4, a moth, b chrysalid, c caterpillar. 

On the 28th June 1894 specimens of a Bombycid caterpillar 
found defoliating " Dumar " tree {Ficus hispida, Linn.) were col- 
lected by one of the Museum collectors and reared in the Indian 
Museum. 

The caterpillars, when full fed, rolled themselves into leaves so as 
to form a kind of protective covering in which they pupated on the 7th 
July. Moths began to emerge on the i6th idem, which, on comparison 
with the Museum collection of moths, proved to be identical with 
Hypsa alciphron, Cram. 



i6 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV« 

The following is Mr. Moore's description of the above : — 

Phal. Att. Alcipkron, Cram. Pap. Exot. ii, pi. 133, p. E. (1777). 

Hypsa Alctphron, Moore, Catal. Lep. Mus. E. I. C. ii, p. 292, 
pi. 13, fig. 6, 6a. 

Noctua Caries, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. iii, p. 27 (1793) ; Donovan, 
Ins. N. Holl., pi. 39, f. 2. 

Hypocrita v. Caricas^ Hiibner, Samml. Exot. Schmett., i, pi. 191, 
fig. I — 4 (1806). 

Damahs Caricds^ Hiibner, Verz. bek, Schmett., p. 172. 

Hypsa {Damalis) Caries, Walker, Catal. Lep. Het. B. M. ii, 
p. 454. 

Fore wing ochreous greyish-brown, veins ochreous-white ; base 
of wing ochreous-yellow, and marked by five small black spots, two 
being on the costa and three below them ; an ochreous-white spot 
at lower end of the cell ; hind wing ochreous-yellow, with a black 
spot at end of the cell, two discal spots beyond, and a more or less 
perfect outer discal series decreasing to anal angle. Body ochreous- 
yellow ; a black spot on tegulae, and a slight spot at juncture with 
base of the wing; a more or less dorsal and lateral row of spots on 
abdomen; tip of first and second joints and entire third joint of 
palpi black ; legs with black bands. 

Expanse 2 to 2| inches. 

Larva cylindrical; each segment with a few very slender scat- 
tered hairs. Black above, brownish beneath ; two longitudinal white 
dorsal bands, a small ocellus on each segment, and lateral black 
spots; head red; front legs black; middle and hind legs reddish- 
brown. Pupa dark reddish-brown. 



HYMENIA RECURVALIS, Fabr. 
Plate II, Fig. 5, a moth, b chrysalid. 

Specimens of a Pyralid caterpillar said to be destructive to 
" Choulai sag " [Amarantus mangostanus, Linn.) were brought 
under notice through one of the Museum collectors, who found 
them in a garden situated in the suburbs of Calcutta, 

The finding of this insect is of some interest, as the plant, 
>Yhich is occasionally cultivated in the plains of Bengal, is eaten as 
a " pot herb " by almost all classes of natives in India, but more ex- 
tensively among the poor. 

The caterpillars pupated on the day of their arrival (the 12th 
of June 1894), the chrysalis being formed within an outer covering 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 17 

made of the agglutinated leaves of the plant. On the 20th instant, 
eight days after, three moths made their appearance, which on exam- 
ination proved to be identical with Hymenia recurvalts, Fabr. 
The following is Moore's description of the moth : — 
^* Phalssna recurvalis, Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 407 (1775) ; Ent. 

Syst. iii, 2, p. 237 (1794)- 
Zinckenia recurvalis^ Zeller, Lep. Micro. Caffr. Kongl. Vet. 
Akad. Handl,,p. 55 (1853) ; Lederer. Pyral. Wien.Ent. M.on.vii, 
p. 437 (1863) ; Snellen, Tijd. voor Ent. 1872, p. 95 ; Meyrick, 
Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1884, p. 308. 
Spoladea recurvalis^ Gu6nee, Delt. et Pyral,, p. 225, pi. 8, fig. 5 

(1854). 
Hymenia recurvalis^ Walker, Catal. Lep. Het. B. M. xvii, p. 396 

(1859). 
Phalena fasciajis, Cramer, Pap. Exot, iv., pi. 398, fig. o (1782). 

stoll. id. Vj pi. 36, fig. 13 {1791). 
Phalsena angustalis, Fabricius, Mant, Ins., p. 309 (1787). 
Hymenia diffascialis, Hijbner, Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 361 (1825-7). 
Hydrocampa albifascialis, Boisduval, Faun. Ent. Madag. Lep., 

p. 119, pi. 16, fig. I (1834). 
.'' Phalsena nigrella, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. Ed. 13, iii App ., p. 225. 

"Dark vinaceous-brown; in some lights olivescent greyish-brown ; 
fore wing with a short blackish-bordered white band from the costa 
before the apex, below and exterior to which are three small 
inwardly-curved superposed spots, which approach a dentate trans- 
verse white band extending from upper end of the cell to the poste- 
rior margin, this band being continued across the hind wing to near 
anal angle. Cilia with an interrupted brown inner line, alternated 
with white on fore wing, entirely white on hind wing. Bands on ab- 
domen white ; collar, front of head, base of palpi, and legs yellowish ; 
tip of palpi and bands on fore legs blackish, 

" Expanse yV ^° To inch." 

The Indian Museum possesses specimens from Karachi, Calcutta, 
Andaman Islands, Kulu, Nicobar Islands, Mergui. 



EUMETA CRAMERI, Westw. 

Plate III, Fig. 2, a moth $, b larval case of the male •with pupal case protruding 

from it. 

In August 1894 specimens of a Psychid.moth, which proved to 
be identical with Eumeta crameri, Westw., were successfully reare- 



i8 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

in the Indian Museum from caterpillars found attacking an evergreen 
plant in Calcutta. 

This species has been previously referred to in Indian Museum 
Notes, Volume II, No. 6, page 157, as defoliating tea bushes in Assam, 
Sikkim and Ceylon. 

The following is Mr. Moore's description of the above : — 

Oikeiicus Cramer it, Westwood, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1854, 
p. 236, pi. 2,1, fig. 4- 

Cryptothelea consort a, Walker, Catal. Lep. Het. B. M. iv^ 
p. 970 [nee Templeton). 

Eumeta Nietneri, Felder, Reise Novara, Lep. iv., pi. 83, fig. 21 
(1868-74). 

Male greyish-brown ; fore wing with the median vein and sub- 
costal branches and the sub-median vein black ; interspaces between 
lower subcostal and the radials and between the forked upper 
medians hoary-white ; the interspace between lo\Yer radial and upper 
median and below the sub-median being rufous-brown. Body brown, 
thorax with a few interspaced long fine black hairs ; legs yellow, 
femora and tibiae very laxly covered with fine long brown and black 
hairs. 

Expanse ly^o to i^^ inch. 

Larval case covered with slender twigs of irregular length, which 
are disposed longitudinally side by side in a somewhat spiral form. 



In June 1894 specimens of a Psychid caterpillar collected in 

Psychid caterpillar de- Calcutta by one of the Museum collectors 

structive to grass. were brought in the Museum with the 

information that the insects were destructive to grass used for 

thatching houses. 

According to the informations gathered from a ticket attached 
to an old specimen of the larval-case of this species, the insect 
attacks " Jhalas" grass growing on the banks of rivers, from the 
flower stems of which a fine string is made, the grass itself being 
used for thatching. The local name of the caterpillar is Khati dhaka 
poka = worm in sack. 

The caterpillars that were bred in the Indian Museum trans- 
formed into pupae about the middle of August, moths commenced 
to emerge on the 14th of September, and these proved to be new to 
the Indian Museum collection. Specimens were therefore sub- 
mitted through Mr. F. Moore to Mr. J. F. Hampson, who kindly 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes, tg 

identified them as belonging to a new species of Mahasena, which 
he is describing as Mahasena graminivora. 

The figure which is given in plate III, fig. I, a, b and c, represents 
the male moth, aborted female moth, and larva. 

The description of this new species has not yet been received 
from Mr. Hampson. 



In July i8g4 the Director of the Imperial Forest School, Dehra 
Caterpillar destructive Dun, forwarded specimens to the Indian 
to Himalayan spruce fir. Museum, of the larva, chrysalis and perfect 
insect of a moth {Mtcrolepidoptera) which has been doing consider- 
able damage to the Himalayan spruce fir [Abies smithiana) in the 
Jaunsar forest. The moth appeared to be new to the Indian 
Museum collection, so has been sent to Europe for precise identifica- 
tion, 

A single specimen of an Ichneumonid fly was also forwarded 
which may probably be parasitic on the caterpillars of this moth. 

The following note has been fuirnished by Mr. C. G. Rogers, 
Deputy Conservator of Forests :— 

" While in camp at Kanain in April last (1884), I noticed that the last year's 
shoots of small spruce saplings had been injured by something, as they had not 
developed at all. On examining several of these injured shoots I found the 
empty chrysalides of an insect which proved that the injury had been done by an 
insect and not by a fungus. The needles of the shoots were united by a silky 
tissue, and the points of such needles as were still on the branch were tied together 
by the silky threads above referred to. At Bodyar, in the beginning of June 
1894, I noticed that some of the young shoots (this year's), which were just 
developing, were not normally developed, but that after developing in length for 
about I or 1 inch, the whole of the needles were formed into a pointed ovoid 
body, the free ends of the leaves being bound together so as to form a case. On 
examination it was found that the needles were bound together with silk threads, 
and that in the protective covering thus formed around the developing bud was 
the larva of an insect. 

" The protective covering made of the needles, which have already developed, 
is on an average 2 inches long, J inch broad at the centre, and has very tapering 
ends. 

•' One specimen of this protective covering is sent. The further development 
of the bud is prevented by the covering of needles, which surround it on all sides, 
and the larva feeds on the tender partially etiolated leaves, which are developed 
inside the covering of full-grown needles. 

" A number of shoots containing larvse were examined on the 7th June. The 
average length of 13 larvse was 0*31 inches and the average width o'o5 inches. 

"The colour of the larva is pale yellowish-white, the skin is transparent and 
the green colour of the young needles, which It has been eating, is very distinctly 
visible down the centre of the body of the insect. The larva is slightly hairy and 
very irritable when touched. It can give out a thin line of silk from its mouth 



II 



20 Indian Museum Notes, [Yol. IV. 

and can suspend itself by this when it wishes to do so. It unites the outer and 
furthest developed leaves of the young shoot by silk threads in order to form a 
protective covering for itself, and the developing bud on which it feeds. The 
eggs of the insect were not found, but with one exception only one larva was found 
in each case, 

" The buds, as a rule, had grown about | inch or i inch in length and some- 
times more before their further development was stopped by the larva. 

" This seems to point to the egg being laid in the bud at the end of a terminal 
or side shoot in the rains or autumn ; and to the &^^ (a solitary one) being laid in 
the middle of the bud, or at any rate not at the base. Some leaves are developed 
before the egg is hatched, and the larva emerges. It should be noticed that the 
bud scales, which form the protective covering of the bud, during the. winter are 
pushed off as a whole by the developing bud, and thus keep the free ends of the 
needles together, and it is only when the young shoot has developed to some extent 
from I to 3 inches that the bud scales fall off or are pierced by the needles of the 
young shoot. This method of development no doubt helps the larva to make his 
protective covering. 

"The chrysalides, which were gathered about the second week in June, deve- 
loped into moths in the beginning of July. The exact dates cannot be given. 

•' One larva, which turned into a chrysalis on the night of the yth-Sth June, is 
not yet a moth (7th July), so that they probably take a month on an average to 
develop from the chrysalis to the moth. 

" The chrysalides seem to be very constant in length. The average of five 
measured was 0*25 inches. The wing cases, antennas, and eyes of the moth are 
clearly visible in the chrysalis. 

" The wing cases are about half as long as the whole chrysalis, which is light 
yellow when young, but matures to a light brown. 

" The abdominal portion of the chrysalis shows seven segments. Three of these 
lie between the wing cases and the remaining four are quite clear of the wing 
cases. 

" Each segment has two rows of small prickle-like protuberances on the back of 
the chrysalis parallel to the segmental divisions of the body and close to the upper 
end (the one nearest the head) of the segment. One of the chrysalides examined 
on the 7th June was found to contain the chrysalis of a fly. It was 0*23 inches 
long and was transparent so that the fly could be seen inside. 

" The fly'was hatched during the night, and is sent in the tube with the larvae 
and chrysalides. 

" Afterwards several other protective coverings were found to contain the same 
flies. The flies emerge from their chrysalides before the larvae of the moth are 
fully developed. The chrysalides of the flies are found attached to the upper end 
of the protective covering, while the chrysalides of the moth are attached by a silk 
thread to the lower end of the same covering. I could not discover that the flies 
interfered with the development of the larva of the moth. This moth seems common 
in the Jaunsar Forest Division, wherever the spruce fir is found, as signs of its pre- 
sence were found at Deoban, Bodyar, Konain and Mandate. 

" It does not confine its attacks to small trees, but attacks large trees as well as 
small poles and saplings, and together with the fungus Mcidium abietinum 
(Barclay) does very serious damage to the spruce. 

" The fungus and moth are commonly found on the same tree, and at Bodyar 
I found a young sapling growing in the open, and therefore favourably situated 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 21 



as regards the amount of light which is necessary for its normal development, very 
seriously injured by the larvae of this moth. Nearly all the young shoots were 
attacked, including the leader, and nearly all the shoots which were not 
attacked by the moth were infested with the fungus above mentioned. The 
larva also attacks very readily small saplings of spruce in the advance growth 
and also saplings and poles which are suffering for want of light, and by so doing 
materially shortens their lives, 

" The moth confines its attentions, so far as was observed, to the spruce only, 
and does not attack the Deodar or Silver fir (_Abies -webbiana) which are usually 
associated with it. 

" In a pure spruce forest, more particularly a young one, this moth would 
undoubtedly develop into a very serious pest, and might endanger the very 
existence of the wood. 

" It is at present very common in Jaunsar, and besides affecting the rate of 
growth and production of wood of the larger trees, does undoubtedly help to 
shorten the lives of saplings and poles, which are already dominated and sup- 
pressed. The direct effect of the larva of the moth on the growth of the tree and 
its increase in volume of course depends entirely upon the number of buds 
attacked ; where only a few shoots are attacked, the effect is very small and prob- 
ably inappreciable,lbut where the majority of the buds of a tree are attacked, 
the effect on the increase in volume of the tree and its general health and vigour 
cannot but be a serious matter." 



Specimens of a caterpillar, which proved to be the larva of 

Parasalepida.Qt^m. ^^® Limacodid moth, Parasa lepida, Cv^m., 
were received in the Indian Museum through 
Munshi Kasimuddin as very destructive to Ashphal tree {Nephelium 
longana, Camb.) in Calcutta. 

According to the information furnished, the caterpillars were 
first observed about the middle of July, on the under-side of the 
leaves of the tree, but no notice was taken of them, as they were not 
numerous. In the latter part of the month, however, the tree became 
simply loaded with the insects, and steps were therefore taken to 
get rid of them. The method adopted, though somewhat tedious, 
proved effectual, namely, removing the caterpillars with tongs and 
burning them. 

Out of the caterpillars received on the 30th July 1894, one speci- 
men was preserved in alcohol, while the others were allowed to 
pupate, which they did on the 7th August 1894. The moth emerged 
on the 24th idem. 

This species is the one referred to and figured in " Indian 
Museum Notes," Vol. Ill, No. 4, pp. 12 and 13, as destructive to tea 
and other plants. 



22 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



In May 1894 specimens of caterpillars and some apparently living 
" S"eMj *o/^a " destructive chrysalids were forwarded to the Museum* 
to paddy. through the Director of Land Records and 

Agriculture, Bengal, from the Officiating Collector, Tippera, with the 
information that the caterpillars, which are locally known as "Sent 
poka^^ were said to be causing much damage to paddy fields by 
eating up the ears and the tender leaves of the paddy plants. 

The specimens were found to be the larvae and pupae of a Noc- 
tues moth, probably belonging to one of the Leucaniidae or Heliothi- 
dae. The material, however, was insufficient for precise identification. 

Some of the chrysalids that were received appeared to be alive 
at first sight, but on a careful examination they were found to be 
heavily parasitised by a dipterous insect pupae, of which (some empty 
and some dead) were discovered in considerable numbers among 
the grass packing in the box. No imago form of the fly was, however, 
obtained. 

Specimens of caterpillar of a boring moth, together with pieces of 

„ . . teak wood bored by them, have been received 

Teak borer. . h«^t-.ti-.i . 1-. -r^- . • , 

from Mr. F. J. Branthwaite, Prome District, 

who wrote in December 1894: — 

" When visiting some plantations of teak this morning planted in the Prome 
Division in 1892 in company with the Conservator, Pegu Circle, and the Deputy 
Conservator of Forests, Tharrawaddy, we noticed that several of the young trees 
were attacked by some larvje, two specimens of which are herewith sent. 

" Specimen No. i shows how entry is effected into the young tree. It is made 
at about one inch above the ground. Round the entrance was a heap of the ex- 
creta of the larvae. 

•' Specimen No. 2 shows how the larva bores down the tap root. 

" Both when found were alive and of a dirty cream colour with brown heads. 

*' The plantation where the larvae were found was one planted in lines 12' X3', 
the space intervening between the lines being overgrown with a fairly thick growth 
of various grasses." 

It is quite impossible to identify this insect precisely from the 
specimens received, but it may probably be one of the Hepialidae, a 
group of moths well known to contain numerous wood-boring species. 



In April 1894 specimens of a caterpillar causing damage to rape 
Caterpillar destructive crops [Brassica rapae) near Berhampur, 
to '■^ps- Lower Bengal, were forwarded to the Indian 

Museum through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Ben- 
gal, from the Deputy Collector on special duty, Berhampur. 

The caterpillars proved to be the larvae of a Pyralid moth, the 
material being insufficient for precise identification. 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 23 

In April 1894 the same officer reported, through the Director, 
Caterpillar destructive Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, the 
to cress. appearance of innumerable black larvae in a 

plot of cress in the Berhampur Jail garden. 

The specimens forwarded to the Museum proved to be insufficient 
for precise identification, but they appeared to be the larvae of a 
Pyralid moth. The Deputy Collector reports that the following 
remedy was applied successfully, and that every caterpillar was found 
dead in the morning after its application : — 

" Four ounces of kerosine oil was thoroughly shaken up with four ounces of 
sour-milk and mixed with ten seers of water. The application of this mixture to 
the plants was done with an Eclair vaporiser. Evening was chosen for this 
application to avoid too quick evaporation of the liquid." 



In April 1894 the same officer, through the Director, Land Records 

and Agriculture, Bengal, reported that the 
London Purple. i- .• c i j Ti ^ ^ 

application 01 London rurple as a remedy 

against the caterpillars of the cosmopolitan moth Agrotis suffusa 
had proved successful in the case of an attack on seedling cauliflow- 
ers in the jail garden at Berhampur in September last. He writes :— 

" One ounce of London Purple was mixed with one ounce of unslaked lime and 
three pounds of ashes. The three substances were powdered together very fine, put 
in a thin calico bag and dusted over the plants, the soil round them having been 
previously loosened." 

RHOPALOSIPHUM DIANTHI, Schrank. 

Plate III, Fig. 3, a apterous viviparous female, b pupa, c winged viviparous 

female. 

In April 1894 the Deputy Collector on special duty, Berham- 
pur, reported injury to a small extent to rape crops near his dis- 
trict by insects. Specimens of the pest were forwarded to the 
Indian Museum through the Director, Land Records and Agricul- 
ture, Bengal. These were found to consist of specimens of plant-lice 
(Aphid), which, however, proved to be new to the Indian Museum 
collection. Specimens were subsequently submitted to Mr. 
G. B. Buckton, who kindly examined them^ and identified them to be 
the same as the common pest that injures rape crops in Europe, 
namely, Rhopalosiphum dianthty Schrank. 

The following account of the insect is taken from Mr. G. B. 
Buckton's Monograph of the British Aphides, Volume II, page 15 :— 

" Rhopalosiphum, dianthi, Schrank. 

Aphis dianthi^ Schr., Kalt., Walk. 

. persicx, Puceron du pecker, Morren, 



54 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 

Aphis rapse, also A. floris rapse and duhia (?), Curt. 

vastafor, Smee. 

persicascola, Boisduval, 

Rhopalosiphum dianthi, Koch. 
— persicw, Pass. 

" Apterous viviparous female. 

Inch. Millimetres. 

Size of body . . • o'oSo x 0*040 202 x I'OI 

Length of antennae , . o'o6o i'52 

„ cornicles • . o'o20 0*50 

" Colour shining green, ochreous-yellow, or brownishyellowr. 
Skin finely punctured. Ovate pointed towards the apex. Head 
broad. Antennae shorter than body, and placed on rather large 
frontal tubercles. Cornicles green, with black tips. Cauda green, 
about one-third the length of cornicles. Abdomen convex, and be- 
ing transparent, often seen mottled with yellow young embryos. 

The colour is, however, exceedingly variable. In autumn it is 
often of an ochreous red, and deeply furrowed or wrinkled. 

"Pupa. 

** Much like the larva. Wing-cases tipped with brown. Points 
of antennae brown. 



*' Winged 


viviparous 


female. 












Inch. 


Millimetres. 


Expanse of wing 


• 




• 


0-340 


7*62 


Size of body • 


9 




• 


o'oSo X 0*040 


202 X I'OI 


Length of antennae , 


. 




. 


o"o8o 


2"02 


„ cornicles 


• 




• 


o'oi7 


0*19 



" Head, thorax, and the band on prothorax black. Abdomen shin- 
ing reddish yellow, with a broad black dorsal spot, and several dark 
lines. Four dark spots on each lateral fold. Legs ochreous. An- 
tennae black ; as also are the femora, the tibial points, and tarsi. Cor- 
nicles brown. Wing-insertions and cubitus yellow. Stigma grey. 
Rostrum reaches to the second coxae. 

** Very common throughout the summer up to the end of October, 
The imago appears of various colours, such as green, ochreous, and 
even black. 

" The larva may be called almost polyphagous. Walker says that 
it feeds on at least sixty known plants. Amongst those to which it 
is most destructive are the potato, the sweet turnip, and the swede j 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 25 

but it also attacks Brassica rapse Dianthus caryophyllus, Amygda- 
lus persicse^ Hyacynthus oyientalis, Ranunculus bulbosus, Canna 
indica, the tulip crocus, fuschia, oleander, tobacco, Mesembrianthe- 
munty and numerous other plants." 



From the Secretary to the Municipal Committee, Amritsar, were 
received in April 1894 specimens of insects 
Mango blossom Horn- g^j^ ^.^ |^g causing immense damage to mango 
optera. 00 

blossoms. 

The specimens consisted of three species of Homopterous insects 
of the genus Idiocerus^ viz., Idiocerus niveosparsus, Leth., /, atkin,' 
sonii, Leth., and /. clypealisy Leth,, which have previously been re- 
ported as doing considerable damage to mango in Saharanpur and 
which are referred to in Volume I, pages 4-5 and 187-188 of 
these Notes. 

London Purple, which had been previously tried against these in- 
sects with great success, was also recommended in this case. A 
packet of London Purple was accordingly despatched to the Secre- 
tary to the Municipal Committee, Amritsar, which, however, reached 
too late for any use, as the insects had all disappeared. The follow- 
ing note has been furnished by him :— 

" The bug is known here as ' Thala,' and it appears in seasons of excessive 
heat, or if rain falls, when the trees are in full blossom. The pest has been 
known to appear every fourth or fifth year, but no remedy has yet been tried by 
the natives. Gardens in which the mango crop sold last year for Rs. 600 have this 
year been sold for one-third and one-fourth the price. Should the bug appear 
next year, I will try London Purple and report results." 



Specimens of the rice sapper, Leptocorisa acuta, Thunb., which 
Leptocorisa ocutuy l^as previously been referred to in the pages 
Thunb.J of these Notes, were forwarded in October 
1894, through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, 
from the Officiating Commissioner of the Orissa Division, as injuri- 
ous to crops in the District of Angul, where it is locally called 
*' Mahna:' 

In publishing the description and figure of the Ceylon Coccid 

Orthesia nacrea, Buckton, in No. 3 of the 

^Ofthezia nacrea, Buck- p^^^g^jj^g ^^:^^^^ of th^se ^^f^^^ Mr. E. E. 

Green, who forwarded the specimens to the 
Indian Museum, points out some errors in the description of the in- 
sect furnished by Mr, G. B. Buckton, which errors he wishes to be 
corrected. 



26 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Mr. Green writes in May 1894 :— 
"I have just received No. 3, Volume III, of your 'Indian Museum Notes,' 
containing a description of the Ceylon Coccid named by Mr. G. B. Buckton 
Orthezia nacrea. Owing to the imperfect state of the specimens received by Mr. 
Buckton, one or two inaccuracies occur in his description, which it would be as 
well to correct. 

" But first I must state my conviction (in which Mr. Maskel! of New Zealand 
concurs) that the insect in question is really identical with Orthezia insignis, 
Dougl. (Ent. Month. Magazine, January 1888). 1 have specimens of Orthezia^ 
insignis ivom England, and I can find no good points of distinction. The mar- 
supiura or ovisac is rather shorter than in our Ceylon insect, but that is of no 
importance specifically. The arrangement of the waxy appendages is identical 
in both forms. 

" Mr. Buckton, from the examination of dead and dried specimens of the 
Ceylon insect, gives the colour of head and thorax as pale warm brown. The 
English insect is said by Mr. Douglas to be piceous black. The living insect in 
Ceylon is always dull olive-green. The most serious discrepancy in Mr. 
Buckton's description is in the proportion of the antennal joints. Mr. Buckto" 
states, and shows in his figure, that the antennal joints gradually decrease in size 
to the tip. In all the specimens that I have examined I have found the terminal 
(8th) joint to equal or even exceed the previous three together. Mr. Buckton states 
that the Kew (English) insect is much larger than the Ceylon form. Mr. Douglas 
gives one mm. equal to 4 hundredths of an inch. My Ceylon specimens show a 
length of 5 to 6 hundredths (without ovisac or appendages), so that what 
difference there is appears to be in the opposite direction, 

" Nor can I find the slightest difference in the arrangement of the thoracic 
laminae. 

" There is also rather an important error in Mr. Buckton's account of the 
reproduction of the insect. He states that ',* twenty or thirty black eggs hatch 
within the dead body of the parent, and find therein a secure covering until they 
are sufficiently grown to migrate over the food plant.' 

" As a matter of fact there appears to be a constant passage of eggs and 
young insects through the marsupium during the life of the parent. On opening 
the ovisac of a living female one finds, next the insect, the newly-deposited eggs, 
which are white. During their passage through the marsupium, packed in woolly 
secretion, they gradually become darker, first yellow, then orange, then pale green, 
and finally dark olive-green when the contained larva is ready to emerge. The 
extremity of the ovisac usually contains the young active larvse, which soon find 
their way through the breach formed by the first comers. 

" In apologising to Mr. Buckton for presuming to correct his" description, I 
must excuse myself on the plea that I have had ample opportunity of examining 
the living insect in all its stages, except the male, which I have been unable to 
find." 



Specimens of the Rice Hispa {Hispa ^nescens, Baly), which 

Hispa (znescens, Baly. ^^s been referred to on page 37 of Volume I 

of these Notes as being very destructive to 

young paddy plants, have been forwarded to the Museum in August 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 27 

1894, through the Officiating Director of the Department of Land 
Records and Agriculture, Burma, from the Superintendent of Land 
Records, Pegu, who reports : — 

" It is called ' Phalsnbyu.' It makes its appearance shortly after the paddy 
has been sown. It attacks the plants both on high and low lands. The insect 
commences to eat the paddy leaves at the top, working downwards. The yield or 
outturn of fields attacked by it is small. The stalks also are eaten till they 
become matured and hard. The specimens were obtained from Wet-la-kwin, 
Pagandaung circle." 



In September 1894 Mr. J. A. Mollison forwarded to the Indian 

Museum specimens of Brinjal leaves attacked 
Epilachna dodecastignta, i • , <• n r-. t- tt 

jyjyjg^ by msects from the roona rarm. He 

wrote : — 
" The affected plants were found in the n-.iddle of a field, and the 
damage done is considerable. The damage is greater than the number 
of insects now present could account for. There are not many insects now 
on the plants. They might have been more numerous at one time. The attack 
was not noticed until considerable damage had been done, because confined to 
the middle of the field." 

The brinjal leaves proved to be attacked by larvse .of a Cocci- 
nellid beetle. Out of a number of pupae found on the leaves, only 
one imago emerged alive in the rearing cage; the others, which were 
found to be heavily parasitised by a minute chalcid fly, died from 
the effects of the attack, each pupa harbouring as many as eight 
parasites. The beetle appeared to be identical with the species 
Epilachna dodecastigma, Muls., as determined in the Indian 
Museum collection. 



In August 1894 some specimens of a Bostrichid beetle were sent 

„. , to the Museum by Mr. A. Smythies, Ofhciat- 

Smoxylon sp. •' J * ^ 

ing Conservator of Forests, Shillong, with 
the information that they were found boring into tea-box planks at 
Tezpur, where they are locally called " Ghong, " 

The insect proved to be identical with the specimens named 
Sinoxylon sp., previously sent to the Museum, as infesting the 
wood of Terminalia belerica. 



In the latter part of July 1894 numerous specimens of a Cocci- 

Vedalia fumida, var. nellid beetle were found feeding upon the 

toseipennis, Muls. Coccids, Icevya w^yptiacumy Dough, which 

had again made their appearance among the ornamental bushes in 



« 



28 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 

the Indian Museum compound. From a batch of pupae a consider- 
able number of specimens of the beetle were reared in the Entomo- 
logy room, but the insect proving to be new to the Museum collec- 
tion, specimens were submitted to Mr. L. O. Howard, United States 
Entomologist, who writes— 

" It is interesting to find that this Coccinellid is not distantly related to the 
well-known Vedalia cardinalis, Mulsant, which Mr. Albert Kcebeleof this Depart- 
ment brought from Australia some years ago, and which destroyed Icerya purchasi 
on our western coast. It is Mulsant's Radolia rosepennis, which according to 
Crotch's revision of the Coleopterous family Coccinellidse, is a colour variety of R 
fumida, Muls. Accepting the nomenclature given by Crotch, the name of the in- 
sect is therefore Vedalia fumida, var. roseipennis, Muls. This is the dictum of my 
assistant, Mr. E. A. Schwarz, who is a most competent student of the Coleoptera" 



In June 1894 specimens of a caterpillar found destructive to young 
Cerambycid larvse de- seedlings of Robinia and Albizzia were for- 
structive to Robinia and j j u i.i, r\' i. r ^i t • i r- 

Aibissia. warded by the Director of the Imperial Forest 

School, Dehra Dun, from the Divisional Forest Officer, Chenab, with 
the information that the caterpillar is said to live about nine inches 
below the ground, and cutting through the tap root of both species, 
feeds upon the pulpy portion of it. 

The specimens proved to be the larvpp of a Cerambycid beetle, 
the material being insufficient for precise identification. 



The following are some further observations which have been 

^, ^ . furnished by Mr. J. Cleghorn on the life- 

Cheroot borer. / "' ., , . , 

history or the cheroot weevil, Lasioderma 

testaceum, Duft. This insect has been referred to in several places 

in the pages of these Notes. 

" 5th February 1894. — Full-fed grub commenced cell for laying up. 

1 7th „ „ Formed into chrysalis. 

22nd „ „ Commenced changing. 

24th „ „ Completed change into perfect insect. 

27th „ „ Made opening for leaving cell. 

28th „ „ Left cell. 

4th April „ Died. 

"In some cases I have had the weevil live for over two months. 

" The grubs are most eiratic in their development ; changes in temperature 
will cause them to lay up or hybernate. I have made grubs lay up for eight 
days by the application of heat, but this interferes with their progress and devel- 
opment, after recovery, for an indefinite period. I can speak for delaying a 
full-fed grub turning into a chrysalis for 2\ months, the grub feeding- and amua^ 
ing itself as if there was nothing the matter. 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 29 



" This is just the reverse of what takes place if grubs are made to hybernate 
by the application of cold j in that case, on recovery they pass quicl<ly through 
their remaining stages. 

" It can therefore be seen that it would be very difficult to estimate the time 
for the grub stage. Under favourable conditions six weeks would be a fair 
estimate ; under unfavourable conditions it can take a year or more to develop 
into a perfect insect. 

" My observations show that the ^gg must be allowed to hatch out in from 
eight to sixteen days, after which it cannot keep. The perfect insect can lay up 
or hybernate for two months, certainly not more. The chrysalis stage is like the 
egg; this stage cannot be made to go beyond eight days." 



From the Subdivisional Officer, Bettiah, were received In Septem- 
Hieroglyphus furcifer, beri894 some specimens of a grasshopper 
^^"^^" said to be destructive to sugarcane in his 

subdivision. 
The insect proved to belong to the species Hieroglyphus furci- 
fer, Sauss., which has previously been referred to in the pages of 
these Notes as destructive to crops in different parts of India. 



In August 1894 specimens of Orthopterous insects were forwarded 
Othoptera in Satara to the Museum by the Survey Commissioner 
District. and Director, Land Records and Agriculture, 

Bombay, from the Collector of Satara. The insects were reported to 
have caused a considerable amount of damage to the young jowari 
crops in the Tasgaon taluka of the Satara district, where they are 
locally called " Tol." 

The specimens consisted of the following species: — 

(i) Thirteen specimens of larva; of Chrotogonus sp. This 
insect has previously been reported in the pages of these 
Notes as doing injury to young crops of almost all 
kinds. 

(2) Six specimens of larvae of Tryxalis turrita, Linn., pre- 

viously referred to in the pages of these Notes. 

(3) Numerous specimens of larvae, probably of Atractomorpha 

crenulata, Fabr., also previously reported in the pages 
of these Notes. 



In July 1894 specimens of insect pests which affect crops in 

Insect pests from Khasi the Khasi and Jaintia Hills, together with 

and Jaintia Hills. copies of reports from the Subdivisional 

Officer, Jowai, and the Extra Assistant Commissioner, Shillong, were 



3© Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 

forwarded to the Indian Museum by the Director, Department of 
Land Records and Agriculture, Assam. 

The specimens comprised the following : — 

(i) " U. Njianguar," reported as attacking paddy :— consisted 
of empty cases of Psychid caterpillar. The material 
being insufficient for precise identification. 

(2) "Njiaugbyruai," reported as destroying potato tubers and 

the roots of Indian corn :— consisted of specimens of 
larvae of a Melolonthinid beetle. The specimens being 
insufficient for precise identification. 

(3) " Puit," reported as attacking the tender leaves of the 

paddy plant : — proved to be the Acridid {Orthopterd) 
Oxya velox, Burm., which has previously been referred 
to in these Notes. 

(4) " Nyiang Saw Khlich/' reported as destructive to potato 

leaves :— consisted of undeterminable larvae of a beetle. 
The specimens received being in too poor a condition 
for identification. 

(5) " Dykhiw Saw," reported as destroying roots of Jobstears, 

Khasia matikalai and white jit :— consisted of speci- 
mens of an ant which proved to be the cosmopolitan 
species — Monomorium pharaonis^ Linn. 

(6) " U. Nyiaugrieg," reported as injurious to young sugar- 

cane : — consisted of specimens of the Chrysomelid 
heeilQ—Haplosonyx elongatus, Baly. 



In December 1894 specimens of potato seed tuber said to be 

affected by insects were obtained from the 
Potato tuber mite. • g^^^^^^ p^^^ ^^ j^^_ ^^ j^^ Banerjee, 

Assistant Director, and forwarded to the Indian Museum by the 
Director of the Department of Land Records and Agriculture, 

Bengal. 

The specimens proved on examination to be suffering from the 
attack of very minute mites {Acartna) which are unlike any in the 
Indian Museum collection. 



In May 1894 specimens were forwarded to the Museum through 

Millepede, injurious to the Director, Imperial Forest School, Dehra 

agricultural crops. Dun, from Mr. H. O. Neill, of insects which 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 3 1 



were said to be most destructive to vegetable and flower gardens in 
the Caber hills. Mr. H. O. Neill writes:— 

" One specimen you will find in the bottle to be like pieces of thread, and it 
was with the greatest difficulty that they could be picked out of the earth. They 
crawl out of the ground at night and devour all the tender shoots and blossoms 
of flower and vegetable plants. They are also most destructive to potato crops. 
I have observed thera attack wheat and garlic as well. This year they have de- 
stroyed fields of wheat and garlic on the upper Caber hills." 

The insects consisted of numerous little millepedes of the Julid 
family, which, however, proved to be new to the Museum collection. 

The millepedes are well known to live on decaying vegetable 
matter, and occasionally on decaying animal matter, but, so far as is 
known, they have never before been reported to be pests to 
agriculture in India. Indeed, the little that is known of them in 
relation to agriculture and forestry is favourable, as they are said to 
occasionally feed on slugs and snails. In consideration of these facts 
further particulars on this interesting subject are desirable. Speci- 
mens have been forwarded to Mr. R. I. Pocock for identification. 

* The fiarure which is given in plate III, figure 4, represents the 
millepede four times enlarged. 



The following are extracts which have been forwarded to the 
Indian Museum by the Government of India, 
^ "^ ■ Department of Revenue and Agriculture, re- 

garding the destruction of locusts in 1893-94: — 

Extract from the Rajputana Political Agency Diary for the week ending on the 

1st September 1804. 

" Forty-one maunds and thirty-two seers of young locusts were destroyed in 
the Suratgurh and four hundred maunds in the iVIirzawala tahsils from the 29th 
July to the 4th August 1894, Some young locusts were destroyed in the villages 
of Sardar Shahr, Bahaderan, Rajgurh, Hanumangurh, Ralangurh and Nuhar 
tahsils." 

Extract from the report on the Land Revenue Administration of the Punjab 

for i8g2'g2. 

" Locusts were also observed in Isa Khel and Marwat. Occasional swarms 
passing from one direction to another were first seen and at last eggs were laid in 
May and June. Fortunately the rabi crops had then been cut and the fields had 
not yet been ploughed for either the extra rabi or the kharif, otherwise some 
damage to crops would have been inevitable. The zamindars had a very bitter 
experience in 1890-91, and at once responded to the call of the tahsil officials for 
help. The locust destruction scheme established in the past year was put into 
operation and the mischievous insects with their eggs were promptly destroyed 
without causing the least damage to cultivation." 



i) 



32 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV, 



EXTRACTS FROM REPORTS. 

[Note. — The following extracts are taken from letters and reports which have 
been forwarded to the Indian Museum since the publication of the Conspectus o^ 
insects affecting crops in India. — Ed.'\ 



The following is taken from a report, dated loth August 1894, by 
Mr. ]. H. Middleton, Professor of Agricul- 
ture, Baroda College, forwarded by the Sur- 
vey Commissioner and Director of Land Records and Agriculture, 
Bombay :-^ 

" Hymenoptera, Saiafly. — The larva of a sawfly attacks cabbage and most of 
the other plarts of this family. Specimens were sent to the Museum, but without 
the imago they could not be named. I have attempted several times to rear the 
insect, but the grubs are very delicate and I have not yet succeeded. 

" The larva is greenish black and about |" long when full grown ; it eats 
round the edges of the leaf and rapidly destroys seedlings. 

" This pest appears in September and passing through successive generations 
lasts for six months or more. It is especially bad in cloudy weather. 

" Remedies. — When the larvse attack a seed-bed, ashes may be sprinkled on the 
seedlings ; but unless the grubs are constantly picked off by hand, ashes will not 
save the young plants. Kerosine emulsion has been tried, but with little success in 
the case of seedling cabbages, as these plants are so easily destroyed. For half- 
grown turnips the emulsion proved to be a protection in one or two instances where 
it was tried." 

This insect is referred to in Volume III, No. 5, page 69, of these 
Notes, 

" Aloa lactinea. — The caterpillar of this moth known as kaira to the natives 
is the most destructive insect pest on sandy soils round Baroda. The moth is a 
pretty white insect, which appears soon after the first ourst of the monsoon. It 
may be seen fluttering about in the twilight, and attracted by the light it comes 
indoors after nightfall, 

" The outer wings are white with one margin red, have a stretch of i|", and a few 
black dots scattered over them, one marked dot being near the insertion of the 
wing. The inner wings have a spread of about an inch and are white without a 
red m'argin, but the dots are larger and more pronounced than on the outer wings. 
The body is about f" long and the back is striped alternately black and red. In 
captivity I have found that the moth may lay over 300 eggs. 

" The eggs seem to be laid in the hedges, for the katras invade a field from its 
borders, but they may sometimes be laid on weeds, etc., in a field, for I have seen 
very tiny larvae in the soil at a considerable distance from a hedge. They take 
about a fortnight to hatch, and three weeks after rainfall the katras may be 
expected. 

" The young larvae are grey in colour, and for a week are not much in evidence; 
they seem to live about the hedges and field borders until the regiment is brought 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 33 

up to strength ; they then march out in line, clearing off everything they consider 
edible. If the field happens to contain a crop they appreciate, they do their work 
systematically, the ranks remain unbroken and there are very few stragglers ," if, on 
the other hand, the crops they like are scarce, they break up and scatter all over the 
field in search of them. When first the larvae begin to do damage they are about 
f" long, reddish-brown in colour, and very active. In three weeks' time they grow 
into sluggish dark-brown (sometimes nearly black on the back) caterpillars \\" 
long, |-'' in diameter. They then disappear into the hedges in which they pupate. 

" The pupa is ovate dark-brown, rather more than f" long and less than \" in 
diameter in the middle. The length of time before the moth emerges varies; in 
one case the insects appeared in two months Jn another after ten months. The 
latter must be the usual time, for I have not seen either moths or larvee in the 
cold weather, 

" The great majority of the larvEe I have kept in captivity have died either just 
before or just after the pupa formed, and this heavy mortality seems to be due to 
a parasitic fly of which I reared several specimens (these have already been sent to 
the Museum). I was in hopes that this parasite was getting the better of the kaira, 
for neither last year nor the year before was the attack so bad as it was three 
years ago. This year, however, katras have been worse than I have ever seen 
them. The present monsoon has been exceptionally wet, and that of three years 
ago was exceptionally dry, so that season does not seem much to affect the cater- 
pillars; probably, however, the severity of the attack depends to a great extent on 
the character of the previous season, 

"The katra defoliates a great many plants, both wild or cultivated; of the 
latter the following may be mentioned. 

" Gossypium herbacevm (one variety of cotton, a perennial known as Roji 
related to G. arboreum, the katra does not damage seriously; the annual varieties 
it entirely destroys), Cfotalaria juncea, Phaseolns aconitif alius, Dolichos lablab' 
Cucumio sativa (and several other Cucurbitacea;), Nicotiana tabacum (seedlings), 
Capsicum fructeocens (seedings), Solanutn melongena (seedlings), Rtcinus com- 
munis, Orysa sativa and Pennisetum typhoideum (when very young only), Zea 
mays. 

"These caterpillars were first seen near Baroda some dozen years ago and are 
said to have come from the country lying to the north-east. Until within the last 
twelve or fifteen years they were unknown to Gujarat cultivators. On the black soil 
immediately south of Baroda katras are known, but do little or no damage. This 
is not on account of lack of suitable food, for the whole country is covered with 
annual cotton, which the caterpillars eat, but it seems to be due to the absence of 
the hedgerows, which the moths frequent. 

" Remedies. — Seed-beds may be protected by putting a quantity of the leaves 
of Euphorbia neriifolia round the borders. These leaves the katras eat and die, 
and if the seed-beds are carefully watched and intruders picked off, seedlings will 
escape with little damage. 

" In the case of field-crops, where the foregoing remedy is impracticable, a 
number of katras may be killed under favourable circumstances (dry weather and 
a smooth field with a young crop) by rolling. 

" Mynas destroy great numbers of the caterpillars, and, as already noted, para- 
sites kill many, but when once they establish themselves in a field the crop in most 
cases is doomed. Prevention rather than remedy is required, and the evil might? 



04 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 

to a great extent, be prevented by the removal of the useless plants which crowd 
hedgerows and afford protection to the insect." 

This insect is referred to in Volume III, No. 5, pages 57-58 of 
these Notes. 

" Heliothis sp. — The common cotton boll-worm of Gujarat is a pinkish cater- 
pillar about y in length ; from the caterpillar I reared a small grey moth, which 
may be Heliothis armigera. The boll-worm is always worst when there has 
been cloudy weather in November, a month or two before cotton ripens. It is one 
of the chief causes, but not the only cause, of ' stain ' in cotton. 

" DiatrcBa saccharalis, — I have reared several specimens of this insect. The 
moth differed from the description and plate of ' Museum Notes, Volume I, ' in 
having a plumper body and much narrower inner wings, 

" The sugar-borer has long been known in Gujarat, and when the monsoon 
rains are light, often proves a serious pest. Cane is planted in May, and the 
ravages of the borer are usually noticed about two months later, and continue 
throughout the growing season, although worst when the plants are young in July 
and August. The symptoms are withering of the terminal shoot of the cane, 
which on being pulled up comes away in the hand. If the shoot is examined, 
although the hole pierced by the borer may be seen in it, the borer itself is very 
seldom there (in 300 shoots examined I found two borers), but numerous small 
grubs, the larvse of black and brown flies, will be found in the decaying matter. 
The borer itself soon after entering the stem seems to tunnel down into the solid 
cane of the lowest node, and if the cane be cut out below this node, and split open, 
one, and occasionally two, may be found. The sugarcane moth in captivity is 
very sluggish, and if this is its natural condition, and it does not migrate from or 
to distant fields, its ravages should be easily prevented. 

" In Gujarat cane is seldom grown oftener than once in six years on the same 
soil, and in the district with which I am best acquainted the practice is for the 
cultivator never to plant cane sets from his own crop, but to purchase * seed ' in the 
neighbouring village. Whole canes stripped of leaves and tops are bought 
for seed, so that cane refuse or tops cannot be responsible for the introduction of 
the larvse. From my own observations I think it most likely that the pest may 
be brought through the eggs of the moth sticking to the canes used for planting, 
because I have not found larvse in large canes, but only in young canes. Late in 
the season borers are not found in the large canes, but in the shoots which spring 
from the base of the cane. 

" In whatever way the pest gets into the field, it seems to reach the second 
generation before it makes itself apparent. The larvae of the first generation either 
confine their attentions to the underground sets or, which seems to me more likely, 
they are few in numbers and their depredations among the young cane shoots pass 
unnoticed. For the past two years a careful watch has been kept for the first 
appearance of borer in the cane at the College Farm, but neither after planting 
ror at the usual time, two months later, did it make its appearance. 

*' Remedies.~li it is the case, as I take it, that this pest does not do serious 
damage until the second generation, and that except when cane fields are within a 
few hundreds of yards of each other, the cultivator need only fear the moths bred in 
his own field, prevention ought not to be very difficult. Efforts should be made 
to destroy the larvae of the first generation. They may spend their lives in the 
sets where they would pass undetected, but, as 1 have not yet met with the borer 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 35 

except in young cane shoots, I think it more likely that the eggs of the moths hatch 
when the cane germinates, and that the larvse attack the young shoots, but are so 
few as to pass unnoticed. Many young cane shoots die from the attacks of white 
ants, and after planting, the ravages of these insects are so severe that a few borers 
would pass unnoticed unless carefully looked for. If these were found and de- 
stroyed in the end of May, there would be little fear of damage in July and August. 

" Whenever the borer appears, early or late in the season, the affected shoots 
should be cut out as near as possible to the parent plant and burned. 

" It might be practicable to prevent the attacks of both the borer and of white 
ants by dressing the cane sets with some insecticide before planting. The difficulty 
would be getting an insecticide strong enough to kill and keep off insects, but 
which would not injure the delicate roots and shoots of the young cane. Weak 
kerosine emulsion or some preparation of carbolic acid would perhaps be the most 
suitable insecticides to use. If the larvse exist in the sets, the method mentioned 
by Miss Ormerod of steeping the sets for 48 hours in water might be tried. 

" From the pupa of a borer I have reared a parasite, a brightly coloured insect 
like a minute wasp. 

" I have not seen Diatrcea saccharalis attack Sorghum or Maize. 

" Leucinodes orbonalis. — A specimen of this insect was sent by me to the 
Museum. 

•* L. orbonalis is a small white moth, with red spots on the wings. The spread 
of the wings is about an inch, the length of the body less than half an inch. 

" The larva is pinkish yellow and when full grown half an inch long. It bores 
in the stems and branches of the brinjal in the month of August. It has once been 
seen on the College Farm, but the affected shoots were at once cut off the brmjal 
plants and destroyed, and the borer did not do much damage. The pupa stage 
lasts eleven days." 

This insect is referred to in Volume III, No. 5, page 64, of these 
Noies. 

" i/omo/)#ey<z.~ Specimens of a scale insect attacking sugarcane were sent by 
me to the Museum last September. 

" This scale is a most destructive parasite in Gujarat ; it may destroy half the 
crop and injure the quality of the remainder. It is l^rxo-wn as Masi or Mashi hy 
cultivators, and appears to belong to the genus Aspidiotus. 

"The green young insects are seen on the cane in August, and in the same 
month scales appear, and in bad cases cover the back of the leaf until the crop is 
harvested in March. The pest is said to be worst in wet seasons, but last year it 
was very bad in some places, and the rainfall was not heavy. It is said also that 
it does not come through sets and that sets from an affected field of cane may 
safely be planted. Cultivators attribute the attack to the weather and some to 
heavy manuring with castor cake (a forcing nitrogenous manure). Most culti- 
vators advocate the free use of manure to stimulate growth. 

"The insects come in such myriads that it is difificult to think of any remedy. 
In the earliest stages spraying with ' Resin wash ' might be effected, but even if 
the cultivator had a spraying apparatus large enough to deal with a crop of cane 
it is doubtful whether the remedy would be practicable. 



36 Indian Museum Noies. [Vol. IV. 

" This scale insect injures the crop (1) by sucking the juices of the plants and 
(2) by covering the cane-stalks with a dirty powder, which gets into the juice during 
crushing, and destroys the colour of the jaggery, 

" A scale insect locally known as koaria from its resemblance to koara (the 
seed of Paspalum scrobiculatum) does much damage to Cephalandra indica. The 
insect looks like a species of Lecanium. As the crop, which it attacks, is a valuable 
vegetable grown on a wooden trellis by market-gardeners, spraying with resin 
washes would probably be effective and profitable in this case." 

The insect is referred to in page 53 of Volume 11 1^ No, 5, of these 
Notes. 

" Termes taprobanes. — The white-ant is very destructive on the light sandy 
soil of Northern Gujarat. 

" It attacks most crops after they are cut and stored, and hay, corn-stacks, etc., 
must be carefully watched. Corn is always threshed soon after it is cut for fear of 
white-ants entering the stack. 

•' Sugarcane suffers severely from white-ants. They burrow into and destroy 
the sets soon after planting, and eat through the junction between the young plant 
and the parent set, so that the latter withers off. The remedy always employed is 
castor-cake. Cultivators apply the powdered cake to the roots of the cane, two or 
three times between May and August. The total quantity given in a season is 
usually between 1,500 and 2,000 Bb per acre. This large application of castor- 
cake is of course chiefly given as a manure, and not to keep off white-ants, but it 
serves two purposes very effectively. 

" Miscellaneous.— In addition to the foregoing I have seen many insects dam- 
aging the crops. 

" The following may be noticed ; — 

Cotton. — (i) A borer in the stem. 

(2) A green caterpillar, f" long, which twists up and destroys the 

leaf when pupating. 

(3) Weevils in the seed, especially when pods have been injured 

by the borer. 
Tobacco. — (i) A small cream-coloured caterpillar, |" long, eating holes in 
the leaves. 
(2) Two large crickets, one green, the other brilliantly coloured, 

eating the leaves. 
(3) A borer in the apex of the stem. 
C aster 'oiL—il) A borer in the upper stem and branches, the larva of a pretty 
white moth with black spots on the wings, and spread of 
wings of about one inch. 
Cucumbers.— SmaW terra-cotta coloured beetle-like insects eating leaves. Body 

about f" long. 
Rtce. — Borer in the stalk, small white caterpillar, f" long." 



The following extract is taken from a letter dated August 1894, 

Report from Kanara by Mr. E. H. Aitken, Assistant Collector of 

^^"^e. Salt Revenue, Kanara Range, forwarded by 



No. 1,] Miscellaneous Notes. 



37 



the Survey Commissioner and Director, Land Records and Agricul- 
ture, Bombay: — 

" Oryctes rhinoceros, Linn. — This beetle is very common in Kanara and does 
jnuch mischief to cocoanut trees. It attacks the trees at the growing point and 
burrows downwards. In doing this it eats through the folded young fronds, so 
that, when they expand, they appear to have been cut in regular patterns. It 
would be difficult to find a tree in the district which does not bear this mark of the 
ravages of the insect. I have not ascertained whether the beetle enters the tree 
for the purpose of laying its eggs, or only to feed on the succulent parts. In the 
trees, which I have examined, I have only found beetles, but the natives say that 
they sometimes find large white grubs. This beetle is known in the district as 
Bhowara, a name commonly applied to any large droning insect. 

The insect is referred to in these Notes, Volume III, No, 6, 
page 149. 

" Dinoderus sp. (?)— Atleast one species of minute bamboo beetle is a trouble- 
some pest in Kanara, seriously injuring bamboo furniture, walking-sticks, etc., 
and utterly destroying fixtures such as trellis-work and ceilings made of bamboo- 
matting. As far as I have observed, it is only while bamboos are comparatively 
fresh that they are liable to attack, and I believe that complete immunity is secured 
by soaking them in salt water for some time ; but bamboos treated in this way are 
fit only for building purposes. " 

This insect is referred to in these Notes^ Volume II, No. 6, 
page 150. 

" Calnndra oryzcB, Linn. — The grain weevil is common here as elsewhere. 

"A large caterpillar of one of the wood-boring moths does much injury to 
guava trees in Bombay. It inhabits burrows in the principal branches and comes 
out at night to feed on the bark, making covered ways of its own excrement bound 
together with silk. I have never succeeded in rearing it or getting the moth. It 
is not met with so much in Kanara, where the guava is little cultivated. 

" Z)flCMs/'ey»'i/^?«eMs, Fabr.— Ripe mangoes are often unfit to eat in this dis- 
trict—especially after the rains set in — owing to the pulp having got black and 
rotten in parts close to the seed. On cutting open mangoes in this condition, I have 
found small, white, legless grubs possessed of a surprising power of springing. 
They are evidently dipterous, but I cannot say whether they belong to the species 
above named." 

This insect is referred to in these Notes, page 165, Volume II, 
No. 6. 

" Dysdercus cingulataus, Fabr. — This is not a cotton-growing district, but the 
pods of the silk cotton tree are infested at times with a red bug which I presume 
is this species, or are very closely allied. They suck the seeds, but I doubt their 
doing any damage to the fibre." 



38 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV, 

This insect is referred to in these Notes, Volume II, No. 6, page 
167 : — 

"One common insect is not mentioned in the conspectus which sometimes 
deserves a place among destructive pests — I mean the carpenter bee, Xylocopct. 
It makes its nests, as is well known, in dead wood, and in this district 1 have 
found it attacking the timbers of buildings, which are not regularly inhabited, such 
as travellers' bungalows and temples, in such numbers as to render them unsafe 
In the roof of an old bungalow which was recently pulled down, several of the 
beams were riddled through and through with holes, f of an inch in diameter ; 
and I have been told that the roof of a public building in Karwar had to be re- 
newed some time ago because the bees had weakened some of the beams so much 
that they were not safe. This is, of course, the insect that was employed by 
Hanuman to honeycomb the wood-work of the bed of a female demon, so that 
when Rama sat upon it, the whole bed fell to pieces and he was saved from being 
obliged to fulfil a rash vow. It is known here Commonly by the same name as 
ihe Palm 'Bee.\.\e—Bho-wara" 



The following is taken from a report, dated 2rst June 1893, by 

Mr. E. Hearn, Acting Deputy Superintend- 
Report from Konkan. , jj- 1 o 

ent, Konkan burvey :— 

2, " Or yctes rhinoceros, U\nr\. (Goliath beetle). — This beetle is a common 
pest of all cocoanut gardens throughout the Konkan coast. The Bhandari 
during his daily visit to tapped trees makes it a special duty to search for this 
beetle. If through neglect or mischance the beetle has worked down into a posi- 
tion whence it cannot be reached by hand, an iron hook is used for extraction. 
If the beetle effects a permanent lodgment in the heart of any tree that tree 
must die. 

" The general name is ' Mobar ' or ' Munga.' " 

2. " Rhynchopk or zis/errugineus, OWv.— When a tree is attacked there is a 
foetid oozing from the outer trunk of the cocoanut palm, which withers and dies. 
When cut down and opened out, the larvae are found in masses of white, fleshy 
legless grubs showing few signs of activity. The natives of the villages near 
Nerur of the Kudal Petha, Sawantwadi State, informed me that the disease may 
be arrested by boring a hole about one inch in diameter through the palm tree at 
the seat of the oozing, and thus destroying the grub by introducing ventilation 
into that part of the tree. The disease was said to occur in trees planted in 
recent silt deposits near rivers. 

" I observed this particular pest in the year 1874-75 and cannot now recall the 
name of the insect, which I have not met with since." 

3. " Chienaspis Aspidistra. — The insect h^s been for a number of years ravag- 
ing the gardens at Shriwardhan, Janjira State. A scientific report upon the pest, 
dated nth May 1891, was made by Mr. Woodrow of the College cf Science, 
The remedial measures suggested therein have not been consistently carried out by 
the people, and the disease has a firm root among the gardens." 



No. 1.] Miscellaneous Notes. 39 

The following is taken from a letter, dated 17th August 1894, by 
J, - p Mr. G. M. Woodrow, Lecturer in Botany and 

Agriculture, College of Science, Poona, for- 
warded by the Survey Commissioner and Director of Land Records 
and Agriculture, Bombay : — 

" Bhunga. — Applied to several large flying insects; for example, the mango 
weevil, the cocoanut beetle {Oryctes rhinoceros, Linn.), It is also applied to the 
gram weevil. 

" Mova or Mava. — Applied to Aphides, to scale. 

" Alee or Alai. — Applied to caterpillars varying in length from half an 
inch to one inch, generally green, attacking different field crops, as Brassica 
oleracea, Cojanus indicus, Cicer arieiinum, cucumber, Dolichos lablah, Vtgna 
catiaiig, etc. The same name is applied to larva; of some insects attacking 
stored grain, as ba jree {Pennisetum typhoideum), rice {Oryza sati-va), etc. 

" Sonda-hida, Sonda or Pore-kida. — Applied to the wheat and rice weevil 
{Calandra oryzce, Linn.). 

" Tol. — Applied to different species of locusts attacking various crops 

" Udhai Valvee. — Applied to the common white-ant, which is very destruc- 
tive to inferior timber and other dried vegetable matter." 



The following is a report by the Sub-Assistant Superintendent, 

Gujarat Revenue Survey, on insect pests [in 
Report from Gujarat. r' j- . • < r j j iu t. i.i o 

his district, forwarded through the burvey 

Commissioner and Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Bombay, 

in October 1894: — 

" Morkhai. — Morkhai is a disease which attacks the seedlings of cotton, tur, 
and jowari. The seedlings look healthy to all outward appearance, but when 
plucked they come off easily. The roots are cut clean off by a grub about an 
inch beneath the surface soil. Rows and rows of seedlings are thus destroyed, 
necessitating in severe cases a second sowing. In case of jowari the damage 
done is not great, as offshoots spring up after the main stem withers away. The 
damage done by this grub to crops attacked by it is rot great. The grub lives 
underground and is not often observed by the cultivators. 

" Salo. — In addition to Morkhai, which attacks jowari seedlings, as described 
above, another insect attacks jowari causing a disease called "Salo" in a 
similar manner when the plants are half matured. The growing axis is eaten 
off by the insect, destroying the main stem. Fresh offshoots spring up imme- 
diately afterwards. The fresh offshoots, however, take a 'ong time to come to 
maturity, and the crop is delayed in harvesting beyond the usual period. The 
produce and size of the 'grain are also reduced by about half. This disease 
appears but once in eight or ten years, and is not considered to cause a heavy 
damage all over the district. 



40 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



" 5'MK^a. — Bajri is similarly attacked by an insect called *Sunga.' The 
insect sucks the milk out of the tender corn, thus reducing the yield of grain 
both in quality and quantity. 

" Tur. — In cloudy weather * Tur ' is attacked by an insect which decreases the 
yield of the crop considerably all over the district. It burrows into the ovary of 
the flower, and into the tender pods which are just forming. The flowers so 
attacked fall off without producing fruit ; the pods after the attack remain empty 
and do not fill up. 

" No kinds of remedial measures are known or practised by the cultivators in 
case of all the diseases described above. They are all attributed to changes in 
weather." 



f"'. 1. C- P. O.— N 43 U, & A.~io-3-&6.— .1,000— A. Rl'L, 



7- ^ 



INDIAN MUSEUM NOTES. 

ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES. 

NOV 22 im 

i^KKi Volume IV.— No. 2, 




Jpublisheb bu ^uthoritD of the §obcrnment of Enbk, 
gcpartment of l^cbcnue anb Agriculture. 



CALCUTTA: 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1S96. 



Price rupee one. 



NOTICE. 



The serial Indian Museum Notes ^ issued by the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, under the authority of the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agricultural Department, is to take the place of 
Notes on Economic Entomology, of which two numbers have appeared. 
For the views expressed, the authors of the respective notes are alone 
responsible. 

The parts of the serial are published from time to time as materials 
accumulate. Communications are invited; they should be written on 
one side only of the paper, and addressed to — 

THE EDITOR, 
Indian Museum Notes, 

Calcutta, 

Correspondence connected with Economic Entomology should be 
accompanied by specimens of the insects to which reference is made. 
Caterpillars, grubs, and other soft-bodied insects can be sent in strong 
spirit ; chrysalids and cocoons alive, and packed lightly in leaves or 
grass ; other insects, dried and pinned, or wrapped in soft paper. 
Live insects should be sent when there is a reasonable probability 
of their surviving the journey. Caterpillars, grubs, and other im- 
mature insects can often be only approximately determined ; they 
should therefore, where possible, be accompanied by specimens of 
the mature insects into which they transform ; when this is not pos- 
sible, they should still be sent, as they can always be determined 
approximately, and uncertainty must necessarily arise in discussing 
insects when actual reference to the specimens cannot be made. 

Insects forwarded for determination sliould, in all cases, be accom- 
panied by a detailed report showing precisely in what their economic 
importance is believed to consist, 

Calcutta: 
6th April i8g6. 



t 



CONTENTS. 

• Page. 

1. An exhibit collection of Economic Insects in the Ihjjian 

Museum : by Edward Barlow 41 

2. Original Communications — 

(i) A new species of Buprestid beetle : by C. Kerremans . . 48 

(ii) Note on two new species of Gall Aphids : by G. B. Buckton, 

F.R.S 50 

(iii) A new species of Homopterous insect of the family Aleuro- 

didse : by W. M. Maskell 52 

(iv) Note on the "Potu" or " Pipsa, " Simulium indicum, Becher: 

by Lionel de Nic^ville, F.E.S., C.M.Z.S., etc. ... 54 

3. Notes on Insect Pests from the Entomological Section, 

Indian Museum : by Edward Barlow — 

(i) Tea Pests . . • . • 
(ii) Insects destructive to cereals and crops . . 
(iii) Insects infesting fruit-trees .... 

(iv) Forest Pests, etc. ..... 

(v) Pests of domestic animals . . . . 



. 56 

. 62 

. 68 

. 74 

. 76 

(vi) Reports of results of remedies, etc., tried during the year . 77 



4. Reprihts and Miscellaneous Notes— 

(i) Indian " Forest flies " (Reprint) 79 

(ii) Coccids preyed upon by birds (Reprint) 8l 

(iii) The common crow of the United States as an enemy to Insects 

(Reprint) 83 

(iv) On Hawks and Owls as enemies to Insects .... loi 
(v) On the Formation [oi New Colonies by Termes lucifugus 

(Reprint) 102 



EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate IV— 

Fig. I. Pemphigus NAP ^us, (a) Apterous female, or foundress J (6) Pupa; 
(c) Imago, or winged female ; {d) Antenna of the Apterous 
female ; (e) Rostrum of the Apterous female ; (f) Antenna 
of the imago ; (g) Tarsi of the imago ; (h) Gall. 
„ 2. Pemphigus immunis, (a) Pupa ; (b) Imago, or winged viviparous 
female ; (c) Antenna of the imago ; (J) Galls. 

Plate V — 

Fig. I, Thosea recta, Hasnpsn. a, larva and cocoon on tea twig; 
b, c, moths $ and ? . 
5, I d. Ichneumonid, parasite of Thosea recta (twice enlarged). 
„ 2, Xyloborus FORNiCATUs, Eichhoff. a, larva; b, pupa; c, rf, imagos 

$ and ? ; e, affected tea stem. 
„ 3. Carteria decoreIiLA, Mask, a, adult females in tests on twig; b, 
tests of second-stage, females and males, on twig ; c, tests of 
adult females, enlarged ; i, test of male, enlarged; e, adult 
male; /, antenna of male (after Maskell). 
4. Synclera multilinealis, Guen. Moth, natural size. 
„ 5. Dactylopius LONGiFiLis, Comstock. Female, enlarged (after 
Com stock). 

Plate VI— 

Fig. I. PoDONTiA I4-punctata, Linn, a, larva; ^, pupa; c, imago; 
d, earthen pupa cell. 
„ 2. AspiDiOTUs Ficus, (Riley) Comstock. a, scales on leaves of orange, 
natural size ; b, scale of female, enlarged ; c, scale of male 
enlarged; d, young larva, enlarged; e, adult male, enlarged 
(after Comstock). 
,, 3. Argas reflexus, Fabr. Upper, under, and side views, enlarged. 



Vol IV.] NOV ^;a 109/ ^^^ ^ 



AN EXHIBIT COLLECTION OF ECONOMIC 
INSECTS IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 

By EDWARD BARLOW. 

The collection here noticed has been prepared for exhibition in 
the Indian Museum, with a view to illustrate the life histories of 
some of the more important "economic" insects, both injurious and 
useful, in the various stages of their development. It refers solely 
to Indian species, and is as complete as it has been possible to make 
it from the materials, and within the limits of space available, in the 
Museum, 

The insect pests are arranged not in any natural order, but in 
accordance with the plants which they attack : thus the insects that 
attack tea and coffee are placed together, then those that attack 
cereals, and so on. 

Wherever necessary, the actual exhibits have been supplemented 
by enlarged illustrative drawings. 

The collection is exhibited temporarily in a series of cases run- 
ning the whole length of the southern side of the Bird Gallery. 

The following is a list of the exhibits : — 

I. — Insects and mites that attack tea and coffee plants. 

1. Andraca bipunctata, V^\k.=.trilochoideSy Moore (Bombycid 
moth).— Reported as defoliating tea bushes both in Cachar and in 
Jorhat. 

2. Clania crameri, Westw. (Psychid moth). — Defoliates tea bushes 
in Assam, Sikkim, and Ceylon. 

3. Clania variegata, Sr\e\\ — Sikkima, Moore (Psychid moth). — 
Attacks tea plants in Sikkim. 

4. Zeuzera coffex, Nietn (Cossid moth).— Tunnels into tea and 
coffee stems in Cachar and Ceylon. 

5. Thosea recta, Hamps. (Limacodid moth). — Reported as attack- 
ing tea bushes in Ceylon. 

6. Thosea cotesi, Swinh. (Limacodid moth).*— Defoliates tea 
bushes in Darrang. 

I A 



42 Indian Museum Notes. [VoL IV. 



7. Parasa lepida, Cram. (Limacodid moth).— Attacks tea and 
coffee plants in Ceylon. 

8. Dasychira thwaitesi^ Moore (Lymantrud moth).— Defoliates 
tea and sal in Assam. 

9. Agrotts segetts, Schiff, (Noctuis moth). — Destructive to coffee 
plants both in Southern India and in Ceylon. 

10. Xyleborus forntcafus, Eichhoff (Scolytid beetle). — Reported 
as drilling holes on tea stems in Ceylon. 

11. Xylotreckus guadripes, Chev. (Cerambycid beetle). — The 
coffee borer of Southern India. 

12. Helopeltis theiovora^ Moore (S. Ord. Heterop.; Fam. Capsidae). 
—Known as the " Mosquito blight." It does a great deal of damage 
to tea plants in India. 

13. Chlorita flavescens, Fabr. (S. Ord. Homop, ; Fam. Jassidae). — 
Known as "The green fly blight." It attacks tea plants both in 
Sikkim and in Assam. 

14. Phromnia marginella, Oliv. (S, Ord. Homop. ; Fam. Fulgori- 
dae).— Reported as infesting tea plants in Assam. 

15. Aspidiotus these, Maskell.— -Reported as attacking tea plants 
both in the Kangra Valley and in Ceylon. 

16. Chionaspis these, Maskell (S. Ord. Homop. ; Fam. Coccidae). 
— Reported as attacking tea plants both in the Kangra Valley and in 
Ceylon. 

17. Tetranychus biocultus, W. Mason (Mite).— Known as the 
" Red spider." It does a considerable amount of damage to tea 
plants both in India and in Ceylon. 



II.— Insects destructive to cereals and other 
Agricultural crops. 

1. Hispa senescens, Baly. (Chrysomelid beetle). —Known as the 
" Bengal Rice Hispa." It has been reported as very destructive to 
paddy crops in India. 

2. Calandra orysae, Linn.— The wheat and rice weevil of India. 

3. Leptocorisa acuta, Thunb. (Heteroptera ; Fam. Coreidae).— 
Known as the " Rice sapper." It is most destructive to paddy crops 
in Bengal, the North-Westsrn Provinces and Assam, 



No. 2.] Collection of Economic insects in the Indian Museum. 43 

4. Heliothis armigera^ Habn. — The caterpillar of this moth 
attacks almost all kinds of agricultural crops in all parts of India. 

5. Agrotis suff-usa, Fabr, — This cosmopolitan moth does a great 
deal of damage to almost all kinds of agricultural crops in India. 

6. Maruca testulalis^ Gdiyev^aquatilis, Boisd. (Hetcrocera.; Fam. 
Margaronidae). — Destructive to beans (Dolichos lablab) in Bengal. 

7. Sphenarches caffer, Zeller. (Heterocera. ; F'am; Fterophori- 
dae). — Destructive to beans (Dolichos lablab) in Nagpur. 

8. Leucinodes orbonalis, Guen. (Heterocera. ; Fam. Asopidae). — 
The Brinjal (Solanum melongena) borer of Bengal. 

9. Diatrsea succharalis, Cotts, (Heterocera. ; Fam. Crambida;)* 
*— The sugarcane borer moth. 

10. Rhopalosiphum dianthi,Sc\\xz.nV,\ (Homoptera; F.-im. Aphi- 
dse). — Destructive to rape crops in Bengal. 

11. Sphenoptera gossypii, Kerre. (Euprestid beetle).— Tunnels 
into cotton (Gosypium herbaceum) plants in Nagpur. 

12. Julodis atkinsont, Kerre. n. sp. (Buprestid beetle),— Attacks 
cotton and melon crops in the district of Dehra Ismail Khao. 

13. Oxycarenus, lugubris. Motsch. (Heteroptera ; Fam. Lygaei- 
dse) .—Attacks cotton plants in Seringapatam and in Ceylon. 

14. Dysdercus cingulatus, Fabr. (Heteroptera. ; Fam. Lygseidae). 
— Reported as attacking cotton in Seringapatam, bottle gronds in 
Cawnpore, and musk-melon and cabbages in Cossipore. 

15. Tanymecus indicus, Faust. (Curculionid beetle). — This small 
weevil has been reported as attacking opium seedlings in Ghazipur. 

16. Gihbum scotias, Fabr. (Ptinid beetle). — Attacks the outer por- 
tion of opium cakes in Behar. 

17. Grass-hoppers (Fam. Acrididae) destructive to agriculture, 
viz., Acridium peregrinum, Oliv. (The locust of North-West India) ; 
Acridium succinctum, Linn., Acridium melanocorne, Serv. ; Acridium 

^ seruginosum^ Burm. ; Osya velox, Burm. ; Pachytylus cinerascens, 
Fabr,; Hieroglyphus furcifer, Sauss. ; Chrotogonus trachyteruSj 
Blanc. ; Epacromia dorsalis, Thunb. ; Atractomorpha crenulata, 
Fabr.; Oedalus marmoratus, Linn.; Poecilocera picta, Fabr., and 
Try xa lis turrita, Linn. 

18. Crickets (Gryllidse) destructive to agriculture. — Schizodac' 
tylus monstruosus, Drury. (Mole cricket) ; Brachytrypes achatinus, 

A 2 



44 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Stoll. ; Liogryllus bimaculatus^ Degeer., and Gryllodes melanocepha' 
luSf Serv. 

III. — Insects infesting fruit trees. 

1. Chryptorhynchus mangiferse, Fabr. — The mango (Mangifera 
indica) weevil. 

2. Psylla cistellata, Buck., n. sp. (Homoptera. ; Fam. Psyllidse).— 
Destructive to mango shoots. 

3. Papilio ertthomus, Cramr. (Papilionid butterfly). — Destructive 
to young orange and lemon trees in different parts of India. 

4. Aspidiotus ficuSf Comstock (Scale insect),— Reported as very 
destructive to orange and lime trees in Khandalla. 

5. Anonispestts bengalelle^ Rogt. (Phycitid moth). — The custard 
apple (Anona squamosa) pest in Bengal. 

6. Virachola isocrates, Fabr.— The caterpillar of this butterfly 
bores into loquat, guava and pomegranate fruits in Bengal. 

7. Carpomyia parctalina^ Bigot (Muscid fly). — Destructive to 
melons in Baluchistan. 

8. Lampides elpis^ Godart (Lycaenid butterfly). — Destructive to 
cardamom seeds in Ceylon. 

9. Gangara thyrsts, Fabr. (Hesperid butterfly).— Destructive 
to the leaves of the cocoanut palm in Malabar. 

IV. — Insects injurious to timber and other forest trees. 

1. Trochilium ommatise/orme, Moore (Sesiid moth), — Reported 
as tunneling into the stems of Poplar trees in Baluchistan. 

2. Lucanus lunifer, Hope (Lucanid beetle). — Reported as 
tunneling into Oak trees in Naini Tal. 

3. Psiloptera fastuosa, Fabr. (Buprestid beetle).— Said to attack 
Teak trees in Malabar. 

4. Diapus impressuSy Janson (Scolytid beetle). — Reported as 
tunneling into oak stumps in the North-West Himalayas. 

5. Neocerambyx holosericeus, Fabr. (Cerambycid beetle).-— 
Reported as attacking S^l {Shorea robusta) and Saj {Terminalia 
tomentosa) in the North-West Provinces, and Teak {Tectoma 
grandis) in Kuisi, Assam, also Farash and other trees in Dera Ismail 

Khan. 



No. 2 ] Collection of Economic insects in the Indian Museum. 45 



6. Celosterna scabrator, var. spinator, Fabr. (Cerambycid 
beetle). — Said to cause considerable injury to babul [Acacia arabica) 
plants in Berar. 

7. Melasoma populi, Linn. (Chrysomelid beetle). — Destructive 
to Salix elegans trees in Deoband. 

8. Pemphigus edificator, Buckton (Homoptera.; Fam. Aphidae).— 
Forms galls on stems of Pistacia terebinthus trees in Baluchistan. 



v.— Ware-house pests. 

1. Trogosita mauritanica, Linn. (Trogositid beetle). — Attacks 
stored wheat in Bengal. 

2. Silvanus surinamensisy Linn. (Cucujid beetle). — This is a 
common ware-house pest in India. It attacks ship's biscuits, dried 
fruits in Calcutta, and cholum seed in Madras. 

3. Anthrenus vorax, Waterh. (Dermestid beetle). — The larva 
attacks skins and leather of all kinds in India. 

4. j^thriostoma undulata^ Mots. (Dermestid beetle). — Destroys 
stored wheat {Triticum sativum) in Delhi. 

5. Dermestes vulpinus, Fabr. (Dermestid beetle). — Reported 
as destructive to stored silk cocoons in Rajshahi. Destructive to 
badly-preserved skins. 

6. Rhizopertha pusilla, Fabr. (Ptinid beetle). — A common ware- 
house pest. It attacks stored wheat, cholum seed and ship's biscuits 
in India. 

VI.— Insect destructive to grass. 

I. Mahasena graminivora^ Hamp. n. sp. (Psychid moth). — De- 
structive to grass plants used for covering thatched houses in 
Calcutta, 

Vll. — Insect destructive to books. 
I. Sitodrepa panicea,\Anx\. (Ptinid beetle). — The book-worm, 

VIII. — Insects and mites that attack Domesiic Animals. 

I. Chrysops dispar, Fabr. (Tabanid fly). — Reported as attack- 
ing cattle in Baluchistan. 



^6 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol IV. 



2. Simulium indicum^ Bechr. (Sitnulid fly). — rKnown as the 
" Potu fly." It is said to attack both man and cattle in the North- 
West Himalayas. 

3. Culex sp. — A very troublesome mosquito in Bengal. 

4. Argas reflexus, Fabr. (Tick).— .Reported as killing fowls in 
Bombay. 

IX. — Beneficial insects. 

1. Calosoma orient ale, Hope. (Carabid beetle). — Reported as 
useful in destroying young locusts of the species Acridium peregri- 
num, Oliv. 

2. Cicinaela sexpunctata, Fabr. (Tiger beetle). — It has been 
reported as very useful in destroying the rice sapper {JLeptocorisa 
acuta) in Champaran, 

3. Anthomyia peskawarensis, Bigot, (Muscid fly).— Parasitic 
upon the eggs of the locust {Acridium peregrinum.) Olivr. 

4. Carteria lacca, Sign. (Scale insect).— 'The lac insect of South. 
em Asia, out of which shell-lac and lac-dye of commerce are 
obtained. 



No. 2.] Original Communications. 47 



2. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 



The original communications received during the year are 
the following :— 

(i) Description and figures of Julodis atkinsont, a Buprestid 
beetle, reported as hurtful to cotton and melons in the 
Dehra Ismail Khan District ; 

(ii) A Preliminary Note on two nev/ species of Gall-Aphid 
from the North- West Himalayan region ; 

(iii) Description and figures of Aleurodes eugenics, a Coccid- 
like bug, reported as destructive to Jambul trees at 
Poona ; 

(iv) A note on the well-known '* Pipsa " fly of the lower 
slopes of the Himalayas. 



48 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



1. JULODIS ATKINSONI. 

A NEW SPECIES OF {Buprestid) BEETLE. 

By C. Kerremans. 




JULODIS Atkinsoni, nov. sp. — $ Ohlonga^ convexa, apice suhat- 
tenuaia, supra vtridi obscura, nitida^ elytrorum fossulis thoracisque 
punciis aeneo-viridibus ; subtus viridtaenea, segmento abdominis 4 , 
j°, 4° que nigro coerulei cinctis, ultimo irregulariter nigro-vermt- 
cuiato ; pedibus aeneis, antennis nigris ; — capite granulosa, fronte 
antice subrugosa, vertice longitudinaliter rugata ; — pronoto con- 
vexo, transversa, grosse punctulatOf punctorum, intervalh^ elevatis 
et irregulariter vermiculafis ; utrinque in angults anttcts vage 
fossulato, fossulaque magna media prescutellata instructo ; — elytris 
convexiSy utrinque quadricostatis, longitudinaliter impressis, tmpres- 
iionibus subquadratis, in seriebus tribus regularibus instructts, 
harum vntervalUs transversim vermiculatis et grosse punctatis. 



No. 2.] Original Communications, 49 

Subtus subtile rugosa^ segmento abdominis 2°, j°, 4° que posticis, 
Isevibus^ ultimo vermtculato ; pedibus grosse et confertim punctatis, 
—Long., 37 ; lat., 14 mm. 

Oblong, convex, posteriorly attenuate ; thorax and elytra dull green> 
thoracic punctures and foveae of elytra bronzy ; beneath bronzy, edges 
of abdominal segments cyaneous black ; antennae black ; legs bronzy. 

Head finely rugose between the eyes, the top finely and longi- 
tudinally wrinkled. Pronotum convex, at its base not quite twice as 
broad as long, anterior margin slightly sinuate, sides arcuate above 
the posterior angles, then straight ; posterior angles, subacute ; base 
with a large median and angular lobe surmounted by a large fovea; 
surface rugose, the rugosities punctured and irregularly vermiculated ; 
on each side of it at the anterior margin, in the anterior angles, is a 
small fovea. Elytra convex, much wider than the thorax at the 
shoulders, nearly twice as long as wide, very largely and rugosely 
punctured, each with four raised lines and four rows of foveae, of 
sub-quadrangulate form ; a fifth row, of small and more numerous 
foveae, occurs between the fourth raised line and the lateral margin; 
sides slightly sinuate above the middle, apex rounded, base with 
a large fovea. Beneath finely rugose, pubescent in irregular patches 
the last abdominal segment rugosely vermiculated. Legs densely 
and rugosely punctured. Length, 18 ; breadth, 7 lines. 

Habitat : — District of Dehra Ismail Khan ; very destructive to 
melon and cotton crops. 

I dedicate this very beautiful species, which is to be placed near 
J . seneipeSi Saund., to the memory of the late and regretted Mr. 
Atkinson. 



[The specimens f I om which this species is described, were furnished, in June 1895, by the 
Deputy Commissioner, Dehra Ismail Khan, through the Directori Land Records and Agricul- 
ture, Punjab, as causing considerable damage to Cotton and Melon crops in the Lieah Tahsi 
of Dehra Ismail Khan.— E. B.] 



50 Indian Museum Notes. [IVO, IV. 



3. NOTE ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF GALL-APHIDS 

FROM THE NORTH-WESTERN 

HIMALAYAN REGION. 

By G. B. Buckton, f.r.s. 
With one plate — No. IV. 

Pemphigus napceus, n. sp. 

This homopterous insect forms smooth rounded galls on the twigs 
of the Poplar tree growing at an elevation of 9,000 feet in the Valley 
of the Yasin river, near the Darkot Pass. 

The galls have a shining green surface, slightly veined with 
brown, and variegated with yellowish patches. 

They are mostly roundish ; but some occur of irregular shapes, 
about I '10 X 0*50 inches in measurement. 

When cut open, they show a single chamber tenanted by 20, or 
more, insects, some of which are in the pupal and others in the winged 
form. The alate insects are of two sizes, one being about twice 
the bigness of the other. A much larger female, which is blind and 
apterous, may be also found. 

She is the foundress of the colony, and originally produced 
the first walls of the gall structure. 

An aperture at the side affords an exit for the winged females 
when they are matured. 

The winged female may be thus described : — Body robust. 
Head and thorax, both above and below, shining black. Abdomen 
pale, greenish yellow, smooth, and immaculate. Antennae black, 
and about the length of the abdomen. First two joints globose, 
third joint ringed and about equal to the fourth and fifth taken 
together, the sixth ending in a blunt nail, and equal to the fifth. 
Eyes large, with the usual superimposed tubercle. Nectaries, 
none. Legs black, with rather long tarsi. Upper wings ample, 
with rounded tips. Veins, fine and black, with a conspicu- 
ous dark stigma. The neuration approaches that of a Schi- 
zoneura, inasmuch as the third vein does not meet the cubital. 
Notwithstanding this peculiarity, I regard this insect as a Pem- 
phigus, and nearly allied to P. spirotheca of Koch, which in Europe 
also forms globular galls on the poplar {Populus nigra)* 



No, 2.] Original C ommunications. 51 



The expanded winged female measures 0*36 x o'li inch. The 
rostrum is short and equal to the width of the thorax. The 
smaller-winged forms, I believe to belong to an earlier brood, as they 
did not appear to be males. 

Pupa entirely yellow ; size, o" 15 inch. Foundress globose, shin- 
ing yellow. Antennas very short, black, and obscurely five-jointed. 
Rostrum stout and short. Eyes none, legs black. Size o' 11 x 
0*09 inches. 

JPempTiigiis immuniSf n. sp. 

This insect forms rather large galls, — i'2o x I'lo inches, on the 
Aspens growing at Bunji on the road to Gilgit. Specimens 
gathered at an elevation of 4,600 feet, and preserved in alcohol, 
show a hard woody exterior. Sometimes they have a rough surface, 
like that of a walnut shell ; whilst others show a quasi imbrication, 
as seen in the figure. The interior is thrown into smooth 
but deep furrows. The aperture near the apex has rough 
corrugated edges, or lips, like the excrescences made by P, bur- 
sarins of Europe, The galls made by P, immunis are much 
larger than those made by P, napaeus^ the last described species 
and they differ in several particulars from those made by P, 
bursarius. 

Winged viviparous female. Head and thorax more or less shiny 
piceous brown, not black. Abdomen green, mottled with yel- 
low ; head rather narrow. Antennae short, black, five or obscurely 
six-jointed, the third joint hardly at all ringed ; the last joint often 
dilated at the tip. The wing veining is much like that of P. nap- 
seus, but much paler, and the stigma faintly brown. All the upper 
side of the thorax brown ; but this tint is confined to a saddle 
shaped dark spot on the sternal aspect. Eyes rather small, legs 
black. 

The whole insect is more slender and more ovate than is seen 
in P. nap3eus. In the colour of the thorax and abdomen, it also 
differs from P. bursarius. These characters, coupled with the 
different habitats, and the appearance of the gall structures, justify 
a separation from either of these species. 

The pupse are stout, ovate, greenish yellow, with short wing-cases 
and dark legs. They are numerous in the interior of the galls. Size, 
o 08 X o'04 inch. 



52 



Indian Museum Notes, 



[Vol. IV. 



3. ALEURODES EUGENI^E, 
A new species of Bug. 

BY W. M. Maskell. 



[ The specimens from which this species Is described, were forwarded to the 
Museum in February last, by Mr. Marshall Woodrow, from Poona, where they are 
said to be doing serious injury to Jambool trees {Eugenia jambolana). The 
examples received consisted of only larvae and pupse, which, however, proved quite 
sufficient for identification. Mr. Maskell notices that the adult form is likely to 
be a small white fly, the wings of which will be more or less floury, and possibly 
slightly spotted.— E. B. ] 



t 



_ ^A 



> \ 



»? 



4^ 

Mix 

00 n 0*^0";"° 
ooooo'ooooo 

OaOOOOOOOo 

5 ^-5i\ 




Larva elliptical, very slightly convex dorsally, flat beneath : colour 
dull white ; length about i mm. = ^V inch. A faint indication of 
the enclosed insect may be made out through the waxy covering, but 
in this stage it is not conspicuous. 

Pupa elliptical, slightly convex dorsally, fiat beneath : colour of 
waxy test very pale, dull yellow ; the enclosed insect is dark brown, 
and its outline may be made out beneath the wax ; length of test 
about -^jj inch. Dorsally, the test is very finely striated, the striations 
being most distinct near the margin. There is no marginal fringe. 
On turning over the test, the rudimentary feet may be clearly seen, 



No. 2.] Original Communications. 53 

folded inwards, and the antennse much more faintly : and the abdo- 
men tapers posteriorly to the usual vase-shaped orifice, normal of the 
genus. When examined by transmitted light, there appear three 
radiating patches, two from the thorax to the spiracular lateral de- 
pression of the test, and one from the abdominal orifice to the poste- 
rior, minute cleft in the test; these patches are narrow and formed of 
numerous small irregular cells in a lace-like pattern. 

Adult form unknown as yet. 

Habitat in Indja, on Jambool {Eugenia j'ambolana), Poona. 
A species differing slightly from A.proletella^ Linn., and A.melicytit 
Maskell. The absence of a marginal fringe and the three radiat- 
ing lace-like patches are distinctive characters. 

Explanation of figures: — a, Pupa, ventral view ; b, lace-work 
patch ; and c, abdominal orifice, — all enlarged. 



54 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



4. NOTE ON THE " POTU "OR " PIPSA " FLY. 
(Simuliiim indicum, Becker,) 
By Lionel de Nic^ville, f.e.s., c.m.z.s., &c. 

In the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. LIII, Part 2, 
pp. 199, 200, pi. XIV (1884), is a technical description of the female 
of Siniulium indicum, from Assam, by Dr. Edward Becher. In the 
November Proceedings of the same Society, No. X, 1884, pp. i6i, 
162, is a note by Prof. Dr. Brauer on the habits of the allied species 
of Simulia found in Europe. Lastly, in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. 
Ill, n. 5, pp. 39 — 41 (1894), is a note by Mr. E. C. Cotes on the " Potu " 
fly, as found in the Himalayas. As, however, Mr. Cotes does not give 
references to the previous literature on the subject as regards the 
Indian species, nor refer to the remedies against the effects of its 
bite recommended by Dr. Brauer ; and further, the present writer 
has been able to gather some additional information as to its habits 
it has been thought well to record this further Note. 

The remedies advocated by Dr. Brauer are as follows : — 

" All plans to diminish the number of these flies [in Europe] have been hitherto 
without success, as they cannot be exterminated in the [running] water [in which 
the larvae develop], or only to a limited degree. Smoke is a protection against 
them, and it is produced by putting live coals into heaps of dung, leaves, hay, and 
the like. Another protection against their bites is an embrocation of tobacco de- 
coction or of kerosine oil. For cattle, an ointment is made In the following way, — 
2 lbs. of tobacco leaves are boiled in 20 lbs. of water ; the decoction is evaporated to 
the consistency of honey, then to this extract is added I lb. of lard and \ oz. of 
kerosine oil. The resulting ointment is rubbed into the skin of the cattle, and has 
the effect of keeping the flies off. It has to be applied especially near the open- 
ings of the body, on the belly and genitals, and the application must be repeated 
every third day. 

" Against the bites of the fly, and their consequences, on the recommendation of 
Schonbauer, people apply fomentations of luke-warm milk, warm poultices of lin- 
seed and water, fresh linseed oil or fresh butter, which dimmish the smarting pains 
very much and prevent swelhng, if they are used early enough. Finally, luke- 
warm softening baths are recommended j also internally, cooling drinks, and in con- 
vulsion?, opiates. 

" Besides this, washing with diluted Goulard-water, vinegar, and ammonia is re- 
commended. Aqua plumbic, grm. 400, externally. Or — 

Acidj carbolici, grm. 8. 

Olei olivarum, grm. 80. 
On lint. 
" Moistening the wounds with alcohol, water, and vinegar. "(Proc. A. S. B., 1. c.) 
There is very little doubt, I think, that the Assamese, Sikkimand 



No. 2.] Note on the " Potu " or " Pipsa " Fly. 55 



Western Himalayan Simulia belong to one and the same species. 
Mr. Vincent A- Mackinnon has been so good as to collect a large num- 
ber of the perfect female flies for me, which are now deposited in the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, and has given me the following notes on 
them, based on his experiences of this pest at Mussooree, in the West- 
ern Himalayas. It would be advantageous to collect specimens in 
Sikkim (so far, I have not succeeded in doing this, but am still endea- 
vouring to do so), and send them with the Western Himalayan 
examples to Dr. Becher for specific determination. 

At Mussooree it is very plentiful in the spring, but small numbers 
can be found at all seasons. In the Western Himalayas it occurs at 
Mussooree, Chakrata, and thence, northwards, as far as the Niti Val- 
ley, near the snows. The Balti people say that it is well known in 
their country (Baltistan). It is found both in forests and in open 
grass-covered downs, and at all elevation, from 3,000 to 10,000 feet. 
At the latter elevation, Mr. Mackinnon was once so badly bitten, that 
he had to lay up from the effects for two days. The effects of the 
bite vary greatly in different people : to some it causes but little ap- 
parent inconvenience, a small black spot only being visible where the 
insect has bitten ; in other people it causes intense irritation, which, 
when the itching places are scratched, raise large lumps beneath the 
skin ; these may be some days before they disappear. Animals suf- 
fer as well as men— a tame deer (Kakhur), which Mr. Mackinnon pos- 
sessed, nearly died from the effects of the bites. The fly chiefly at- 
tacks the ears, entering the external orifice in large numbers. They 
also attack the region of the eye orbits very largely. When the 
Chakrata-Saharanpur road was being constructed, numbers of the 
work-people were reported as having died from the eflPects of the 
bites. In the Western Himalayas, the fly is called Potu in Hindu- 
stanij Phisniari in Pehari, and Phisho in Balti. 



56 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



NOTES ON INSECT PESTS FROM THE ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SECTION, INDIAN MUSEUM. 

BY EDWARD BARLOW. 



I. TEA PESTS. 
I. Thosea recta* , Hampsn. 

(Sub. ord. Heterocera; Fam. Limacodidse.) 

Plate V, fig. I— a, larva and cocoon on tea twig ; b, c, moths $ and 
§ ; id, I chneumonid parasite of Thosea recta^ twice enlarged. 

Aphendala recta, Hampson. 111. Het., pt. IX, p. 71, pi. 160, 

fig- 3. , 

On the 6th May 1895, Mr. E. E. Green of Punduloya, Ceylon, 
forwarded to the Indian Museum specimens of the moth and cocoon 
of the species Thosea recta^ Hampsn., also specimens of a Hymen- 
opterous insect belonging to the family Ichneumonidae, said to be 
parasitic on the caterpillars of the moth, with the information 
that the caterpillars had proved a serious pest to tea plants in 
Ceylon. He wrote : — " Mr. W, D. Holland, of Balaugoda, tells me 
that it has completely defoliated the trees over several acres of tea 
on his estate, and that the ground is quite black with their droppings. 
Fortunately a species of Tachina * preys freely upon them, and 
eventually reduces their numbers. Mr. Willisford, of Blackwater 
Estate,sent me specimens,and stated that they had stripped the bushes 
of everything but the youngest shoots over a field of 50 acres." 

The following particulars are taken from a note furnished by 
Mr. E. E. Green : — 

Larva : Colour bright yellowish green with a quadrate saddle- 
shaped spot occurring on the middle of the bag ; a chain of smaller 
red spots on the median line in front, and two or three similar 
spots behind. Oval ; convex above, a marginal and two dorsal 
series of conical spinous tubercles. 

Cocoon, compact, oval, dull green, fixed to tea leaves or stem. 



• Not a Tachina, but a species of Ichneuinonid fly.— £. B. 



Ko. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 57 

2. Xylehorus fornicatuSf Eiclihoff 
(Ord. Coleoptera, Fam. Scoiytids.) 

Plate V, fig. 2 — a, larva ; b, pupa ; c, d, imagos ^ and ? ; e, 
affected tea stem, 

Xyleborus fornicatuSy Eichhoff. Berl. Ent. Zeitschr., p. 151 (1868). 

On the 28th January 1895, specimens of a small beetle, together 
with pieces of tea stems riddled by them, were sent to the Indian 
Museum through Mr. E. E. Green, of Ceylon, from Mr. G. Alston, 
Superintendent of Tea Estate, Craighead, Nawalapituja. 

The insect proved, on examination, to belong to a species of 
Scolytid beetle, which has not previously been reported to attack 
tea plants in India. Specimens were therefore forwarded to Mr. 
W. F. H. Blandford, who very kindly examined them and identified 
them as belonging to the species Xyleborus fornicatus, Eichhoff, a 
form closely allied to the often destructive species Xyleborus dispary 
of Europe and North America. 

The following is an extract from a letter furnished by Mr. G. 
Alston : — 

" The pest appears mostly in patches, but has spread very considerably since 
I first observed it in any numbers three years ago. There is no evidence of any 
previous disease in attacked trees. Most of the trees attacked show no out- 
ward sign of the pest, except when almost every branch is attacked, when they 
turn rather yellow and stop flushing. Young trees about two years old, before 
they are topped, often snap off at the spot where the borers have made holes for 
their entrance or exit. Strong vigorous trees in good soil seem to be very little 
affected by it, and throw out good red wood even from badly bored stems. On 
the other hand, poor plants on ridges or poor soil seem to naturally feel the effect 
of it quickly, though in no case have I seen a tree killed by it. Isolated branches 
die off, but new branches come out in their place. As a rule, you can only tell 
an attacked tree (except in the case of young plants, when the stems snap off) on 
pruning it, when the holes in the wood are very apparent. It (the beetle) does 
not attack the cut surface after pruning, but makes its entrance through the bark. 
In the case of young red wood it very generally goes straight down the pith : in 
older branches I have often seen the wood riddled as if a charge of snipe-shot 
had been fired into it, with only one or two minute holes in the bark for exit or 
entrance. And yet in the case of vigorous trees, they seem to thrive notwith- 
standing. Since r8g3 the pest has spread very much, and become more 
general, though I cannot say that I see much difference in the fields that were 
attacked then." 

The writer, in the foregoing account of the pest, practicall 
•suggests the remedy— namely, — either not to plant in poor soil, or, if 

2A 



58 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

the soil is poor, to improve it, and thus to strengthen the plant 
against the attack — the great object of all medical treatment 
everywhere. 

To prevent the spread of the disease, the affected branches 
should be cut off and burnt. 



3. Carteria decorella, Mask. 

(Sub-Order Homoptera ; Fam. Coccid/e ; Group 
Brachyscelid^.) 

Plate V, Fig, 3 — a, adult females in tests on twig; h, tests of second stage females 
and males on twig s c, tests of adult females enlarged : d, test of male enlarged ; 
e, adult male enlarged : i, antenna of male enlarged. 

This species is a late addition to the list of Indian insect pests. 
It was sent to the Museum during the latter part of February 1895, 
by Mr. J. Lancaster, Secretary^ Agricultural and Horticultural 
Society of India, as attacking tea and forest trees in Northern India. 

Mr. W. M. Maskell, who kindly assisted in the identification of 
the species, reported that the insect has been hitherto considered 
as a strictly Australian form, and it was somewhat of a surprise to 
him to find It also occurring in India. 

The following is Mr. Maskell's description of the species, pub- 
lished in Tran. N. Z. Inst., Vol. XXV, p. 249: — 

Carteria decorella, sp. nov. — Adult female covered by a waxy 
test, which, at first single and separate, becomes later on aggregated 
in masses on the twig. The normal form of a test is subcircular 
rather convex; the colour is yellowish-brown; the diameter would 
average about \ in. if separated at full growth. The centre of the 
dorsal portion is occupied by a small elongated narrow red or purple 
lamina of wax, transversely corrugated, and evidently the 
remains of the test of the early second stage : from this to the margin 
radiate a number of narrow ridges and depressions, which give a cor- 
rucrated appearance to the whole test; at the posterior extremity of 
the small central lamina there is a minute orifice. When detached 
from the twig, the underside of the test is seen to be nearly solid, 
with a small orifice in the middle, so that the insect is almost entirely 
enclosed. The female insect is dark red, of the normal globular 
form of the genus, prolonged posteriorly in a short subcylindrical 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 59 

"tail." Antennae and feet absent. The usual large spine is pre- 
sent just above the abdominal process. The lac-tubes are, as usual, 
situated on the thoracic region : they are prominent, sub-cylindrical, 
and bearing groups of excretory glands. The body of the insect is 
very inconspicuously segmented, and on each margin of a segment 
is a group of very small subcircular spinneret-orifices. 

Female of the second stage, covered by a waxy test, which at 
first is elliptical and very slightly convex, but later becomes sub- 
circular, with a central small elongated and narrow corrugated 
lamina, from which depressions radiate to the margin. These depres- 
sions are comparatively more conspicuous than in the adult tests 
producing a more deeply corrugated appearance. Usually the 
median region is reddish or orange-coloured, the marginal corruga- 
tions whitish or yellowish ; but the difference between a late second 
test and an early adult are not easy to make out. These second- 
stage tests average about -^-^ in. in diameter in the early stage. The 
enclosed insect is at first elongated-elliptical, gradually assuming 
a subglobular form, colour red. I have not been able to satisfy mj^' 
self as to the antennae, or feet ; but probably both are absent. 

I have not observed any larvae after emergence ; but in some adult 
specimens examined there were a great number of embryonic larvae ; 
these were red, elliptical, tapering posteriorly, the abdomen ending 
in two divergent and conspicuous anal tubercles, each bearing a long 
seta and some short hairs. The antennae and feet were not suffi- 
ciently developed for observation. 

Male pupa, covered by a test of red or yellowish red wax. The 
form of the test is elongated-elliptical, convex above, the median 
region moderately rough and frequently simulating the form of the 
elliptical segmented enclosed pupa ; the margin is corrugated as in 
the case of the female. Length of the test about ^\j- in. At the pos- 
terior extremity there is a flat-hinged plate, on lifting up which the 
adult escapes. The enclosed pupa is dark-red. 

Adult male dark-red, the wings hyaline with red nervures. 
Length of the body about -^-^ in. exclusive of the spike. Antennae of 
ten joints, the first two short and tubercular, the next five long and 
slender but diminishing somewhat to the seventh ; the eight and ninth 
shorter and thicker, the tenth as long as the fifth, very thick and 
sub- elliptical : all the joints bear several hairs. Feet long and slen- 
der, but with no special character. The abdominal spike is straight 
and rather long, being nearly as long as the abdomen. The ter» 
mintil abdominal tubercles bear each two setae, from which spring 
moderately long cottony "tails/' 

B Z 



6o Indian Museum Notes. tVol. lY. 

For this pest, as also for the pest next mentioned, an emulsion of 
soft soap and kerosene oil would probably be efficacious. 



4. Chionaspis prunicola, Mask var. thece. 
(Sub-Order Homoptera, Fam. Coccid^.) 

In May last a number of blighted tea leaves were forwarded to 
the Indian Museum by Mr. J. Lancaster, Secretary, Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society of India. The leaves were found to be 
covered with a number of little scale insects. Mr. Lancaster did 
not state the locality of the insect, but reported that it comes on or 
gets worse in the dry season, and was spreading and causing great 
destruction in a tea garden. The pest proved to be new to the 
Indian Museum Collection, so specimens were submitted to 
Mr. W. M. Maskell for examination. Who wrote — 

" I am sorry that on this occasion I cannot as yet give you a 
definite identification of this insect. It very clearly belongs to the 
Diaspidinaey but I am a little puzzled by its affinities. It approaches 
so very closely to Chionaspis prunicola, in almost every character, 
that I am in much doubt. The only differences are that the adult 
female is more elongated than C. prumcola, and the puparium of the 
male is apparently not carinated. This latter character would, 
indeed, // certain, relegate the insect to the genus Mytilaspis ; but 
I am not quite sure about it. The elongation of the female is less 
important. In the anatomical characters of the female pygidium the 
two insects are almost, if not quite, identical. Under these circum- 
stances, I am obliged to suspend my judgment. 

" Although Chion. prunicolaws^s found in the Sandwich Islands 
on a Japanese plant, that is by no means any obstacle to its being 
also in India : more especially as tea is not, I believe, indigenous in 
India, and grows also in Japan. L have frequently avowed a dis- 
belief in the theory that a Coccid is necessarily confined to one food 
plant. Therefore, there is not the least reason on such grounds why 
your insect should not be identical with that from the Sandwich 
Islands. Still, there are slight differences, and I will not decide 
positively at present." 

Mr. Maskell, however, after a further careful examination of the 
specimens, subsequently wrote that he has decided to attach the 
species to Chionaspis prunicola, under the name C. prunicola, 
Mask, var., thece. 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 6l 



MISCELLANEOUS TEA PESTS. 

5. Tineid caterpillar. — On the 25th of April 1894, from Messrs. 
Finlay, Muir & Co., were received some specimens of a caterpillar, 
said to be very destructive to tea plants in the Mookhamcherra Tea 
Estate, Sylhet. 

The specimens proved to be the larvae of a still unknown (Tineid) 
moth, and similar caterpillars were reported in 1 891 to have dam- 
aged tea bushes in Jorhat. 

6. Limacodid caterpillar. — In July 1894, Messrs. Finlay, Muir 
& Co. forwarded to the Museum some specimens of a caterpillar, re- 
ported to be doing a considerable amount of damage to the tea 
bushes at Rungamuttee Garden, in Sylhet. 

The examples sent were insufficient for precise identification, but 
they were larvae of a Limacodid moth, 

7. Psy chid caterpillar. — In August 1894, specimens of an insect, 
reported to be attacking tea bushes in Assam, were forwarded to the 
Museum, through the Manager, Planters' Stores and Agency Company. 

The insects proved to be the larvae of a Psychid moth, the mate- 
rial being insufficient for precise identification. 

To summarise : four species of moth-caterpillars, one species of 
beetle and two species of scale-insects have been reported during 
the year as doing extensive damage to growing tea-plants in India. 

None of these are mentioned in Mr. Cotes' " Insects and Mites 
Destructive to Tea, " and must therefore be added to the list there 
given. 

As regards remedial measures, in the case of the caterpillars, 
drawings of the parent moths and of the cocoons were forwarded to 
the parties interested, in order that the pest might be searched for, 
recognised and destroyed. 

In the ships of the Indian Marine, it is, we believe, found possible 
to keep down even such nocturnal animals, as cockroaches, by setting 
boys to catch them, and there seems to be no reason why the same 
plan should not be successful in the case of such large tea-pests as 
caterpillars, cocoons, etc. 



62 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



IJ.— INSECTS DESTRUCTIVE TO CEREALS AND CROPS. 
I. THE Rice hispa. 

Mispa cenescens, Baly. 

Specimens of this common rice beetle (Chrysomelid) were re- 
ceived in the Indian Museum from the undermentioned officers, as 
very destructive to paddy crops during the year 1895. 

[a] Through the Superintendent, Government Central Museum, 
Madras, from the Collector of Malabar, who wrote in September 
1895 :— 

" The insects are said to have caused damage to the paddy crop in Ponan 
Taluk. 1,280 acres of land in 10 Amsams are reported to have been affected, and 
the loss is estimated at 20,000 paras of paddy, worth about Rs. 10,000." 

[6] Through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Punjab, 
from the Deputy Commissioner of Kangra, in May 1S95, who 
reported : — 

" I am getting complaints of damage to growing rice by a black insect, bigger 
than a bug. I am sending you some of t hem " 



2. Agrotis suffusa, Fab. 

INFESriNG HOP PLANTS. 

In July 1895, specimens of a moth in all its stages of develop- 
ment, were forwarded to the Indian Museum by Captain J. L. Kaye, 
Settlement Officer, Kashmir, through the Officiating Secretary to the 
Government of India, Department of Revenue and Agriculture, with 
the information that it had been very destructive to hop plantations 
in the Kashmir State. Captain Kaye wrote : — 

" The State hop garden, which for the last two years has been in a flourishing 
condition and giving good returns, has this jear been devoured and destroyed by 
a green caterpillar, called here the 'mohru,' and although we have tried sprinkling 
the plants with various solutions of sulphur, tobacco and native drugs, no means 
of destroying the insect has been discovered, 

" The * mohru ' attacked a corner of the garden last year, and the destruction 
of wheat and barley, not to mention certain trees, by this insect, is nothing new. 

" If rain falls soon after the caterpillars appear, slight damage only is done. The 
insect falls from the hop vines, etc. , directly rain commences, and is devoured by 
crows and other birds. 

"This spring has been an abnormally dry and hot one, and the ' mohru' has con- 
sequently done an unusual «mount of harm. " 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section, 63 

The specimens proved to be a Noctues moth, belonging to the cos- 
mopolitan species, Agrotis suffusa, of Fabr., which has previously 
been reported in the pages of these Notes, as very destructive to 
almost all kinds of Agricultural plants in India, 

It is interesting to find that, in favourable circumstances, insecti- 
vorous birds are capable of exterminating this pest for a season, and 
it is hoped that the record of this natural remedy may lead those 
interested in insect pests to encourage insectivorous birds, by pro- 
tecting them and their young from their natural enemies. 



3. Synclera multilinealiSf Guen. 

COTTON PEST IN BARODA. 

Plate V,fig. 4, Moth. 

In April 1895, some specimens of a Pyralid moth, said to be in* 
juring cotton in Baroda, were forwarded to the Indian Museum by 
Mr. T. H. Middleton, of Baroda College. 

According to the statement furnished, the larvae of the moth in- 
jure cotton plants by twisting up the leaves when about to pupate, 
glabrous forms of cotton being often entirely defoliated in this way. 
Mr. Middleton reported that the moths were reared from a batch of 
larvae that pupated between the 23rd and 27th September 1894, the 
imagos appearing on the 3rd October. 

The moths were identified with Synclera multilinealis of Guen, a 
species hitherto unknown as a pest to Agriculture. Mr. Moore 
describes the species thus : — 

Botys multilinealis, Guen., Delt. et Pyral., p. 337, 

No. 380, pi. 8, fig. II (1854). 
„ „ Walker, Cat. Lep. Het. B. M., xviii, p. 661, 

(1859). 
„ „ Leder., Wien. Ent. Monat, vii, p. 375, 

pi. II, fig. 3 (1863). 
„ „ Moore, Proc. ZooL Soc, Lond., 1867, p. 96; 

and 1877, p. 619. 
Zebronia salomeatiSy Walk., loc» cif., xvii, p, 476 (1859) ; and 

xxxiv, p. 1348, (1865). 
„ „ Swinhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. ^ i^d)^^,^^, ^'jo, 

Botys annuligeraliSf Walker, loc. cif,, xxxiv, p. 1424 (1865). 



64 ' Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Notarcha muUilt'nealis, Meyrick, Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1884, 

p. 312. 
Synclera multilinealis^ Moore, Lep. Ceyl. iii, p. 315 (1886). 

Very pale olivaceous-yellow, opalescent in some lights : fore- 
wing with some olive-brown basal spots and streaks, a transverse 
curved antemedial line, an irregular postmedial denticulated line, 
and a submarginal denticulated line ; an oval orbicular and reinform 
mark, and a mark below the cell; hindwing with two irregular discal, 
and a submarginal denticulated line, a mark at end of the cell, below 
which is a short streak, a marginal line and an interciliary line olive- 
brown. Thorax with olive-brown spots, abdomen with paler bands, 
and a penultimate black spot ; palpi and legs whitish ; palpi and fore- 
legs with brown bands. 
Expanse -^-^ to iy\^ inch. 



4. Meliothis armigera, Hubn. 

Examples, which proved to be the larvae and chrysalids of the 
well-known destructive Noctues moth {Heliothis armigera, Hiibn.) 
have been received in the Indian Museum from the undermentioned 
officers, as affecting agricultural crops during the year 1895, 

[a) Destructive to gram crops in Dehra Dun, forwarded in 
April 1895 by Mr. W. F. Dobbie, who wrote : — 

" We had beautiful gram crops here this ' Rabi ;' but they have been spoilt 
by caterpillars. They make a hole in the pod, eat the gram seeds, and then come 
out of the pod leaving it perfect, with the exception of the one hole. " 

{b) Damaging gram plants in Chhindwara District, forwarded by 
the Settlement Officer, Chhindwara, who reported in March 1895 : — 

" I forward by parcel post the chrysalids of a caterpillar commonly found in 
this district on ordinary gram plants. The caterpillar is green and smooth, 
bodied. A brown variety is also found. It feeds by day, and its appearance in 
numbers is associated with cloudy weather. '* 

(c) Reported to cause damage to paddy crops in the Malabar 
District : forwarded through the Superintendent, Government 
Museum, Madras, from the Collector of Malabar, in July 1895. 

Remedies for this pest were recommended in Indian Museum 
Notes, Vol. I. pp. 50 and 97, but no reports as to the results of these 
recommendations have been received. 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 65 

5. CUCUMBER BEETLE. 
Aulacophora ahdominalis, Fabr, 

In April 1895, the Deputy Collector on special duty, Berhampore, 
forwarded, through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, 
Bengal, specimens of an insect said to be injurious to leaves and 
fruits of Cucumber vines in Berhampore. 

The examples proved to be a Chrysomelid beetle [Aulacophora 
ahdominalis^ Fabr.) which has previously been reported as destructive 
to Cucumber and several other plants in India; vide Indian Museum 
Notes, Vol. I, No. 2, pp. 92 and 93, pi. IV, figs. 5 a and b. 

As regards the treatment adopted against this insect, the Deputy 
Collector reported,that application with a mixture of i part of kerosene 
oil, I part of sour milk and 100 parts of water, proved an effectual 
remedy in exterminating the pest. 



6. THE LOCUST. 

Acridium peregrinum. 

On the 24th May 1895, some specimens of the migratory locust 
[Acridtum peregrinum, Olvr.) were forwarded to the Indian Museum^ 
by the Survey Commissioner and Director, Land Records and Agri- 
culture, Bombay. According to the information furnished, the flight 
of locusts was reported to have come on the 3rd instant from the 
Shikarpur Taluka, in the south, and settled on " Kirir " {Copparis 
aphylla) trees in the Thul Taluka of the Upper Sind Frontier, and 
after three days' stay, the swarm seemed to have moved north- 
wards to the Khan of Kelat's Territory. No injury was done to the 
crops. 

7. MISCELLANEOUS INSECTS DESTRUCTIVE 
TO CEREALS AND CROPS. 

(i) In April 1895, specimens of several kinds of insects, said to be 
destructive to agricultural crops in Berhampore, were forwarded to 
the Indian Museum through the Director, Land Records and Agri- 
culture, Bengal, from the Deputy Collector on special duty, Berham* 
pore. The specimens comprised as follows : — 

{a) Insects destructive to bean leaves [Dolichos bengalensis) con- 
sisted of numerous specimens of a young caterpillar of a moth, the 
material being insufficient for precise identification. 



66 Indian Museum Notes. LVoL IV. 

The Deputy Collector writes that treatment with a mixture of 
I part of kerosine oil, i part of sour milk and lOo parts of water had 
the effect of killing the larvae and restoring the vigorous growth of 
the plants. 

{b) A phial containing examples of the brinjal stalk and leaf para- 
site, consisted of three different kinds of insects, viz., numerous 
imagines and larvae of a Coccinellid beetle, Epilachna, sp ; five 
specimens of a Cetonine beetle, Glycyphana^ sp. ; and a few larvse of 
an unknown moth. 

The Deputy Collector on special duty report-sd that dusting the 
plants through a calico bag, with a mixture of i ounce of London 
purple, I ounce of quick lime and 3 pounds of covvdung ashes, 
powdered together very fine, proved an effective remedy, and the 
brinjal plants that were denuded of their leaves put forth new shoots 
afterwards, and produced almost the normal quantity of fruits. 

{c) Specimens of a black beetle destructive to chrysalids of the 
wild mulberry silk cocoons {Theophilla huttoni) consisted of spe- 
cimens of a Chrysomelid beetle, Chrysomela, sp. 

{d) Insect known as the "Kuji fly," reported as parasitic on the 
mulberry silkworm of commerce, consisted of a single specimen of 
a Dipterous insect in too poor a state of preservation for identifica- 
tion. 

The Deputy Collector reports as follows regarding the insect : — 

•' The fifth is the " Kuji fly " of Maldah : a Tachinid parasite found only in 
May and June in Maldah. They are parasitic to the Mulberry silkworm, in 
the same way as the Trycolyga bombycis, from which they differ both in appear- 
ance and in their manner of attacking silkworms. The " Kuji fly " is smaller 
than the ordinary silkworm fly, and it has an arched back (Kuji, meaning hunch- 
backed). They also differ in their behaviour from the ordinary silkworm fly, 
as they make a silent and a direct dash at the silkworm trays, instead of buzzing' 
about in the vicinity of rearing houses, and moving about openly among silk- 
worms and depositing eggs upon them, as the Trycolyga does. Being also an 
annual insect and rather rare, it is difficult to secure a large number of 
specimens.'' 

(2) In August 1895, specimens of moths, said to be causincr 
serious damage to Joar, Makai, and Lucerne, on the Karachi Sewaore 
Farm, were forwarded to the Indian Museum from the Superin- 
tendent, Municipal Gardens, Karachi, through the Reporter on 
Economic Products to the Government of India. 

The examples proved, on examination, to consist of two species 
of moths, which belong to two widely different families, namely 



No. 2.] Notts on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 67 



two specimens of a Noctues moth, Leucania loreyt,^ Dup., and 
eleven specimens of a Microlepidopterous moth, belonging to the 
family Crambidae, 

(3) In May 1895, some specimens of cabbage leaf infested by 
insects were forwarded by the Sub-divisional Officer, Alipur, Duars, 
through the Director of Agriculture, Bengal. 

The leaves arrived in the Museum in such a bad state of pre- 
servation that nothing could be made of them; they, however, 
appeared to be attacked by caterpillars of some kind. The following 
is an extract from a letter ficm the Sub-divisional Officer, Alipur, 
Duars: — 

" Insects have proved very injurious to vegetables such as cauTi-flowers, beet- 
roots and cabbages. Mr. Basu, Assistant Director of Agriculture, who visited 
this sub-division during the year under report, was of opinion that the use of 
dung manure favoured the generation of these insects, I send you a few 
specimens of the insect, and some vegetable leaves destroyed by them for your 
inspection in a separate cover. Mr. Basu says that the use of bone manure will 
reduce the number of the insects, very considerably, but there is strong prejudice 
amongst the Hindus against the use of this kind of manure. Mr. Sunder, while 
Settlement Officer of the Western Duars, tried his best to introduce bone manure, 
but the people would not use it." 

(4) In September 1895, specimens, were forwarded to the 
Museum., by the Director, Land Records, North-Western Provinces 
and Oudh, of a species of Curculionid beetle, which has proved 
injurious to Egyptian cottons crops at the Government Experimental 
Farm, Cawnpore. 

The specimens appeared to be new to the Museum collection, so 
have been sent to Mons. Desbrochers des Logus for identification. 

(5) Specimens of two kinds of insects destructive to Arhar crop 
have been received from the Director, Land Records, North-Western 
Provinces and Oudh, in April 1896. They consisted, as follows: — 

(a) Numerous larvae and chrysalids of a Microlepidopterous 
moth ; (b) Specimens of a Noctues caterpillar, the materials being 
insufficient for precise identification. 

(6) In May 1894, specimens of insects were forwarded to the 
Indian Museum through the Officiating Director, Department o^ 
Land Records and Agriculture, Burma, from the Superintendent of 
Land Records, Mandalay, with the information that they were doing 
damage to agricultural crops in the Mandslay District. 

• This moth has previously been referred to In Indian Museum Notes, Vol. i, 
p. 51, as very destructive to paddy crops in Sambalpur, Central Provinces. — E, B, 



68 Indian Museum Notes. |Vol. IV. 

The specimens comprised, as follows : — 

{a) *' Poti-gaung," reported as destructive to sugarcane roots, 
consisted of larvae of a Melolonthine beetle (cock-chaSer), the exam- 
ples being insufficient for identification. 

{b) Caterpillars, reported as injurious to Sessamum plants, 
peas and beans, proved to be the larvae of an unknown moth. 

(7) In March 1895, the same officer forwarded, through the 
Director, Department of Land Records and Agriculture, Burma, 
specimens of a dark brown caterpillar said to be very common in 
the month of January in the alluvial lands of Mandalay district, on 
the banks of the Irrawaddy River. They were reported to be very 
destructive, by ripping the roots and lower stems of the following 
plants,— maize, tobacco, onions, chillies, peas, and beans of kinds, 
coriander, brinjal, roselle and cabbages, etc. 

The specimens proved to be insufficient for precise identification, 
but they appeared to be the larvae of a moth probably belonging to 
the family Noctuidae or Leucaniidae, which mainly consist of pest to 
agriculture. 



III.— INSECTS INFESTING FRUIT TREES. 
1. THE HOG-PLUM BEETLE. 

Podontia Id.— punctata, Linn. 

Plate VI, Fig. I — a, larva ,• b, pupa ; c, imago / d, earthen pupa cell. 

Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. XII, p. 599. — Fab. spec. Ins. I, p. 117.— 
Oliv. Ent. V, p. 539, t. 4, /. 42. — Baly., Journ. of Ent. I, 1862, 

P-45I- 

In the early part of October 1895 specimens of this chrysomelid 
beetle in all its stages of development were received m the Indian 
Museum through Mr. C. O. Bateman, with the statement that they 
were devouring the leaves of a Hog-plum tree {Spondias mangifera) 
growing in the compound of his house in Calcutta, 

According to the information gathered, the beetles make their 
appearance on the tree, almost every year, about the time when the 
Liee is in full foliage, in the months of July and August, and dis- 
appear in the latter part of October. The injury done is only con- 
fined to the leaves on which they feed, and a tree that has been 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pest's from the Entomological Section. 69 

badly attacked may be easily recognised by its denuded appearance, 
and the total absence of the leaves. 

The larva, in which stage the insect is mostly injurious, is about 
three-fourths of an inch in length, and of a dirty yellowish colour. 
It is soft and of a flesh-like consistency, about three times as long 
as thick, with the body much wrinkled transversely. The head and 
the neck is black and shining. Three pairs of legs are placed 
anteriorly upon the breast, and are of the same shining black colour 
with the head. It usually hides itself by covering its body with its 
own excrement, and in this state, it so exactly resembles like the 
dropping of a bird that it is frequently mistaken for such, and thus 
it is able to escape detection from its numerous aerial enemies. 
This curious habit of covering the body with its own excrement is 
no doubt a case of true "protective resemblance." The time the 
larva takes to change into the pupa state is not known, but it trans- 
forms, by descending into the ground in a rough earthen cell, oval in 
shape and about the size of a hazel nut. 

The beetle is a common and widely distributed species in the 
East and equally variable, the spots are as frequently united and 
form broad, dentated transverse bands of brown or black. It measures 
a little over one-half of an inch in length, is of an oblong form, and 
of a yellowish-brown colour. It feigns death when alarmed i)r cap- 
tured. 

The Indian Museum possesses specimens from Calcutta, 
Murshidabad, Sikkim, Shillong, and Andaman Island. 



2. ORANGE SCALE INSECT. 
2. Aspidiotus ficus (Riley), Comstock. 

Plate VI, Fig. 2— a, scales on leaves 0/ orange, natural sise ; h, scale of 
female, enlarged ; c, scale of male, enlarged ; d^, young larva, enlarged ; e, adult 
male, enlarged. 

In October 1894., Mr. Marshall Woodrow, Director of Botanical 
Survey, College of Science, Poona, forwarded to the Indiirin Museum 
specimens of orange leaves infested by scale insects, with the inform- 
ation that they were seriously injuring orange and lime trees at 
Kachaldara House, Khandalla. 

The orange leaves proved to be attacked by a species of scale 
insect (Coccid) not previously reported from India. Specimens were 



yo Indian Museum Notes. [ Vol. IV. 

therefore submitted to Mr. W. M. Maskell, of New Zealand, who has 
very kindly examined them and identified them as belonging to the 
species Aspidiotus Jicus (Riley), Comst(;ck. This identification is 
most interesting, as this pest is primarily American, and has not 
hitherto been reported from Asia. 

The following is the description of the insect as furnished by 
Mr. Maskell : — 

Puparium of female circular, flattish, dark-reddish brown in 
colour : diameter averaging 2 mm. The pellicles are central and 
lighter coloured than the rest. 

Puparium of male nearly similar in form to that of the female, 
but slightly elliptical : not carinated. 

Adult female pale yellow or whitish in colour^ of the normal peg- 
top form of the genus : the abdominal region is small and tapering, 
and ends in six distinct lobes, of which the two median are slightly 
larger than the rest and the two outer ones slightly the smallest: 
between these lobes are some broad scaly hairs with serrated ends. 
There are four groups of spinnerets on the pygidium : the two 
anterior groups have usually eight orifices, and the tv/o posterior 
groups usually four each. 

Adult male, light orange-yellow : length, about i mm. The 
thorax bears a brownish transverse band, and the abdomen ends in a 
spike (sheath of the penis) which is about as long as the abdomen. 

Habitat — in North America (Florida, California) on Orange and 
lemon trees : in Australia on the same trees : and it will probably 
extend to every country where these are grown. 

The Americans call this " The red scale of Florida," and it is 
considered to be a dangerous enemy to citrus trees of all kinds. It 
is stated by Comstock to have first come from Cuba: but it is by no 
means easy to decide upon the original home of any of these pests. 

The following extract taken from Mr, H. G. Hubbard's report 
on " Insects affecting Orange " is of great interest, as it deals with 
the several stages of development of the insect. 

*' Development of the Insect and formation of the Scale. — The 
development of this insect from the egg to the adult state was 
followed through five generations. I give, however, only the sub- 
stance of a part of the notes taken on a single brood (the second 
one observed) as that will be sufficient for our purpose. The 
observations were made upon specimens which were colonized on 
small orange trees in pots in nry office in Washington. The rate of 
the development of the insects was probably slower than would 
have been the case in the open air in Florida. 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section 71 

"April I2th, 1880, specimens of orange leaves infested by this 
scale were received from Mr. G, W. Holmes, Orlando, Fla. At this 
date males were found both in the pupa and adult state. The females 
also varied in size, and some of them were ovipositing. Eggs were 
placed on an orange tree for special study. 

" April 13th, the eggs began to hatch The young larvae are 

quite active, but they settle soon after hatching. Some settled the 
same day that they hatched. 

"April 14th, it was found that the young lice, although only 
twenty-four hours old, had formed scales which completely concealed 
them from sight. These scales resembled in appearance the fruiting 
organs of certain minute fungi. They were white, circular, convex, 
with a slightly depressed ring round the central portion ; their tex- 
ture was quite dense, and they were not firmly attached to either 
the insects or the leaf, a slight touch being sufficient to remove them 
without disturbing the larvae. The larvae had not changed in 
appearance, and were able to move their legs and antennae. 

" April 15th, the lice had not changed perceptibly. The scales 
had become higher and more rounded. 

"April 1 6th, the lice had contracteJ considerably, being now 
nearly circular, at least as broad as long ; in other respects there 
was no apparent change. The scales were found to vary somewhat ; 
those most advanced having the central portion covered with a loose 
mass of curled white threads. 

. " April ] 7th, there was apparent no further change in the larva, 
but the mass of threads covering the central part of the scale was 
found in some specimens to have greatly increased in size, equalling 
in height three or four times the width of the scale. This mass is 
cottony in appearance, and in those specimens where it is largest is 
more or less in the form of a plate twisted into a close spiral. 

*' April iQth, not much change was apparent in the larva, but the 
mass of cottony excretion upon soma of the scales had increased 
enormously ; so that in some cases it extended in a curve from the 
scale to a point five times the width of the scale above the leaf and 
down to the leaf. 

*' April 2oth, no important change was observed either in the 
larvae or scales, 

" April 2 1st, it was observed that the larvae had become more or 
less transparent, and marked with large irregular yellow spots near 
the lateral margin of the head and thorax, and with a transverse 



y2 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 

row of similar spots across the base of the abdomen ; the tip of the 
abdomen is very faintly yellow. 

" April 22nd, no important change was noted. 

"April 23rd, it was observed that the scales, appeared faintly 
reddish in colour with the centre white ; the reddish colour, however, 
was due in part to the body of the larva, which is now orange-red, 
showing through the scale. It should be noted that in only a part 
of the specimens did the cottony mass become enlarged. The 
greater part of the scales remained until this date of the form, and 
the cottony spirals have now disappeared, probably having been 
blown away. 

" April 24th, some of the larvae had become deep orange in 
colour. 

"April 26th, most of the scales had become deep orange in 
colour with the central part white; some had at the centre a small 
nipple-like protuberance ; others still preserved a short tuft of a 
cottony excretion. This tuft is either removed by wind or otherwise, 
or it becomes compact, melted, as it were, to form the nipple-like 
projection referred to above. 

" April 28th, the insects appeared as they did two days ago ; the 
scales had become very tough, and it was with difficulty that they 
could be removed from the insect. 

" April 30th, the insects still remained apparently unchanged. 
Some of the scales were only about one-half as large as others, and 
still remained perfectly white ; these proved to be male scales. All 
the scales at this date had an elevated ring on the disc with a 
central nipple. 

•' May 3rd, many of the larvse began to show that they were 
about to molt, the form of the next stage being visible through the 
skin of the insect. 

" May 5th, nearly all the larvae had molted ; they were now 
orange-yellow, with the end of the body colourless. The last abdomi- 
nal segment now presents the excretory pores which are represented 
in the drawing of the corresponding segment of the adult female. 
The molted skin adheres to the inside of the little scale, and there- 
fore cannot be seen from the outside. The scales are now pink, or 
rose colored, with the centre white. 

" May 14th, the insects had become a somewhat paler yellow, 
with the anal segment slightly darker. Most of the scales were now 
dark purple. On removing an insect a very delicate round white 
plate was observed adhering to the leaf where the mouth parts were 
inserted. 



No. 2. ] Notes 0^ insect pe^ts from the Entomological Section, 73 

"May 1 8th, the male scales were fully grown. At this stage they 
were dark reddish-brown in colour, with the centre white, and the 
posterior side, which is elongated, grey. At this date some of the 
males had transformed to pupa;; others were still in the larva 
state; these larvae were covered with roundish, more or less 
confluent yellow spots, leaving only the margin colourless ; the end 
of the body was pale orange. The newly-transformed pupae 
resembled in markings the larvae just described. None of the 
females had yet molted the second time ; their colour was deep 
orange, 

" May 2 1 St, nearly all of the males had changed to pupae. It was 
observed that the last larval skin is pushed backwards from under the 
scale, to the edge of which it frequently adheres. 

" May 24th, none of the male pupae had transformed to the adult 
state, ^ 

" May 29th, it was found that during the five days previous more 
than one-half of the males had issued, and the remainder, though 
still under the scales, were in the adult state. It was now forty- 
seven days from the time the larvae hatched. 

"June 2nd, no males could be found ; the females were about 
one-half grown, and were whitish with irregular yellow spots. 

"June 9th, eggs were observed within the body of a female. 

"June 17th, it was found that one of the females had deposited 
nine eggs, of which six had hatched. This is sixty-six days from the 
hatching of the egg, and probably about twenty days after impreg- 
nation of the female. 

"The insect of this brood continued to oviposit until July ist. 

'■^Number of generations per year. — This insect, living on 
orange trees in a room on the north side of a building in 
Washington, passed through five generations in less than one year < 
the average time occupied by a single generation was a little less 
than seventy days. It is probable that in the open air in Orange 
County, Florida, there are at least six generations each year. 



3. THE MANGO WEEVIL. 

Cryptorhynchus mangifera, Fabr. 
On the 18th June 1895, Surgeon Major K. R. Kirtikar forwarded 



h 



j^ Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



to the Indian Museum specimens of mango [Mangifera indica) 
fruit affected by an insect from the district of Satara. He wrote :— 

" A parcel I am sending to-day to your address contains six mangoes grown in 
Wai (Satara District). They all come from one and the same tree. The stone 
contains a peculiar insect, probably a weevil. The pulp is never seen to contain 
any such insect. The points of interest are : — (i) that although there are several 
other mango trees close by, the tree, from which the mangoes I send you are 
obtained, is the only one of which the fruit is affected from year to year ; (2) that 
possibly the eggs of the weevil are carried with the pollen to the ovary, and it is 
there that the mature insect develops as ovary develops into the drupaceous fruit. 
The mango takes about six months to mature into a perfect fruit from the first 

appearance of blossom. During this time the insect, it would appear, assumes 

its perfect form, living, after it assumes its perfect form, on the substance of the 

Cotyledons of the seed." 

The insect proved to be identical with Cryptorhynchus 

mangifera^ Fabr., the common mango weevil of Bengal and Sylhet. 

Accounts ot it may be found in Indian Museum Notes^ Vol. I, 

No. I, pp. 45—46, pl. IV, fig. I. 



IV.— FOREST PESTS, etc. 

I Gallfly {Cynipid). — The Director, Imperial Forest School, 
Dehra Dun, forwarded to the Indian Museum in July 1895, specimens 
of an insect said to attack teak trees in the Malghat Forest of the 
EUichpur Division. The specimens consisted of dead chrysalids of 
a minute Hymenopterous insect belonging to the family Cynipidas 
(Gall flies), the material being insufficient for identification. 

The following note has been furnished by the Pandurang Narayan, 
Forest Ranger : — 

*' Some teak trees were observed to present a knotty appearance just below the 
growing node of the leading shoots and branches in compartment No. 3 of the 
Chourakund Circle. To this attention was drawn by the Conservator of Forests, 
Hyderabad Assigned Districts, and observations were ordered to be made. These 
knotty portions when cut transversely showed that in the middle small eggs were 
laid for the future insect. These eggs have been found to be laid in four groups 
along the four-sided stem of the teak, and each group to contain from 12 to 24 
eggs- 

" These eggs were hatched during the beginning of July and the insect in its 
larva stage bored its way out. Some of the borings possess the coat cast out by 
the insect while undergoing the metamorphosis." 



a Pentatomid bug, — In December 1895 the same officer sent to 



No. 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Sections. 7$ 

the Indian Museum specimens of an insect said to be destructive to 
Babul tree {Acacia arabica) in Jerruck Forest, Sind. 

The examples proved to be the immature form of a bug belonging 
to the iamWy Pentatomid^, the material being insufficient for precise 
identification. The following short note is furnished by the Deputy 
Conservator of Forests, Jerruck, Sind : — 

" I am sending you by post a small insect which I removed from between the 
bark and wood of a Babul {Acscta ayabica) tree yesterday morning. This insect 
evidently does a great deal of damage to Babul, judging from its attack on the 
particular tree. The bark was discoloured and it was commencing to fall off. 

" Ihe larvae of the insect weave a sort of web in the interstices of the bark, and 
I presume they subsequently bore into it and gradually make it drop ofi." 



3 Stag-beetle.— -In March 1895 ^ specimen of a large beetle was 
received in the Museum from Major G. H. Leathern, with the informa- 
tion that it was taken at the western end of the Kashmir valley 
where it is found in large numbers in dead maples, and the grub of 
which is a favourite food of the brown bear. 

The specimen proved to be a female of a stag-beetle, probably 
belonging to the genus Dorcas; it however appears to be new to the 
Museum collection. 

It is interesting and suggestive to find the brown-bear thus 
appearing as a. friend to foresters. 



INSECT INFESTING CROTON PLANTS. 
Dactylopius longifilis, Comstock. 

Plate V, fig. 5 female enlarged. 

On the latter part of October 1894 ^ number of ornamental 
crotons in the Museum Quadrangle were found to be badly infested 
by a species of scale insect {Coccid). Several of the plants attacked 
were showing signs of decay, while a few were already dead. 

The "scales" were collected and carefully examined, but they 
proved to be new to the Indian Museum collection, and hitherto un- 
known in India. Specimens were forwarded to Mr. W. M. Maskell, 
who kindly identified the species as the same as Dactylopius longifilis 
of Comstock. The following is the description of the insect which 
he has furnished :— 

Dactylopius longifilis, Comstock, Rep. of Entomologist, United 
State Department of Agriculture, 1881, p. 344. 



^6 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



Adult female, light dull-yellow in colour, feet and antennae some- 
what darker. Length 4 mm. to 5 mm. Form elongated, elliptical, 
tapering slightly posteriorly, distinctly segmented. Margin bear- 
ing at each side about seventeen cottony tassels which are rather long 
at the sides and the two last on each side very long, equalling, if not 
surpassing, the length of the whole body. Dorsum sparsely covered 
with white meal. Antennae of eight joints; the eighth the longest, 
then the third, then the second, then the fifth : the fourth, sixth and 
seventh the shortest and sub-equaL Torsal digitules slender, with 
very small knob, digitules of the claw short and thick. Epidermis 
at margins bearing many tubercular spinnerets and some conical 
spines. Anal ring with six hairs. 

Larva similar in colour to the adult. Antennae of six joints, all 
sub-equal except the sixth, which is as long as any three others. 

Adult male light olive-brown, length about one mm. Antennae of 
ten slender joints. Feet hairy. Anal lobes bearing two long setJe 
which carry long " tails " of white cotton. 

Habitat. — On many greenhouse and hothouse plants in North 
America, principally upon Crotons and Ferns, 

It has been found also out-of-doors in Australia and is evidently 
a tropical or sub-tropical form. 

This species is very closely allied to the common European (and 
practically cosmopolitan nowadays) *^ mealy-bug" — Dactylopius 
adonidum (Linn.) Signoret. Indeed, the characters separating 
D, adonidum from several others of the genus are only very minute 
and not altogether as yet thoroughly worked out. 

This coccid is noticed at full length, not because it has hitherto, 
so far as is known, done any damage to agriculture, but because it 
belongs to a destructive family and may possibly therefore extend 
its ravages to useful plants, and because it is new to the Indian 
Museum. 



v.— PESTS OF DOMESTIC ANIMALS. 
Tick infesting fowls 
Arf/as reflexiiSi Fabr. 

Plate VI, fig. 3. 

On the 14th April 1895 numerous living specimens of a tick were 
forwarded to the Indian Museum by Mr. H. M. Phipson with the 



No* 2.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section, 77 

information that they were infesting fowls to the extent of killing 
them, in the neighbourhood of Bombay. The ticks proved to be new 
to the Indian Museum collection, so specimens were submitted to 
Mr. A. D. Michael for his examination. Mr. Michael in a letter 
dated 6th May 1895 wrote : — "The ticks which you send are the 
common Argas rejiexus of Fabricius. I think the Argas persicus oi 
Fischer of Waldheim is really the same species ; if there be any dis- 
tinction, probably your specimens would be considered to be A. 
persicus, but I do not believe that there is. The species seems 10 
be distributed practically over all temperate and tropical countries 
where the pigeons, fowls, etc., on which it lives, are present. It is 
quite possible that it kills the fowls if it be numerous ; the bite is 
bad, particularly in hot countries ; the Persian specimens were once 
supposed to be capable of killing human beings, which is probably 
incorrect ; still it is quite possible that the bites inflame seriously in 
great heat." 

" The Argas is a difficult thing to get rid of, as it is most tenaci- 
ous of life, and it is far from easy to kill it without killing the fowl ; 
probably sulphur or carbolic acid would be the best chance. Those 
you sent alive were still alive and quite well when I opened them." 



VI.— REPORTS OF RESULTS OF REMEDIES, ETC., TRIED 
DURING THE YEAR. 

I. TAR, CHALK, BIRD-LIME USED AGAINST ANTS, 

In a letter dated 23rd September 1895, forwarded by the Officiat- 
ing Director of Land Records and Agriculture, Assam, the Manager 
of the Rajpur Estate and Trading Company reports the destruction 
of lac {Coccus lacca) by ants. 

The remedies tried against the ants appear to have given no good 
results, were painting a ring of tar or tar and oil or chalk or bird 
lime round the stems of the trees to prevent them from climbing up 
the tar, and tar and oil rotted the bark and killed the trees, while the 
other substances did no good. 

A heap of fine dry sand round the base of the tree would pro- 
bably have been found useful as impeding the progress of the ants. 



78 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 



2. KEROSINE EMULSION AGAINST SCALE-INSECTS. 

In the case of the scale-insect {Aspidtotus ficus) (see pp, 69-73) 
which attacked the orange and lime trees at Kachaldara House, 
Khandala, in October 1894, Mr. Marshall Woodrow in a subsequent 
letter reported that the application of kerosine emulsion as a 
remedial measure against the insect had proved effectual in exter- 
rjQinating the pest. 

This is quite in accord with experience in other parts of the 
world. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 79 

REPRINTS AND MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 

INDIAN " FOREST FLIES." 

Hippobosca ( ^gyptiaca ?,) Macq. 

(Reprint of a report published in The Veterinary Record, by Miss Eleanor 
A. Ormerod, F. E. S., etc., in August 1895.) 

On the 26th ultimo I received from Messrs. R. S. Hart, the 
eminent veterinary surgeons of Calcutta, a liberal supply of "Forest 
flies " with the mention that they were "common in Bengal and in 
other parts of India." From details given these Hippobosca were 
shown to be very similar in habits to the kind which we have in this 
country, also that although they infested dogs, it was to horses that 
they were most troublesome. It was noted " some horses are driven 
mad even by the presence of a single fly, and in driving along not 
unfrequently start kicking most violently, kicking over the traces 
and shafts, and frequently running away with the carriage," etc. 
The locality of the infestation on the horses was noted as the same 
as with us, and the specimens sent me were certainly " Forest flies," 
that is of the genus Hippobosca^ but differed from the Hippobosca 
equina^ our too well known species, in being rather larger and also 
in the neuration of the wings ; also in the back (the thorax ento- 
mologically) being very much more marked with small yellowish 
patches, and the scutellum (the small portion of the hinder part of 
the thorax immediately above the abdomen) having a central pale 
yellow marking and two side ones on a dark ground, instead of as 
with the equina^ only one central pale marking. 

As the precise identification of these Forest flies was of consider- 
able importance in connection with such valuable notes as those of 
Messrs. Hart, i forwarded a good supply of specimens to one of the 
entomologists at the Museo Civico at Genoa, where I was aware 
that there were trustworthy types of various of the exotic species 
of Hippobosca, and he was good enough to compare Messrs. Hart's 
specimens for me. 

These, he told me, were certainly not of Hippobosca equina, nor 
of canina, nor of bactriana, nor camelina^ but they greatly resem- 
bled the Hippobosca ^gyptiaca^ Macq,, of which he was good 
enough to give me a type specimen (identified by Professor Rondani 
himself) for my own comparison. After the most minute and careful 
examination which I have been able to make I cannot find any point 
of specific difference between this type specimen and those sent 
from Calcutta, They correspond quite precisely in the peculiar 
neuration of the wings which differs markedly from that of the 



8o Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV« 

Hippobosca equina, and of which Professor Rondani says in his notes 
on the " Muscaria Exotica Musei Ctvici Januensis" (p. 15 of the 
separate issue) that by this the Hippobosca /^gyptiaca, Macq., may 
be " easily distinguished from all its congeners." Also there was 
absolute similarity in the elaborate markings on the thorax and in 
every point in which I was able to make comparison, excepting that 
the Indian specimens were of rather a darker shade of colour, and 
also (or consequently) the markings on the hinder legs were more 
noticeable in those than in ^gyptiaca. 

This matter of difference of shade of colour cannot, 1 think, 
however, be at all considered to amount to a distinction in species. 
I find varieties of tint in the numerous specimens of our Hippobosca 
equina lately sent me, and also it is exceedingly likely that soaking, 
for some weeks in preservative fluid during transmission, may have 
affected the depth of the colour. 

But looking at the similarity in other respects, also that the 
Indian specimens have the peculiar wing neuration by which Pro- 
fessor Rondani states the ^gyptiaca is distinguishable from " all 
oi\i&rs" oi the Hippobosca, it appears to me that we may safely 
consider this kind so common in Bengal and other parts of India as 
the Hippobosca ^gyptiaca, Macq., or if presently we find there is a 
permanently darker shade of colouring, perhaps it may be distinc- 
tively named by Dipterists as the Hippobosca /^gyptiaca, Macq., var, 
Bengalensis, The species was first recorded in Egypt, but since 
then has been found in Persia. 

To the above it may be of interest to add that in the course of 
n;y own continued investigations, I find that the large curved claw 
of our Forest fly has beneath it a saw-like edge with grooves down 
the lower part of the side of the claw, so that each groove runs to 
the notch between each tooth, the claws when laid side by side thus 
forming a most powerful grasping instrument. This is very notice- 
able when the claw is got into the right position with a good side 
light, and examined as a dry object in natural condition, but in 
balsam or glycerine the grooves are — to me at least- — invisible. 

I trust that the above may be considered of some interest. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 8i 



COCCiDS PREYED UPON BY BIRDS. 
BY R. NEWSTEAD, F.E.S., 
Curator of the Grosvenor Museum^ Chester. 
(Reprinted from The Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 2nd series, Vol. VI, i8a. 

To do justice to this subject, I think it only right that the entire 
contents of each stomach, found to contain Coccidas, should be 
given ; as it is only by such means that an adequate idea may be 
obtained as to whether the birds were able to obtain other, and what 
we should consider more nourishing, food. I have pleasure, therefore, 
in enclosing the result of my post mortem examinations in winter 
and spring of two species of birds \Parus coeruleus and Acredula 
caudata) taken from my report to the Cheshire County Council on 
"The Amendment of the W^ild Birds Protection Act."" 

The finding of CoccidcB in birds' stomachs is certainly of very 
great interest and economic importance. I am not quite sure, but 
believe that hitherto nothing of the kind has been recorded ; if soi 
the matter should be of some value. 

I have records of three species of Coccidoe, viz., Aspidiotus, 
Bonatus, Fd., Mytilaspis pomorum, Bouche, and Asterodiaspis 
quercicola^ Bouche ; and in my MS. notes there is a record of an 
immature % Lecanium^ also from the stomach of one of the Parida. 
Aspidiotus zonatus may be quite as eagerly sought for as the 
Asterodiaspis, but it is a much rarer species. High Legh is the only 
known habitat in Cheshire, and this locality is many miles from 
where the blue tit [Parus coeruleus) had no doubt taken the insects. 
These birds must have keen eyes to distinguish this species, for it is 
well protected both in colour and texture. The central red-brown 
speck in the scale is the only indication of its presence, and alto- 
gether it may be considered the best protected of any of our British 
Coccidce, 

Mytilaspis pomorum. — Although only four specimens of this 
injurious species were found, I am fully convinced that it is readily 
devoured by birds. Many times have I seen, with the aid of field- 
glasses, the tree-creeper [Certhia familiar is) collecting this species 
during winter and spring ; and from what I have seen of the marsh 
tit (A paiustfis) and the blue tit [P. coeruleus)^ they, too, are fond 
of the species. One has only to examine a tree infested with this 
" scale " to find, in very many instances, only the white mealy outline 
of the inssct on the bark. To get such a result the scale must be 



82 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 

removed by some agency, and I am pleased to credit it to our 
feathered friends, the useful tits and the tree-creeper. 

Asterodiaspis quercicola.—A firmly believe this species is eagerly 
sought for by various species of tits. Here, in Cheshire, the charac- 
teristic little depressions made in the twigs of the oak by this species 
are to be found in thousands. Rarely is it that the Coccids are found 
in them. This fact, for many years, led me to suspect the birds had 
taken them. It was not until 1894 that the matter was placed beyond 
doubt. The May record is of the greatest interest, as at that time 
there would be a good selection of bird-food. It proves, therefore, 
that the species is a selected item in the dietary of two species of 
birds. 

Lecanium genevense.— 'This was one of the earliest species which 
came under my investigation when first I became a student of the 
Coccidse. At that time a large colony of these insects infested a 
short thorn hedge, growing hard by a city foot-path leading to this 
Museum, where they afforded every opportunity for investigation. 
The hatching of the larvae, the hibernation of the young $ , and the 
emergence of the ^ in May, went on without any apparent losses. 
But when the females had become fat and plump, and ready to lay 
their eggs, then it was that they began rapidly to disappear, until 
very few remained. At first I could not account for the loss, but one 
day a small flock of sparrows {Passer domesticus) were busily 
engaged in the hedge-row, and as I saw them subsequently in the 
same place I attributed the disappearance of the Coccids to these 
omnivorous birds. K post mortem examination would have settled 
the matter, but the birds could neither be trapped nor shot in such 
a public thoroughfare. 

Summary of contents of nine stomachs of blue tit and long-tailed 
tit examined : — Aspidiotus zonatus, many, in February; Asterodi- 
aspis guercicola, numerous, in February and May ; Mytilaspis 
pomorUMy a few, in February ; larvae of Diptera, many ; small moths 
and larvae, manyj Coleoptera, various, chiefly weevils; Cynips, many ; 
and bud-scales. These occurred in different proportions in the 
various stomachs. 

It is of interest also to know that many specimens of Phyllotreta 
tidulata and P. nemorum were found \xi four stomachs of the tree- 
creeper. 



No. 2.] 



Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, 



83 



THE COMMON CROW OF THE UNITED STATES AS AN 
ENEMY TO INSECTS. 

[Reprint of a report by W. B. Barrows and E. A. Schwarz, published in Bulle- 
tin No. 6, United States, Department of Agriculture, Division of Ornithology and 
Mammalogy, 1895.] 

The matter of the Crow's utility as an insect destroyer is one of 
prime importance; in fact, it is the crucial test of the bird's value- 
The material available for the decision of this question consists of 
the insect contents of 909 stomachs, taken at various places and 
times, the great majority during the warmer half of the year. 

Most of the older ornithologists recognized the fact that Crows ate 
insects in considerable numbers, but ignored the fact that many 
insects are beneficial ; and moreover they took no pains to determine 
what proportion of the Crow's diet consists of insects. Even at the 
present time these points are very generally overlooked, and to the 
best of our knowledge there is nowhere a record of the carefully 
identified contents of a dozen Crow stomachs taken in summer. A 
few naturalists have put on record the results of more or less 
thorough examinations, but in too many cases we find only such 
general statements as * contents consisted of seeds, berries, and in- 
sects ' or possibly of 'grain, carrion, and beetles,' without any attempt 
to determine the kind or amount of each. 

Eight hundred and one out of 909 stomachs examined contained 
insect remains in quantities varying from the merest trace to 100 
per cent. The following table shows the number of Crows' stomachs 
collected during each month, the numbers which contained insect 
remains, and the average percentage of such remains for the whole 
number of stomachs in each month : — 

Table showing average percentages of insect material contained in 
gog Crow stomachs, arranged by months. 



Month. 


Number 
examined. 


Number 

containing 

insects. 


Percentage 
of insect 
contents. 


January 
February . 
March 
April . 
May . 
\ une . 
. uly . 
August 
September , 
October 
November 
December 


• 
• 








53 
23 
26 
42 
364 
165 
45 
24 
44 
46 
18 
59 


21 
10 
16 

36 

357 
157 
42 
24 
40 
42 
17 
39 


2*2 

33 

5-8 
49*2 
47-1 

4-0 
26s 
35'6 
24*6 
167 
25-8 

47 










Total 


909 


801 


23'5 



84 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



It appears from this table that the average quantity of insect 
material in these gcg stomachs was almost 24 per cent. A moment's 
examination of the table shows, however, that the number of stomachs 
examined in different months is very unequal, and also that the per- 
centage varies widely according to season. The average percentage 
represents the proportion of insects to the whole stomach contents? 
but from 7 to 10 per cent, of the stomach contents is sand or gravel. 
Throwing out this mineral element, it appears that on the average, 
26*17 per cent, of the Crow's food for the year is made up of insects. 
In the same way it is found that even in January, when the smallest 
proportion is eaten, insects form almost 3 per cent {2"]\) of the food, 
while the maximum is reached in April with almost 53 per cent. 
(52'75). In May, insects constitute about 49 per cent. (48'97) of the 
food, and in June about 41 1 per cent. 

During the months of May and June 529 stomachs were collected, 
insects formed 46'7 per cent, of all food in these stomachs. Since 
these two months cover the larger part of the time when Crows are 
rearing young, this large proportion of insect food perhaps is not 
surprising, especially as 396 stomachs were those of young Crows 
taken from the nest. The insect food in the stomachs of these nest- 
lings averaged 49'6 per cent., while the average amount in the 
stomachs of 120 adult Crows taken during May and June was only 
36*4 per cent. This shows conclusively that young Crows while in 
the nest eat more insects than the adults, the difference in this case 
amounting to more than 13 per cent, of the entire fcod ; or to put the 
matter in another form, nestling Crows eat at least one-third more 
insects than the adults. It is of great importance, however, that the 
character of this insect food be carefully determined, so that we may 
know positively whether its consumption is or is not of benefit to the 
agriculturist. Fortunately, this has been done. After the prelimi- 
nary examination of the contents of each stomach and the determi- 
nation of the percentages of the several kinds of food contained the 
insect material was referred to Professor C. V. Riley, then Chief of 
the Division of Entomology, under whose direction it was thoroughly 
studied by Mr. E. A. Schwarz. The following reports contain the 
results of this examination : — 

Report on the insect food of the crow. By E. A. Schwarz^ Assistant, 
Division of Entomology. 
The examination of the contents of about 600 stomachs of Crows^ 

• The insect contents of 8oi Crow stomachs were submitted to Professor Riley for 
examination, but in several cases where many stomachs were collected on the same day and 
at the same place, under precisely similar circumstances, it was not thought necessary that all 
should be examined critically. In such cases half or more were thoroughly examined and the 
lesults tabulated, while the remainder were passed over with a simple inspection.— W. B. B. 



No. 2.] Reprints ind Miscellaneous Notes. 85 

submitted by Dr. C. Hart Merriam to the Division of Entomology, 
was intrusted to me by Dr. C. V. Riley, then United States Entomo- 
logist. Owing to the large bulk represented by the majority of the 
stomach contents, and more especially to the comminuted condition 
of the insect remains, the work of examining and determining was 
much more tedious and progressed much slower than was anticipated. 
In the often-times difficult determination of minute fragments 
I have been greatly assisted by the other members of the Division of 
Entomology, and more especially by Messrs. William H. Ashmead 
and Theo. Pergande. 

A detailed list of the contents of each stomach has been prepared, 
enumerating systematically the various species of insects found and 
giving the number of specimens. This list forms the basis of the 
following generalizations regarding the food habits of Corvus ameri- 
canus so far as the insects are concerned: — 

I. The insect food of Crows is almost exclusively composed of 
terrestrial species, i.e.^ such as are found on the surface of the 
ground, or hide during the day time at the base of plants or under 
the various objects lying on the surface, or such as live in the dung 
of domestic animals, in decaying vegetable and animal matter, or 
underground. 

There is not the slightest indication that Crows catch any insects 
while on the wing, and the almost complete absence of the numerous 
arboreal insects of all orders, i.e., such insects as are to be found on 
or which live on the trunks, limbs, or leaves of trees and shrubs, indi- 
cates that the birds when setting or resting on trees do not pick up 
insects. 

The almost constant presence of coprophagous insects in the 
stomachs indicates that Crows preferably frequent dry pasture lands, 
dry meadows, or very open woods, where cattle or horses are graz- 
ing. In many instances the presence of certain species of Chlsenius, 
water beetles, or an occasional aquatic Hemipter or a Gryllotalpa, 
or Corydalus, etc., shows that the birds frequent the margins of ponds 
or streams, while in a number of other instances the presence of the 
larvae of Lachnosterna, Elateridae, etc., proves that the Crows have 
followed the plough of the farmer. Many of the terrestrial insects 
eaten by Crows abound during the warmer season in cultivated fields 
more especially in corn and clover fields, and have no doubt been 
picked up by the birds in such localities, 

2. The insect food of the Crow consists only of large or medium- 
ized insects ; small species are only rarely, if ever, picked up. The 
smallest insects found are certain species of Aphodius. Ants form 



86 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



a marked exception to this rule, as small, or very small, species are 
frequently found in many stomachs. 

3. The Crow appears to prefer insects with a hard covering to the 
more soft-bodied ones. Thus the number of the hard imagos of 
Carabidae, Elateridae, Scarabaeidae, Curculionidae, and Acridiidae 
enormously exceeds that of the Coleopterous, Lepidopterous, and 
Dipterous larvae found in the stomachs, and no soft-bodied imagos 
(a few Diptera excepted) seem to be eaten. In many instances, 
however, this peculiarity may be explained by the fact that the 
larvae, as a rule, live in more hidden situations and are more diffi" 
cult to find than the imagos. But Crows derive a great deal of their 
food from the insects living in dung heaps and dead animals where 
Dipterous and other larvae abound ; still these are but rarely met with 
in the stomachs. A marked exception to this rule is the frequent 
occurrence of spiders, and more especially species of the family 
Lycosidae, or ground spiders. 

4. It would seem that Crows have a predilection for insects pos- 
sessing a pungent or otherwise strong taste or odour. This is exem- 
plified by the prevalence of Carabidae (among them the often recurring 
genus Chlaenius possessing a peculiar odour), coprophilous or necro- 
phagous Coleoptera (Silphidae, Histeridae and Scarabaeidae Laparos- 
ticti), ants, and more especially by the almost constant occurrence 
of certain species of the Heteropterous family, Pentatomidae. 

5. Finally, as a peculiarity of very little importance, may be men- 
tioned the fact that insects of a bright, and more specially golden, 
colour are apparently very attractive to Crows and are eagerly picked 
up by them. Thus Calosoma calidum^ with its bright golden elytral 
spots, is met with in a large number of stomachs from various Joca- 
lities.i Very often only little elytral fragments of this species are 
found which would seem to indicate that the birds even pick up the 
elytra of dead beetles. Another striking illustration is furnished by 
the frequent occurrence of Euphoria fulgida, with its peculiar 
golden-green colour. Other examples are the Cicindelidae, Pterosti' 
chus sayi, Geotrypes splendidui, Phanmus carnifex^ and others. 

If we now proceed to a consideration of the insects eaten by the 
Crow it is at once evident that a mere list of them, comprising as it 
does several hundred species, is only bewildering and misleading. 
If all the numerous species which occur only once or at best in a 

1 No traces of our common and bright-colored Calosoma scrutator and C. viilcoxi have 
been found in the stonrachs but this is easily explained from the habits of these species which 
live in the woods and are more or less arboreal, whereas C calidum \s strictly terrestrial 
and frequents pastures and fields. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 87 

small number of stomachs and in limited numbers are eliminated, and 
only those species are taken into consideration which occur in a 
large number of stomachs, and most of which are represented by a 
very large number of specimens ; finally, if we divide the latter 
class of insects into several convenient groups, each defined by 
similarity in food habits, we arrive at a certain number of clearly 
established and characteristic features in the food habits of the 
American Crow. The writer confidently asserts that, while an exa- 
mination of several hundred additional stomachs would no doubt 
greatly increase the list of insects eaten by Crows, it would not alter, 
in the least, nor materially add to, the characteristic features now 
arrived at. 

It is possible that in the extreme Southern States, as well as in 
the Far West, some other features in the food of the Crow would 
appear besides those enumerated below ; for only a single stomach 
from Florida and one from Oregon were among those submitted fori 
examination. There were also only a few stomachs from Kansas 
and Nebraska. Since all the other stomachs were collected at 
various places in the region extending from Virginia to Maine, and 
west to Iowa and Wisconsin, we should expect that the difference in 
the faunal regions would produce a corresponding difference in the 
food supply of the Crow. But these differences are of slight im- 
portance, and with a single exception the main features of the food 
of this bird remain wonderfully uniform throughout this whole 
region. 

The following groups of insects representing the principal food 
supply of the Crow are arranged according to their relative im- 
portance, but this sequence might undergo some changes if 
an equal number of stomachs from all parts of the country were 
available for examination. Of the stomachs submitted, those from 
Virginia, the District of Columbia, and Maryland greatly outnum- 
ber those from all other localities combined : — 

I. Grasshoppers (Acridiidae). — During the months of May and 
June, t'.e.y during the May beetle {Lachnosferna) season, grass- 
hoppers, mostly of the genus Tetfix, occur in the vast majority of 
stomachs, but with few exceptions in moderate numbers only. With 
the disappearance of the May beetles (towards the end of June) 
specimens of the typical locusts (grasshoppers — Melanoplus and 
allied genera) increase in number, until in the month of August, and 

* Since this was written 21 additional stomachs from Kansas have been examined by 
Mr. Schwarz, but without essentially modifying his conclusions. — W. B. B. 



88 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



throughout the fall they constitute by far the greatest part of the 
insect food, often occurring in astonishing numbers, and often forming 
the only insect food. Grasshoppers are also largely picked up in 
winter, evidently on warm days and when there is no snow on the 
ground. 

2. Dung-beetles. — Under this heading the following Coleoptera 
are comprised : Species of Silpha and Hister^ the Scarabaeid, 
genera Copris onthophagus, Aphodtus, and allied genera. 
Certain species of Staphylinus are also included here, which, 
although insectivorus, confine their operations to the droppings 
of domestic animals. Dung-inhabiting dipterous larvae or their 
pupae were, however, met with in only a few stomach<^, and the 
same may be said of the larvae of dung-beetles. A larger or 
smaller number of these dung-beetles, and more especially of 
the scarabaeid genera just mentioned, or at least single speci- 
mens thereof, occur in most of the stomachs from all localities 
and throughout the whole year, and in many instances com- 
prise the greater bulk of the insect food. 

3. Ground-beetles (Carabidae). — These occur likewise in the vast 
majority of stomachs from all localities and throughout the year, 
and the list of the species thus found is a very extended one. The 
genera most frequently present are : Calosoma, Carabus^ Chiasmus, 
PterostichuSf Harpalus, and Anisodactylus. It will be noted, how- 
ever, that none of the species are ever represented by any consider- 
able number of specimens in a single stomach. Thus the bulk 
represented by the Carabidae is much inferior to that of the grass- 
hoppers and May beetles, and probably also smaller than that of the 
dung-beetles. Carabidous larvae were found only in two or three 
isolated instances. 

4. May beetles (Lachnosterna). — During a short period of the 
year, commencing, in the latitude of Washington, D.C., at the end 
of April, and in Maine and Michigan about a fortnight later, and 
extending towards the end of June, these beetles furnish, as regards 
bulk, number of specimens, and frequency of occurrence, the prin- 
cipal insect food of the Crow. In fact, there are only a few stomachs 
during this season that do not contain traces of Lachnosternas, 
while frequently large numbers of specimens are found in a single 
stomach, and this often to the exclusion of other insect food. This 
habit prevails throughout the whole region,^ and would occupy the 



• Even the single stomach from Kansas, collected in May (No. 15249), contaii.s nothing 
except a number of Lachnosternas. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 89 

foremost rank in this enumeration, but for the fact that it is restricted 
to two months of the year. 

The fact that the Lachnosterna season coincides with the breed- 
ing period of the Crow deserves to be emphasized, and the prin- 
cipal, but by no means exclusive, insect food of the nestlings may 
thus be said to consist of these Lachnosternas. 

Lachnosternas are above ground only at night, when they feed 
on the foliage of trees and shrubs ; they hide during the day under 
ground. In determining the economic status of the Crow as an 
insectivorous bird it would seem to be of some importance to ascer- 
tain how and where the birds find these beetles. It may be that 
only those are eaten which during their nocturnal flight had been 
half eaten by bats and other nocturnal enemies of Lachnosterna or 
which had been otherwise disabled ; or it may be that only those 
specimens are eaten which have fallen into lakes or streams during 
the night and which are then washed ashore in a drowned or half- 
drowned condition ; finally, it may be that the Crows are able to 
discover and to dig out the beetles during the day from their sub* 
terranean retreats. No direct observations on these points seem 
to have been made, but I have no hesitation in accepting the latter 
alternative, for the reason that it is an undeniable fact that the 
Crows find an enormous number of other insects that hide during the 
day under sticks, clods of earth, and other objects {e.g., many of 
the Carabidse), or in the ground at the base of plants {e.g., the 
Curculionidae presently to be mentioned). Many of the roprophagous 
insects, and more especially the genera Copris and Geotrypes, are 
evidently dug out from their holes beneath cattle and horse dungs. 
This, of course, does not entirely exclude the other alternatives, and 
in fact, the often recurring presence of small ants in the stomachs 
seems to indicate that the Crows also pick up dead or wounded Lach ■ 
nosternas which are frequently covered with ants. 

Larvae of Lachnosterna (white grubs) were, contrary to expecta- 
tion, met with in a comparatively small number of stomachs (about 
20 in all, including a few where determination is doubtful), all cf 
which were collected in the District of Columbia and adjacent parts 
of Maryland during the months of April and May. If a larger num- 
ber of stomachs from other localities could have been examined, it is 
possible that white grubs would play a more important role in the 
food habits of the Crow. The absence of Lachnosterna larvae in all 
stomachs collected during the fall ploughing season is easily ex- 
plained by the great abundance of grosshoppers at this season. 
The few Scarabaeid larvae found in stomachs collected in the fall 
all belong to coprophagous species. 



90 



Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



5, Ground spider (Lycosidae). — The only soft-bodied insects that 
occur in a very large number of stomachs from all localities and 
throughout the warmer seasons are various species of Lycosid 
spiders, which are so commonly met with on the ground in pastures 
and near water. The larger female specimens, carrying their egg 
sacs, appear more especially to -form an attractive morsel to the 
Crows. The spiders are often represented in considerable numbers 
in the stomachs, occasionally forming the greater bulk of the insect 
food. Spiders of other families were but rarely met with in the 
stomachs, and never in large numbers. 

6. Weevils (Rhynchophora). — Two species of weevils, Epicaerus 
imhricatus and Phytonomus punctatus both often referred to in 
Economic Entomology, occur abundantly in a large number of 
stomachs. They would play a very prominent role in the food 
supply of the Crow, but for the fact that this habit is locally restricted 
on account of the distribution of the two species. Epicaerus imbri' 
catus does not extend into the Northern and North-Western States, 
and the clover weevil [Phytonomus punctatus') is a comparatively 
recent importation from Europe, occurring from New York to Virginia 
and gradually spreading into the North-Western States.^ Both species 
are terrestrial during the day and hide in the ground at the base of 
plants. Other weevils possessing similar habits are not infrequently 
found in the stomachs, more especially various species of Spheno- 
phorus (bill bugs of economic importance), and in less numbers 
Tanymecus confertus, species of Sitones, Macrops^ etc. Various 
other non-terrestrial weevils occur only occasionally, the most abund- 
ant among them being Lixus concavus. 

7. Cutworms (larvae of Noctuidse). — Considering the enormous 
number of cutworms that occur, especially in the spring and the 
earlier part of summer, in pastures, dry meadows, and open fields, 
and considering further that cutworms hide during the day at the 
base of plants, under leaves, sticks, clods of soil, etc., in short, in 
just such places as are preferably investigated by Crows in search of 
food, it is remarkable that they do not constitute the largest portion 
of the insect food. Even if we include all other Lepidopterous 
larvae and pupse found in the stomachs, this food does not by any 
means rank among the most prominent features. The only explana- 
tion of this fact that occurs to me has been mentioned before, vie.t 
that the Crows greatly prefer insects with hard bodies. Still, the 
bulk represented by the Lepidopterous food is by no means an 

' It was never noted in Michigan prior to 1S92, and it is interesting to find that there is a 
specimen in one of the sto-wachs (No. 15884) from that State, collected on May 8th, 1S93. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. gi 

inconsiderable one, and the largest part is made up of Noctuid larvae 
or cutworms. These occur in many stomachs, usually singly or in 
very small numbers, rarely forming the bulk of the food in any one 
stomach and never the entire food. Noctuid pupae w^ere found only 
in isolated cases. Larvae of the Pyralid, genus Crambus, which live 
in silken tubes at the base of grasses, clover, etc., belong to the 
family next best represented in number of specimens, and occur in 
large numbers in a few stomachs. Bombycid larvae, and especially 
Bombycid cocoons, come next, represented usually by single speci- 
mens. The rest of the Lepidopterous families are represented only 
by isolated specimens. Single images of Lepidoptera were found 
in only a few instances, and most of these are evidently specimens 
which had not yet issued from the chrysalis. 

8. Soldier bugs (Pentatomidae). — Although by no means repre- 
senting a considerable portion of the insect food, the constantly 
recurring presence of various species of soldier bugs constitutes a 
characteristic feature in the food habits of the Crow. There are 
many species representing various families of true bugs (Heterop- 
tera) that occur commonly on or near the ground, but, with the 
exception of these soldier bugs, only a few isolated specimens of a 
few species were found in all the stomachs. It seems probable that 
the strong odour or taste of these soldier bugs is the reason why 
they are so eagerly sought by Crows. The condition in which the 
specimens are found in the stomachs is also peculiar; for while the 
Crows generally have the habit of crushing and breaking into frag- 
ments all the hard insects they eat, these soldier bugs are almost 
always broken up in extremely minute particles which in the well 
filled stomachs are often liable to be overlooked. Owing to the 
condition the exact determination of the species, as well as the 
determination of the number of specimens, is impossible in most 
cases.— -The soldier bugs thus found belong to Podisus^ Euschistul% 
and allied genera. 

g. Ants (Formicidae). — As in the case of the soldier bugs, ants 
form only a small proportion of the bulk of the insect food, but 
their frequent occurrence in the stomachs suggests the explanation 
that they are relished by the Crows on account of their peculiar acid 
taste. Quite a number of species of various genera are represented, 
the largest species, Campanotus pennsylvanicus and various species 
of Formica, being most frequent. The presence of very small 
species of ants is, in many instances, probably due to accident, as 
has been mentioned on page 85, 

The following enumeration of insects, arranged according to 



92 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 

orders, comprises those which occurred only in a moderately large 
number of stomachs and usually only as single specimens, or only 
in a few stomachs in large numbers. Some of the insects of this 
class have already been mentioned. 

Click beetles (Elateridae).— A tolerably large number of species 
were found, but none of them represented by any considerable 
number of specimens. The most abundant of these species are 
Limonius plebejus, Corymbites cylindriformts, Agriotes mancus 
Elaterid larvae (wire-worms) were found only in a few isolated 
instances. 

Lamellicorn beetles: Lucanid beetles {Lucanus, Passalus) oc- 
cur occasionally, while various species of the Scarabseid genera, 
Serica, HopliUy Anomala, AphonuSy Euphoria, and others, form 
in the aggregate a not inconspicuous portion of the insect food. 
The prevalence of Euphoria fulgida, or at least of little fragments 
thereof, in quite a number of stomachs has been already alluded to. 

Tenebrionidx.— -Some, specimens of the genus Eleodes, found in 
the few stomachs from Nebraska and Kansas, lead to the supposition 
that if a larger number of stomachs from that region could be 
examined, specimens of this and allied genera would be found well 
represented. These beetles so characteristic to the fauna of the 
arid region of the West, fulfill most of the requirements of insect 
food preferred by the Crows ; they are terrestrial, large, hard, and 
possess a strong, offensive odour. 

Ants, Bees and Wasps ( Hymenoptera). — Besides Formicids only 
a very moderate number of species and specimens were found, most 
of them belonging to the fossorial families, Crabonidae and Eumenidae 
(genus Odynerus). Quite a number of Polistes also occur in various 
stomachs. 

Flies (Diptera). — The whole order is comparatively poorly repre- 
sented, and only the following families deserve mention :— 

Crane flies {T\^\x\\di2&) , — These are much less frequently found 
than one would expect from their great abundance on meadow land. 
Still, eggs, larvae, and much more rarely pupae and imagos occurred 
in a moderate number of stomachs. In a few instances eggs were 
found without any trace of the imago. 

March flies ( Bibionidse). — Larvae of this family were found only 
in a few stomachs, but in very large numbers. They live gregariously 
under decaying vegetable substances. 

Muscid^.— The very small number of the various larvae and 
puparia, all presumably belonging to Coprophagous or Necrophagous 
species, found in the stomachs, is in striking contrast with their 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 93 

enormous abundance in the excrement of horses, cattle, etc., or in 
dead animals. Imagos of these Diptera were found only in excep- 
tional instances. 

Crickets (Gryllidae). — Excepting the Acridiidae, the whole order 
of Orthoptera is very poorly represented ; the only other repre- 
sentatives which occur in a moderate number of stomachs are ground 
crickets of the genera Gryllus and Nemobius. 

The orders hitherto omitted, viz.^ the Homoptera and Neuroptera 
(in the old sense), are so poorly represented as to deserve no special 
mention. The same may be said of the order Myriapoda, of which 
a few specimens of a Julus were found. 

In order to complete this picture of the food habits of the Crow, 
it is important to mention briefly those families, or even single 
species, of insects which are of economic importance, being either 
injurious or beneficial, but which were not found in the stomachs 
examined. Only such insects are mentioned here as occur on or 
near the ground and of which one might expect that the Crows, at 
least occasionally, would pick up specimens. Some of the orders 
or families unrepresented or but poorly represented, have been 
mentioned before, and are not here repeated. 

Among the Coleoptera the absence of the useful ladybirds (Cocci- 
nellidae ) deserves special mention (only in a single elytron of one 
species has been found). Still more striking is the absence of the 
large family of leaf beetles ( Chrysomelidae) including the notorious 
Colorado potato beetle {Doryphora 10 — lineata). In fact, only 
four species of Chrysomelidae were found in all the stomachs ( two 
elytra of Paria canella, one elytron of Colaspis brunnea, and a few 
specimens of the aquatic Donacia flavipes). Chrysomeiid larvse 
are entirely absent. Finally, the soldier beetles of the genera 
Chauliognathus and Telephorus in the family Lampyridae are not 
represented, and only two larvae of a Telephorus were found in a 
single stomach. 

In the Hymenoptera no injurious (Phytophagic ) families are 
represented, but on the other hand, the immense host of beneficial 
(parasitic) species is also almost entirely absent, only a few isolated 
specimens having been found. The Crow is not one of the des- 
troyers of the honey-bee, for only a single bee occurred in all 
stomachs. 

In the Lepidoptera, which practically do not contain any beneficial 
species, the absence of all cabbage worms larvae of ( Pieris rapas, 
Plusia brassier, etc.), excepting a solitary specimen, deserves 



h 



94 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

mention j also the absence of the various Sphingid larvae, and their 
pupae, which infest potatoes, sweet potatoes and tobacco. The corn 
worm (larva of Heliothis armigera) is here especially mentioned be- 
cause it is said that the Crows pull out and injure the ears of corn 
only for the purpose of getting at the corn worms. This species has 
not been recognized, but it is possible that a few specimens are 
among the unidentifiable Noctuid larvae. 

In the Diptera the most injurious species is the Hessian fly [Ceci' 
domyia destructor), but the small size of the larvae and pupae, as 
well as their mode of occurrence, make it improbable that the Crows 
ever feed upon this insect, and no trace of them were found in the 
stomachs. The beneficial Diptera, z'/s., larvae of Syrphidae, and the 
family Tachinidae are absent. 

The complete, or almost complete, absence of the injurious 
Heteroptera forms a very striking feature. In all the stomachs 
examined only a single specimen of the notorious chinch bug {Blissus 
leucopterus) was found, and unless we assume that this insect is too 
small, no explanation is offered why the Crow does not feed exten- 
sively upon the chinch bug, which possesses a strong odour and is 
more or less terrestrial in its habits. Excepting the Soldier bugs 
(Pentatomidae), the insectivorus species of Heteroptera are hardly 
represented, the Phymatidse are entii'ely absent (no doubt on account 
of their non-terrestrial mode of life), and of the Reduviidae only a 
few specimens of a terrestrial species were found. 

In the Homoptera the stomachs submitted for examination offered 
no opportunity for ascertaining whether or not the Crow feeds exten- 
sively upon the periodical Cicada, but from the fact that in a small 
number of stomachs pupae and imagos of another species of Cicada 
were found, as well as from previous records and observations, there 
can be no doubt that this insect is not refused. The more or less 
injurious leaf hoppers (families Jassidae, Cercopi dae, Fulgoridae:, 
Membracidae), many species of which are frequently found, on or 
at least near the ground, are not represented in the stomachs 
(excepting a single larva of a Fulgorid). 

The only beneficial (insectivorous) family among the Orthoptera, 
vis.y the Mantidae, is represented in our Fauna by only a few species, 
and none have been found in the stomachs. 

No specimens of white ants (Termitidae), the only injurious 
family of the old order Neuroptera, occurred in the stomachs, while 
of the eminently beneficial families, only a single specimen of a 
mosquito hawk ( i^schnidae ) and a single specimen of a lacewing 
fly ( Hemerobidae ) were found. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 95 

All the families of spiders are insectivorous, but only a few are 
really useful to man, e.g.y the Thomisidae and the orb-weavers 
(Orbitelariae). These are almost entirely absent, and the only family 
which is well represented ( Lycosidse ) has no economic importance. 

No ticks ( Ixodidse) were found in the stomachs. 

The insectivorous myriapods are not represented, being probably 
protected by their mode of life. 

It will be seen from the foregoing remarks that among the princi- 
pal insect food of the Crow there are only two classes of eminently 
beneficial insects, vis., the ground beetles (Carabidae), and the soldier 
bugs (predaceous Pentatomidae). The ground spider (Lycosid^) 
and the ants are, in the opinion of the writer, to be classed among 
the neutral or innoxious insects, which class also includes the dung 
insects, many of the Lamellicorn beetles, and a great many of the 
other insects found in smaller numbers in the stomachs. All the rest 
belong to the injurious Insects, notably the grasshoppers, May 
beetles (including some allied genera), the click beetles (Elateridae), 
the weevils (Rynchophorous Coleoptera), the cutworms (in fact all 
Lepidoptera) and the crane flies (Tipulidae). 

It is evident that the percentage of the three groups of insects 
forming the chief insect food of the Crow cannot be determined, 
from the number of species, nor from the bulk represented by the 
aggregate of each species, but must be determined by the number 
of specimens. It is difficult to give exact figures on this last point 
for two reasons, viz.'— 

(i.) While it is easy to determine the number of specimens of a 
given species where there are but few in the stomach, it is often 
impossible to do so where the number is great, and the specimens 
are in the decomposed condition in which insects are usually found 
when in such numbers. In most instances the number could only 
be approximated by the number of heads or mandibles, as the remain- 
der of the body has been essentially destroyed by digestion. 

(2.) A large proportion of the stomachs submitted are those of 
nestlings, and it follows that the mere fragment of any given insect 
is counted in such a case as a specimeUj while it is probable that a 
single specimen may have been given in fragments or portions by 
the parent to several of the nestlings, so that combined they repre- 
sent but one single individual. Nevertheless the difficulties do not, 
in my judgment, invalidate the general conclusions arrived air, 
which are, that the sum total of specimens of those insects which 
are emphatically injurious to agriculture vastly outnumbers these 



56 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

which may be considered beneficial, and that it also surpasses the 
number of beneficial and innoxious species combined. 

The facts on the whole overwhelmingly speak in favour of the 
Crow, and taken alone would be at variance with the prevalent 
opinion hitherto held, and yet held, regarding the economic status 
of the Crow as an insectivorous bird. 

How far these general conclusions may be modified by the 
indirect nature of the food examined, ze., by the habit of the Crow 
of feeding upon toads and frogs and even small birds and other 
insectivorous animals, I am in no position to determine. It is pro- 
bable, however, that only a small proportion of the insect food of 
the Crow is derived in this indirect manner, and that in so far the 
conclusions as to its economic status are not to be modified. 

A complete list of the insects contained in each one of the six 
hundred or more stomachs critically examined would not only make 
the present bulletin too bulky, but the constant repetition of names 
would only mislead and bewilder the reader, if indeed any enthusiast 
would care to read it all. It is better, therefore, to omit the detailed 
statement of the insect remains found in each stomach and give only 
the general results. 

Testimony from correspondents respecting the insect food 

of the Crow. 

During the past ten years the Division of Ornithology hap 
received statements from more than a thousand observers respecting 
the food habits of the Crow. So far as the insect food is concernedj 
most of these statements are of little value, because from the nature 
of the case it was impossible to tell what species of insects were 
eaten. Aside from such sweeping and groundless assertions as 
"Crows eat no insects at all " and "Crows eat insects of all kinds" 
scores of statements were received which were obviously incorrect, 
although evidently made with perfect sincerity. On the other hand, 
it is of interest to note how fully many of the more explicit statements 
are confirmed by the examination of stomachs. For example, the 
habit of catching grasshoppers was observed and reported by many 
correspondents, and the same is true of the M^y beetle or June 
beetle {Lachnosterna) and its larva, the white grub. The Crow's 
habit of following the plow was noticed more than a hundred years 
ago, and the principal error made by many of our correspondents 
lies in the assumption that the bird devours indiscriminately all the 
different insects thus exposed. Among the most common mistakes 



No. 2.] Rfprinti and Miscellaneous Notes. 97 

may be mentioned the case of the Colorado potato beetle [Dory- 
phora lo-lineata), upon which the Crow was reported to feed by 
many observers. The fact that not a single trace of this beetle was 
found in any of the 909 stomachs, 500 of which were collected at 
times and places favouring its capture, must be taken as proof 
positive that the Crow rarely, if ever, touches the pest. The further 
fact that only four species (each represented bv one or two indivi- 
duals) belonging to the same family as the potato beetle (Chryso- 
melidae) were found in the stomachs shows clearly that insects of 
this kind are thoroughly disliked by the Crow. 

Following are a few examples of the voluminous testimony 
received from correspondents : — 

California, San Bernardino. — F. Stephens : The Crow is in 
the habit of following the plow, picking up cutworms, white 
grubs, larvae, etc., sometimes in large quantities (1885). 

Canada, Ontario, London, — W. E. Saunders : Last summer 
(1885) I watched a flock of probably 2,000 Crows catching grass- 
hoppers. 

Connecticut, East Hartford. — Willard E. Treat: Worms and 
grasshoppers are destroyed by Crows ; they eat large quantities of 
grasshoppers and the large white grub usually found in cornfields, 
especially in August 1885. 

South Woodstock, — Mrs. G. L. F. Stoddard : The Crow has been 
observed to feed upon cutworms and grubs that live just beneath the 
surface, and are more readily exposed by the pulling up of the corn, 
which the cutworms and grubs would destroy (i886). 

Indiana, Brookville — A. W. Butler: The Crow feeds on the 
seventeen-year cicada (1885). 

Medora. — Charles Eshorn, Jr. I have noticed them every season 
walking over a meadow just after the hay has been cut, catching 
grasshoppers, but I have never noticed them hunting insects in a 
meadow after the grass was 2 or 3 inches high, and of course from 
that time until it is cut is the time that insects damage it most 
(1892). 

Nebraska. — J. D. Kuster : Crows have fed extensively on locusts 
this year (18S5). 

Iowa, Wapello, D. C. Beaman : It will feed on all kind of grubs 
and worms which are thrown out by the plow (1886). 

Louisiana, Abbeville, — W. W, Edwards : I have not observed 
them eating any insects except the larvae and grubs, on which they 
feed extensively in the spring on fresh-plowed ground. I am not 
able to say what larvae they feed on (1886). 



98 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



Bayou Goula. — W. C. Percy : It has been observed to eat 
locusts, but I have never been able to find any other insect in its 
stomach except grubs, etc. (1885). 

Maine, North Livermore. — George H. Berry : The Crow eats 
grasshoppers, potato bugs, and Clisiocampa larvae (1886). 

Massachusetts, Amherst. — Hubert L. Clark : I believe that the 
Crow is largely insectivorous. It frequents marshes and open fields 
in search of food in large flocks, where it destroys large quantities 
of grubs, particularly those of the common June bug [Lachnosterna 
fusca)f grasshoppers, and locusts. It also destroys cutworms (1885). 

East Templeton. — Charles E. Ingalls : I have seen the Crow eat 
grasshoppers and have also seen it feed on a large white grub 
taken from the ground in old fields (1885). 

Michigan, Hudson. — A. H. Boies : I have often observed it 
seeking for grubs and other larvae in the spring, and know that it is 
a great destroyer of such when other forage is scarce (1885). 

Lickleys Corners. — A. H. Carver : I have known them to follow 
the plow in the spring and pick up cutworms and the large white 
grub (1886). 

Thornville. — John S. Caulkins : The following statement rela- 
tive to Crows eating cutworms was given me by a friend, William 
B. Sutton, of Lapeer. He said he had plowed and dragged a piece 
of old sod and noticed that a flock of Crows were frequenting it. 
Sharing to some extent the hostility the farmers generally feel 
toward the Crows on account of the damage they do to corn, he 
concealed himself with his loaded shot-gun in a corner of the fence, 
close to where the Crows worked, thinking to shoot a few and hang 
them up as a terror to the rest. When the Crows came he distinctly 
saw them turn over the sods, shake them to pieces, and eat the 
cutworms that fell out. He came away without shooting, and since 
then has been the professed friend of the Crow (i886). 

Nebraska, London. — George A. Coleman : In May and June we 
find him following the plow, seeking earthworms, insects, and mice. 
His favourite food is the larvae of the June bug {Lachnosterna 
fusca), which he finds in great abundance (1888). 

New Hampshire, Webster. — Charles F. Goodhue : At this season 
Crows are of some benefit to the farmer, as they feed mostly on 
grasshoppers. To-day (August 22, 1885) a flock of nearly Joo 
were observed in a pasture badly infested with grasshoppers, upon 
which they were evidently feeding. 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, gg 

New Jersey, Merchantville. — Edward Burrough : The Crow 
ought not to be condemned for it is one of our best insectivorous birds. 
It eats the June bug and the larvae of any insect plowed up in the 
spring, such as white grubs and cutworms (1886). 

New York, Alfred Center, — F. S. Place : Crows destroy insects. 
Several specimens taken by me last spring (i886) had their 
stomachs filled with insects, mostly Coleoptera. 

Boonville. — Morris M. Green : Near Boonville I have seen the 
Crow feeding on grasshoppers during the summer months. Some 
fields seemed to be fairly black with the birds pursuing the grass- 
hoppers in every direction. One day noticing a Rock of Crows 
frequenting a particular field, I visited the place and found that the 
roots of the grass had been completely eaten away, so that the sod 
or turf could be rolled up like a rug or carpet. A farmer livincr in 
the vicinity told me that the Crows visited the place every day to 
feed upon the grubs that destroyed the turf. The grubs or larvje 
were about three-fourths of an inch in length ; body whitish, with 
some dull plumbeous underneath ; head blackish. I think these are 
the kind so often found in corn hills and which do much damage to 
the corn. If so, this speaks a good word for the Crow (1887). 

Waverly. — S. J. Wolcott : Crows in the spring time feed largely 
on cutworms, both on sod lands and after the same have been 
plowed. I have known them to work on cutworms in my tobacco 
field. After setting, when the worms are cutting the young plants, 
the Crows are there every morning, and no doubt destroy great 
numbers of them. They have been reported to eat potato bugs to 
some extent, but I am not prepared to verify the statement, 1892. 

North Carolina, Ptttsboro. — E. T. Adney : It eats a great many 
insects, particularly grasshoppers (1885). 

Ohio, Wakeman, — W. B. Hall : Crows are decidedly insectivo- 
rous if domestication does not alter their habits. At different 
times I have kept Crows which were taken from the rest when 
nearly full fledged. They became very tame, so that I had a chance 
to watch their actions and manner of feeding. I find that they are 
not particular in their diet as to whether the insect is injurious or 
beneficial. They feed greedily on the different species of cutworm 
{Agrotis) and on the white grub (larva of Lachnosterna fusca). 
When plowing they will follow in the furrow and pick up every grub 
or beetle in sight, and when their appetites are satisfied, they fill 
their beaks with insects and hide them under sticks, leaves or stones. 
I have often taken the pains to look up their hiding-places and 
count the insects thus hidden, and I have been astonished at their 



100 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

numbers. They kill predaceous beetles, but do not often eat them, 
I think, on account of the peculiar odour most of them emit. For the 
sake of experiment, I have taken the Crows to a board or stone 
which, on being removed, exposed many black beetles (mostly 
Galerita). They would pounce on a beetle, give it a pinch through 
the head or thorax, drop it, and seize another with such rapidity that 
but few, if any, escaped. I could not on any condition tempt their 
appetites with Colorado beetles, squash bugs, cucumber bugs, or any 
of the soldier bugs or lady birds {Coccimlla). I had a male Crow 
that would eat the cabbage caterpillar {Pieris rapse') with evident 
relish, while his mate disdained such plebian diet. They would 
kill the sow bugs {Omscus) and species of Myriapoda, but would not 
eat them. 

Wauseon. — Thomas Mikesell : It feeds on cutworms. May 
beetles, white grubs, chinch bugs, and eggs of grasshoppers. 
These form its principal food (1885). 

Waverly. — H. W. Overman : It is a lover of grasshoppers and 
destroys great numbers of them, especially in the fall {1885), 

Oregon, Dilley, — George S. Johns : It feeds extensively on grass- 
hoppers and crickets (1885). 

Pennsylvania, East Brook. — T. Scott Fisher : I watched a pair of 
Crows follow me day after day last spring (1886) while plowing sod, 
and have seen one Crow pick up 25 to 40 white grubs, cutworms, 
and wireworms at one time, and then fly to the woods for an hour 
or so, then back again. 

Philadelphia, — J. Percy Moore ; When the seventeen year 
Cicada appeared this summer (1885) the Crow fed extensively on both 
its pupae and imagos. The young were fed, to some extent, on the 
pupae (May 30, 1885). As they had not at this time appeared 
above the ground, I suppose the Crows obtained them in plowed 
fields. On June 17, I noticed them feeding on the adults. I have 
seen Crows feeding in plowed fields before the grain was planted 
(March 10, 1885), and I think they were feeding on the larvae of 
the June bug or other beetles which live on the ground. I have 
also seen them eat large ants which live on trees and burrow into the 
wood (July i) and other species of insects which I was not able to 
identify from a distance. 

Vermount, Hydeville. — A. I. Johnson: Crows catch countless 
numbers of crickets and grasshoppers after the hay is cut. They 
can be seen almost any time of day on the meadows catching grass- 
hoppers. I observed one pair of old Crows this summer, when I was 
haying, that were feeding their young almost entirely on grass- 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. loi 

hoppers ; the old Crows would alight on the mown land within 8 or 
10 rods of me, and after catching a hopper or two would fly to their 
young that were on a fence and there feed them. Of all our birds, 
the Crow, I think, is the most extensive feeder on grasshoppers 
(1885). 

West Pawlet. — Frank H. Braymer : It has been observed to 
feed to a certain extent on the cankerworm, cutworm, various kinds 
of grasshoppers, and small beetles. Probably the benefit derived 
from the destruction of insects is considerable (1885). 

Virginia, Birdsnest. — C. R. Moore : Crows follow the plow in 
the spring and eat many cutworms, and probably other insects, but 
I only know positively of cutworms (1886). 

Drewrys Bluff. — A. R. Bellwcod : During at least ten months of 
the year in this part of the country large numbers congregate on the 
pasture fields, meadows, and plowed land, and remain for hours 
searching for larvae and insects (i8gi). 

Fork Union. — J. B. Underbill : As to the insect diet of the 
adult I cannot testify, having never examined the gizzards. The 
gizzards of two young which were taken from the nest were filled 
to overflowing with grasshoppers, and each contained one or two 
kernels of corn (1886). 

Lich Run, — J. G. Paxton : The Crow has been destroyed by 
poisoning until it is now nearly exterminated, and there is a notice- 
able increase of insects of every kind. It eats insects more or less, 
except the Colorado potato beetle (1885). 

VJisconsm, Clinton. — C.N. Crotensburg : I have never known 
the Crow to refuse any insect except bees, of which it is exceedingly 
shy. 



ON HAWKS AND OWLS AS ENEMIES TO INSECTS. 

The Report of the Ornithologist, Dr. Hart Merriam of the 
United States, Department of Agriculture, for the year 1887, contains 
a most Interesting and suggestive statistical account, by Dr. A. K. 
Fisher, of the Food of Owls and Hawks. 

The stomachs of 1,072 of these birds were examined, and of 963 
stomachs that contained food, 528, or nearly 55 per cent,, contained 
mice, and 255, or nearly 27 per cent., contained insects, chiefly grass- 
hoppers, locusts, and beetles. 

It frequently happened that from fifty to seventy of these insects 
would be taken from a single stomach. 



I03 Indian Museum Notes. [VQI. IY« 



Certain species such as the swallow-tailed Kite, Pigeon hawk, and 
Burrowing Owl were found to feed almost exclusively on insects 
(locusts and grasshoppers). Others, such as the marsh hawk, red- 
shouldered hawk, Swainson's Hawk, Sparrow hawk, Barn Owl and 
Screech Owl were found to feed very extensively on these insects. 

These data are quite sufficient to show that Owls and the smaller 
Hawks, besides destroying mice, can be of great service in keeping 
down certain very destructive insects, and are quite sufficient to 
encourage the opinion that these birds should be specially protected 
for this purpose. 

It may also be added that many of the stomachs examined con- 
tained reptiles, and some of them snakes, including adders. 



ON THE FORMATION OF NEW COLONIES BY 
Termes litcifugus, 

(Reprint of a translation of report by Perez published in the Annals and Maga- 
zine of Natural History, 6th Series, Vol. 15, No. 87, 1895, p. 283. The original 
arti'cle appeared in Comptes Rendus, tome CXIX, No. 19 (Nov. 5, 1894), pp. 804 — 
806.) 

Although the biology of the European and exotic Termites 
has engaged the attention of numerous Zoologists, some of whom are 
of the highest rank, the origin of the societies of these insects still 
remains enveloped in complete obscurity. Neither de Quatrefages 
nor Lesp^s has observed the swarms of sexual individuals which 
at certain periods escape from the galleries, and to which 
has been attributed the mission of founding new colonies. Fritz 
Miiller even goes so far as expressly to deny that they perform such 
a function. He writes as follows : — "As to the males and females of 
Calotermes, I will not absolutely refuse to admit that they possess 
the capability of continuing to exist by themselves and of commenc- 
ing a new settlement. In the case of all species of Termes, 
Eutermes, and Anoplotermes, however, with whose mode of life I am 
to some extent acquainted, a winged pair would undertake the 
foundation of a new colony with precisely the same success as a 
pair of new-born children deposited upon a desert island." 
\jenaische Zeitschrift^' Bd. VII, 1873, p. 458, note i). 

In spite of so absolute a denial on the part of the eminent Zoo- 
logist just quoted, it is, I think, evident that a social species, devoid 
of the faculty of disseminating itself at a distance, would be doomed 



No. 2.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 103 

to fatal and early disappearance. Dissennination must and does exist 
in the Termites. 

When a nest has furnished a swarm of winged males and females, 
there are always to be found in the proximity of the colony, or even 
about the orifice of exit, a few stray individuals which have lost their 
wings. They go, as a rule, in pairs, the one following the other 
very closely. The leader is invariably a female, while her follower 
is a male. When these couples are captured, they speedily perish, 
unless they are kept under natural conditions, which apparently has 
never been done. 

My own method of proceeding is as follows : — In a large jar 
containing a certain quantity of earth is placed a block of old dead 
wood, it matters little whether of oak, fir, or elm. More earth is 
then added, so as to surround the lower part of the wood to a height 
of several centimetres. One or more pairs of Termites, which are 
then placed upon the wood, quickly creep between it and the earth, 
and take up their abode in some depression, either underneath or 
upon the sides of the buried portion of the wood. A few drops of 
water added from time to time, so as to restore the moisture which 
is lost by evaporation, are sufficient to keep everything in its proper 
condition. The jar should remain open, to avoid mould. The 
insects, moreover, never make the slightest attempt to escape. 

Under these conditions the Termites live very well. At the endi 
of from two to three weeks it may be seen that they have selected a 
domicile between the earth and the wood, and that they have also 
been feeding. Their abdomens, which were formerly flat, are now 
slightly convex. They are very lively and extremely active. The 
narrow space wherein they are living, closed on every side, contains 
a Httle fine woody powder, coming from the wood the surface of 
which has been attacked. Later on they have attacked it more 
directly at some point or other, and have commenced to excavate in 
it the commencement of a gallery. 

Some pairs obtained on April 2gth, in the present year, were alive 
and in perfect health on July 4th. They had manifestly increased in 
size, and in their swollen and distended abdomens the interseg- 
mental membranes appeared as fine white borders separating the 
black disks of the segments. The bulkier abdomens of certain speci- 
mens clearly distinguished them as females. 

On August 30th the Termites were still thoroughly alive, but 
somewhat difficult to discover, since they have penetrated deeper 
into the wood, and were lodged in a globular chamber, to which 
access was given by a narrow orifice in connection with the 



104 Indian Museum Notes. Vol. IV. 

surrounding earth. The white abdominal rings were broader, and 
the black disks were entirely separated one from another. 

On October 15th I found in one of my jars six sexual Termites 
. assembled in the same cavity, which a slight splitting of the wood 
had revealed. With them were two young workers, which had very 
recently emerged, since they were of very small size, especially one 
of them, whose transparent body showed no ingested matter in the 
alimentary canal. At one point of the wall was attached a large egg- 
As for the adults, they were still in perfect condition, but were less 
active than formerly, and obstinately shunned the light. The females, 
however, appeared scarcely more distended than in the month of 
August, and their abdomens were still far from the monstrous pro- 
portions observed in the case of the normal queens of the old nests. 
This difference is easily explained by the as yet moderate develop- 
ment of the ovaries, which, at the outset of their functional activity, 
are capable of furnishing only a very limited number of eggs. 

Be this as it may, it is already proved by this experiment that 
the winged Termites issuing from the swarms are perfectly capable 
of living without the assistance of workers of their own species, and 
that their pairs develop into king and queen, the founders of a new 
colony. Thus is to be explained the fact that the winged individuals 
are always sexually immature, and have never been seen in coil4 : 
they do not arrive at sexual maturity until after a somewhat lengthy 
interval, the duration of which my observations enable me to fix at 
five or six months. 



G. I. C, P. 0.~No. 96 R, & A.— 1.4-97 -W. B. G. 



INDIAN MUSEUM NOTES, 

ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES. 



Volume IV. — No, 3. 




iubliBhtb bg ^xtthoritj) td the §0l)ernmcnt of Inotji, 



CALCUTTA: 
OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1899. 



Price Rupee One and Annas Eight. 



NOTICE. 

♦ 

The serial Indian Museum nofes, issued by the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, under the authority of the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agricultural Department, is to take the place of 
Hotes on Economic E?itomology, of which two numbers have appeared. 
For the views expressed, the authors of the respective notes are alone 
responsible. 

The parts of the serial are published from time to time as mate- 
rials accumulate. Communications are invited ; they should be 
written on one side only of the paper and addressed to— 

THE EDITOR, 

Indian Museum Notes, 

Calcutta. 

Correspondence connected with Economic Entomology should be 
accompanied by specimens of the insects to which reference is made. 
Caterpillars, grubs, and other soft bodied insects can be sent in 
strong spirit; chrysalids and cocoons alive, and packed lightly in 
leanes or grass ; other insects, dried and pinned, or wrapped in soft 
paper. Live insects should be sent when there is a reasonable 
probability of their surviving the journey. Caterpillars, grubs, and 
other immature insects can often be only approximately determined ; 
they should therefore, where possible, be accompanied by specimens 
of the mature insects into which they transform ; when this is not 
possible, they should still be sent, as they can always be determined 
approximately, and uncertainty must necessarily arise in dicussing 
insects when actual reference to the specimens cannot be made. 

Insects forwarded for determination should, in all cases, be 
accompanied by a detailed report showing precisely in what their 
economic importance is believed to consist. 

Calcutta ,- 
2 1 si October i8gj. 



CONTENTS. 



Page. 
I, Original Communications — 

(i) Description of two new species of Tineina from Bengal : by the 

Right Honorable Lord Walsingham, M. A., F. R. S., etc. . 105 

(ii) On the possible utilization of the Calcutta Green Bug as food 

for Birds, etc. : by F. Finn, B. A., F. Z.S. , . . 108 

(iii) Description of three new species of Indian Coleoptera of the 

family Curculionidae : by Mons. J. Desbrochers des Loges , in 

(iv) Some comparative trials of Insecticide pumps in relation to the 
treatment of Tea blights; and experiments in the treatment 
of red spider : by W. J. Fleet 113 



2. Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section, 

Indian Museum : by E. Barlow — 

(i) Tea Pests 118 

(ii) Insects destructive to cereals and crops 121 

(iii) Insects destructive to fruit-trees ...... 133 

(iv) Forest Pests 134 

(v) Determination of miscellaneous insect pests .... 135 

(vi) Reports of results of remedies, etc., tried during the years 

1895—96 136 

3, Reprints and Miscellaneous notes— 

(i) Description of three species of Indian Aleurodidse : by 

W. M. Maskell (reprint) • • » . . .143 

(n) The Bot-fly of the Indian Elephant (reprint) . . . .146 

(iii) Food of wood-peckers of the United States . . . . 147 



EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate VII— 

Fig I. Cryptophlebia carpophaga, Wlsm. n. sp., a, larva; b and g-. 
moths ^ & ? ; rf, pod of Cassia fistula with chrysalis skins 
protruding from it. 
„ 2. Ereunetis ? SEMiNivoRA, Wlsm. n. sp., a, larva; J, chrysalis ; c, 
moth $ ; rf, pod of Cassia occidentalis with a chrysalis skin 
protruding from it. 

Plate VIII— 

Fig. I. Myllocerus maculosus, Desbr. de Leges, n. sp., a and b, 
weevil dorsal and side views (enlarged) ; c, weevil natural size ; 

d, antenna (enlarged). 

„ 2. Myllocerus setulifer, Desbr. de Leges, n. sp., a and b, weevil 
dorsal and side views (enlarged) ; c, weevil natural size ; d, 
antenna (enlarged). 

„ 3. Leucomigus antennalis, Faust, a and b, weevil, dorsal and 
side views ; c, antenna, (all enlarged). 

Plate IX— 

Fig. I. Strawson's " Coronette. " 
„ 2. Vermorel's "Torpille. " 
„ 3- » "Eclair." 

„ 4. Strawson's " Notus. " 
„ 5. „ "Antipest. " 

„ 6. Chiswick Co.'s Sprayer. 

Plate X — Coolie using Vermorel's " Eclair." 

Plate XI— 

Fig. I. Acanthopsyche (Brachycyttarus) subteralbata^ Hamps,, 

a, larva-case ; b, moth $ . 
„ 2. Leptispa pygmaea, Baly, a &c b, beetle, dorsal and side views 

(enlarged). 
„ 3. Ar^ocerus fasciculatus, Degeer, a, larva; b, pupa; c and d, 

beetle, dorsal and side views. 
„ 4. Adoretus cardoni, Brensk., a and b, beetle, dorsal and side 

views ; c, antenna (enlarged). 

Plate XII— 

Fig, I. Aleurodes barodensis, Mask., a, larvae, pupae, and eggs 
on leaf (enlarged) ; b, larva, dorsal view ; c, diagram of larva, 
showing arrangement of pores ; d, margin of larva and pupa ; 

e, vasiform orifice, operculum, and lingula. 

„ 2. Aleurodes eugenic, var. aurantii, Mask., a, pupae on 
leaf ; b, pupa-case, showing enclosed insect ; c, diagram of 
pupa-case, showing radiating patches ; d, one of the radiating 
patches, enlarged ; e, margin of pupa-case ;/, vasiform orifice, 
operculum, and lingula (diagram). 
„ 3. Aleurodes cotesii. Mask., a, larvae and pupae on leaf; 
b, larva, dorsal view, enlarged ; c, margin and dorsal pores of 
larva ; d, pupa-case, dorsal view, enlarged ; e, margin o { 
pupa-case; /, pupa-case, side view; g, vasiform orifice 
operculum, and lingula (diagram). 



SEP 26 1899 

Vol. IV. 1 [No, S. 

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. 

i.— Description of two new species of Tineina 
FROM Bengal. By the Right Hon. Lord Wal- 
siNGHAM, M. A., F.R.S., etc. 
Plate No. VII. 

Tineina. 
tortricid/^. 

OlETHREUTIN/E. 

Cryptophlebia, Wlsm., gen. n. 
I. Type Cryptophlebia carpophagaf^ Wlsm. 

Antenna $ moderately stout, simple, about half the length of 
the forewings. Palpi short, stout, projecting scarcely half their 
length beyond the head, apical joint short, depressed ; second joint 
thickly clothed above and below with closely packed scales, giving 
a somewhat triangular appearance. Head thickly clothed above. 
Thorax stout. Forewings about twice as long as broad, costa 
scarcely convex, termen oblique, tornus rounded, dorsum some- 
what abruptly angulated near the base, Neuration \2 veins, 2 
from a little beyond middle of cell ; 3, 4, and 5 closely approximate 
at the lower angle of cell ; 7 and 8 separate enclosing the apex, 
Hindwings ( $ ) about as broad as the forewings, triangular, apex 
depressed, abdominal margin shortened, very hairy, with a pouch- 
like fold along vein 2 containing a thick tuft of scales on the upper 
side, accompanied by some strongly curved scales on the under- 
side along the margin. Neuration 8 veins, vein 2 concealed in 
the tuft of scales, 3 and 4 connate (or very closely approximate), 
5 closely approaching 6 at the outer margin, 6 and 7 normal, but 
somewhat bent downwards at their origin, 8 free. Abdomen dense- 
ly hairy above. Legs : all the tibise thickly tufted, first tarsal joints 
of the hindlegs also tufted. 

This genus comes into the same group as Platypepluni^ Wlsm. 
{■=.Platypeplus^ Wlsm, laps, cal.) 



* The examples from which this species is described, were reared in the Indian Museum 
from pods of both Cassia fistula, Linn., in Calcutta (1894), ^^^ C. Occidentalis, Linn., from 
Hooghly (1895). The specimens of pods were brought to the Museum by one of the 
Museum Collectors, E. 6. 



io6 Indian Museum Notes. [ Vol. 1V» 



Cryptophlehia carpopJiaga, Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennas pale tawny. Palpi tawny, paler on their inner 
sides, shaded with fuscous externally. Head tawny, shaded with 
reddish fuscous above. Thorax blackish, tegulae tawny tipped 
with tawny fuscous. Forewings tawny, with a blackish patch 
extending over the whole space beneath the fold from the base to 
the tornus, a slight admixture of bone-grey scales towards the latter 
and with a small triangular ill-defined patch at its outer end (the 
base resting on the dorsum), in the tornal region the tawny scaling 
blends into bone-white • along the costa are alternate broad and 
narrow oblique vinous streaks, and the apex is cut off by an out- 
wardly curved, but not well-defined band of fuscous and purplish 
scales extending from below the outer third of the costa to a point 
somewhat below the middle of the termen ; a small bone-white spot 
is situated at the end of the cell, preceded and followed by a few 
blackish and purplish scales ; cilia dark purplish on the upper two- 
thirds of the margin, bone-whitish below, with a purplish parting 
streak running through them at the tornus. Exp. al. i8mm. $ 17 mm 
Hindwings brownish fuscous ; cilia greyish with an iridescent 
tinge, a narrow pale parting line running along their base. 
Abdomen greyish with a slight ochreous tinge, a black tuft above 
the anal segments which are distinctly vinous beneath. Hindlegs 
bone-grey with the tufts on the tibiae strongly iridescent dark 
purplish on the upper sides. 
Type $ 2 Mus. Wlsm. 

Bad, India, Calcutta (1894) ; Hooghly (1895). Larva in pods of 
Cassia fistula (1894) and of C. occidentalism L. (1895). Moths 
emerged 4th January 1895. 

The structure of the % is conspicuously different in the absence 
of the tufts on the hind legs, which are, however, somewhat hairy, 
and the smooth abdomen and perfectly normal neuration of the 
hindwings which show but little sign of the pouch-like fold in the 
neighbourhood of the abdominal margin. 

The forewings are reddish — tawny, the space beneath the fold 
and about the tornus sprinkled with bone-white, a small inconspi- 
cuous patch of the reddish ground-colour extending to the dorsum 
across the middle of the fold, and a conspicuous clearly defined 
rich reddish-tawny spot immediately before the tornus, far more 
conspicuous than in the ^ , the vinous streaks along the costa are 
scarcely noticeable, being absorbed into the more similar general 



^^* 3.] Original Communicattons, etc. 107 



colouring of the forewings. There will probably be found to be 
some variation in the ground-colour of these in both sexes. 



TlNEINA. 

TiNEID/E. 

Ereunetis, Meyr. 
2, Ereunetis ? seminivora* Wlsm., sp. n. 

Antennae (f) somewhat stout ; whitish ochreous. Palpi some- 
what thickly clothed above and beneath so as to appear triangular • 
dark chocolate-brown : apical joint very short, depressed, ochreous. 
Head whitish ochreous above, face dark chocolate-brown. Thorax 
whitish ochreous above, tegulae and a narrow band across the front 
dark chocolate-brown. Forewings narrow, elongate, acuminate, some- 
what widened at the middle ; dark chocolate-brown, rather shining; 
a narrow whitish ochreous dorsal line from base to apex reverting 
a little around the apex at the base of the dark brown costal cilia, 
the upper edge of this line is somewhat irregular and throws up 
a small dentate excrescence at two-thirds from the base ; terminal 
and dorsal cilia pale ochreous. Exp. al. i6mm. Hindwings 
narrower than the forewings, acuminate, the base of the costa 
ciliate, the dorsum evenly rounded ; bronzy purplish, cilia very 
pale ochreous. Abdomen brownish ochreous. [Hindlegs missing.] 
Type $ Mus. Wlsm. 

Hab. India. — Hooghly. Larva in pods of Cassia occidentalis 
Linn. (1895), moths emerged 2nd January 1895. 

This appears to approach Meyrick's Australian genus Ereunetis^ 
but until I have a series of specimens before me, including males, 
I am unable to make a satisfactory structural examination. I have 
described it for the convenience of the authorities of the Calcutta 
Museum, as I understand they desire to refer to it in connection 
with some economic report. Further specimens would be accept- 
able. 



• This species is described from specimens reared in the Museum in January 1895, from 
pods of Cissia occidentalis, Linn., collected injHooghly by the Entomological Artist, Indian 
Museum, E. B. 



I o 8 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



ii. On the possible utilization of the •* Green Bug" 
OF Calcutta as food for birds, etc. 

By F. Finn, B.A., F.Z.S., Deputy Superintendent of the 
Indian Museum, 

Residents in Calcutta must frequently have been struck by the 
often inconvenient abundance of a small Homopterous insect of the 
Jassid family in the early part of the "cold weather." These 
" green bugs, " about the size of a very full-fed mosquito, fly in 
swarms round lamps, and are found often in large quantities, dead 
beneath these in the morning. 

It struck me some time ago that these insects, so easily obtain- 
able in bulk, could very well be utilized as food for various cage- 
birds needing constantly or occasionally an insect diet, now supplied 
by fanciers in the form of the so-called " ant's eggs" (in reaUty 
ant's cocoons) of the trade. 

Having procured in 1895 (I think) a small quantity I let them 
dry, and offered them as food to various more or less insectivorous 
birds at the Zoological Gardens here, and found that they were 
taken very well. Last year Mr. Barlow, of the Museum staff, 
kindly had a larger quantity collected for me, with which I again 
experimented both with birds of my own and with those at the 
Zoological Gardens, and again with encouraging results. 

I also forwarded samples of a pound each to two well-known 
English amateurs of cage-birds, Dr. A. G. Butler of the British 
Museum, and Mr. Reginald Phillips ; and also to the Superin- 
tendent of the London Zoological Gardens and to Spratt's Patent 
Company. 

From the two latter I have received as yet no reply, but some 
time ago I received very courteous answers from the two amateurs 
above named. 

Dr. Butler says : — "I have tested the insects as food for birds and 
find that they are eaten greedily, both dry and mixed with soft 
food, not only by insectivorous birds, but also by such almost strict- 
ly granivorous birds as canaries. 

We have for years past had an European representative of 
the Jassidas sold in the bird-market as food under the name of 
'dried flies!' It is a much larger species than yours, being 
equal in size to our British * Frog hoppers ' and is doubtless 
European. The Indian species, however, evidently attracts birds 
by its bright green colouring, whereas the so-called 'dried flies' 
are whity-brown like ant's cocoons. 



No. 3.] Original Communications , etc. 



;og 



If the Indian insect could be imported in such quantities and 
at such a rate that it could be sold in the market at from \s, to 
i^. 6fl?. a pound, it would be a great boon to aviculturists; for at 
some seasons ant's cocoons are almost unprocurable whilst they 
are often dear. (I am now paying i^. 9^. per pound for them.) 

The Indian insect has one great advantage over ant's cocoons in 
that there is little rubbish intermingled with the mass ; it is all 
edible.'^ 

The reply sent by Mr, Phillips is not quite so favourable in 
character. He says : — "At present I have but few insectivorous 
birds, and these mostly of a large size, the smallest being a 
Nightingale, 

The ant's cocoons I have always given to the birds mixed with 
other insectivorous food ; since the receipt of your dried insect, 
1 have substituted the latter for the ant's cocoons, and occasionally 
supplied it more plentifully to the Nightingale. All my insecti- 
vorous birds were in perfect health at the commencement of the 
change, and remain so now, so there is not anything to be proved 
on that score. 

The Nightingale at first ate your dried insect rather freely, but 
seemed to tire of it after a while, and the quantity supplied to him 
had to be considerably reduced; now he gets on with it very well. 

Personally, before I used the food regularly for my birds in 
lieu of ant's cocoons, I should require to know something more 
about it: — What insect is it? How has it been prepared ? On what 
food did it feed or what are its habits, to give it the present 
green colour? , , . . A few kinds of dried flies have been 
brought into the English market from time to time ; some have been 
condemned, some ignored, only one or two taken up, but by so few 
aviculturists that it can hardly pay to import them ; sol fear your 
chances of success are not encouraging. 

Ant's cocoons are the fashion ; some of the samples imported sre 
very bad ; and the good are offered at an exorbitant price • there 
may therefore perhgps be an opening here— if you can show 
that your insects are as good as ant's cocoons, and if you can 
persuade the obstinate Britisher to make any change in what it has 
been his custom to do." 

Taken into conjunction with the silence of the Zoological Gardens 
and Messrs. Spratt, this does not seem very encouraging. 

My own experiments, however, convinced me that the "green 
hug " is a really good article for feeding birds. By its use an 
insectivorous bird causes no more trouble than seed-eater, if one 



1 10 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

gives the insects dry, as I did. Wild birds eat them, so the food is 
a perfectly natural one. The insects could be collected, during their 
short period of abundance each year, in any quantity with the very 
smallest amount of labour. A coarse open umbrella suspended 
under a lamp would catch quantities ; and they will dry readily 
indoors, if spread thinly and turned over frequently. 

I cannot believe that the " ant's eggs" can be obtained and ren- 
dered marketable with as little expenditure of labour as this ; and 
therefore, in spite of the cost of carriage from India to Europe, I 
have no doubt that the Indian bird-food could be offered at a cheaper 
rate than the European, to which it is moreover superior in purity, 
as remarked by Dr. Butler. In fact, if collected as I suggest, 
there need be no rubbish in it at all. 

Were the utility of this product to be limited to the feeding of 
cage birds, the sale might be too small to justify any attempt to make 
it a commercial article, though many who do not keep insectivorous 
birds would be very glad of insect food for those seed-eaters, which, 
like many finches, need such nourishment for rearing- their young. 
It might even, I should think, be used for rearing canaries. 

But it is in the rearing of young game-birds, and very possibly 
trout also, that the " green bug " would, I believe, be found most 
valuable. It would be a most excellent and natural food for pheasant 
chicks, and I see no reason why trout fry should not take it as 
readily as gold-fish do the dried "ants* eggs". 

Dried locusts have been suggested by Dr. Giinther * as food for 
cage and game-birds, but these would be far more troublesome to 
prepare, and I am inclined to think that for small species and young 
birds, for which artificial food is most difficult to provide, the *' green 
bugs " would be better. At any rate they are worth a careful trial. 

See Dr. Giinther's very interesting notes in Mr. E. C. Cotes' paper on this subject [The 
Agricultural Ledger No. 2, 1893 (Entomological Series, No. i) ], from which it appears that 
there is a large opening for dried insects of some sort as food for birds< 



No. 3.] Description of three species of Indian Coleoptera,etc. m 



iii. — Description of three new species of Indian 

COLEOPTERA OF THE FAMILY CURCULIONID/E. 

By Mons. J. Desbrochers des Loges. 
Plate No. VIII. 

1. Myllocerus maculosus, * n. sp. 

MylloCERUS maculosuS. Long. 8-9 mill. — Oblongus, viridi- 
glauco-casruleo pallide squamosus, vix distincie setulosus, antennis 
tibiis tarsisque piceis. Caput subplanum, fronte sulcata^ oculis 
majoribus, oblongis, paulo prominulis. Rostrum breviter subqua- 
ratUTHf sulcatum profunde triangulariter apice emarginatum^ 
apice albo-setosum. Antennas longiores, scapo modice curvato 
funiculi articulis 2-primis longitudine sub cequalibus, illo vix 
breviore, 3-7 oblongis^ sublinearibus, clava fusijormi. Prothorax 
b/eviSf basi valde constrictus, angulis posticis divaricatis, acutis 
lateribus ad tertiam anticam partim impressis, basi bisinuatus 
lobo medio reflexe, parce punctatus et albosetulosus. Elytra 
thorace basi valde latiora, humeris rotundatim elevatiSy in $ paulo 
in % mas^is postice ampliata^ minus dense punctato-striata, in- 
terstitiis planis, nigro inordinatim parce macula ta. Pedes sat 
elongatitfemoribus acute dentatiSy tarsorum articulis 2-primis valde 
elongatiSy 3° dilatato-lobato. Subtus punctis nigris setigeris 
sparsus. 

2. Myllocerus setulifer, * n. sp. 

Myllocerus setulifer. Long. 4-4 miW.— Oblongus, modice 
elongatus, niger, viridi-luteo squamosus, antennis pedibusque testa- 
ceis albo tenuissime setulosus. Caput convexum, oculis latioribus 
sub-oblongiSy non prominentibus. Rostrum brevissimum, impressum 
longitudinaliter sulcatum, apice denudatum triangulariter emargi- 
natum. Antennae graciles, modice elongate, scapo valde arcuata^ 
thoracis marginem anticam super ante, funiculi articulis 2-primis 
valde elongatis illo longiore, sequentibus brevioribus ultimis latitudine 

1 Destructive to Egyptian cotton at the Government Experimental Farm, Cawnpore. 
The specimens were furnished by the Director, Land Records, North-West Provinces and 
Oudh, in September 1895. (See page 67 of Vol. IV., No 2 of Indian Museum Notes.) 

- Specimens of this minute weevil were received in the Indian Museum in April 1896 
from J. S. Gamble, Esq., Director of the Imperial Forest School, Dehra Dun, as found 
devouring rose-flowers in the Forest School Gardeif. — E. B. 



113 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol, IV. 



non longiorihuSy clava angusla, fusiformi. Prothorax brevis- 
sirnus, bast et apice subtruncatus, antice et postice constrictus^ 
medio anguste dilatatus, margine antico valde itnpresso, punctis 
denudatis nigris. Elytra thorace bast valde latiora, quadruplo 
longiora. humeris elevatis^ lateribiis sub-parallelis striis tenuibus, 
punctatis interstitiis plants, setts orevibus reclinatis seriatis. 
Pedes sat gyaciles^ femoribus clavaiis infuscatis spinula minuta 
intus armatis, tibiis reeiis, tarsis articulo i° j'4'^uentibus 
longttudine sub^quale^ ;f lobato, Subtusnigro punctaius. 

//^3.— 'Dehra Dun, North- West Provinces. 



3. Leucotnigus antennalis, * Faust. 

LEUCOMiGUS ANTENNALI-, Faust i. I. Long. 13-1 mill. — Ob- 

longoovatus, niger, cinereo-pubescens. Caput latum, oculis 
depressis. Rostrum, validum subrectum, tricarinatu^n, carina 
media antice abbreviata, basi biramosa. Antenna> obscure- 
ferruginea!^ articulis 2-primis obcontcis, Hlo bretiore, C3eteris 
subquadratim transversis, clava elliptica vix inflata. Prothorax 
subtransversus a latere postice subparallus, post medium antice 
attenuatusy seu constrictus, lateribus vittaluta sinuata albida 
ornatis, angulis posticis subrectis, grosse sparsim punctatus 
ac rugatus, ante apicem vage impressus medio obsolete carinafus, 
basi bisinuatus, medio vix lobatus. Elytra basi obtuse subangu- 
aiim emarginata, a latere modice arcuata, posttce vix distincte 
callosa, apice obtusa, striis profundis inaequaliter punctata, 
interstitiis elevatis, valde insequalibus, brunneo obsolete sinuatim 
bifasciatis, posterius macula majore guttisque niveis ornatU' 
Pedes tomentosi, tibiis intus ciliatis, tarsis elongatis, subtus 
spongiosis, articulis 2'primis sublinearibus, illo longiore, ungui- 
culari longo, ciliato. Abdomen segmentibus j-j a latere pro- 
fundissime foveatis. 

Hab. — Palamcottah, Tinnevelly District. 

1 Examples of this insect were! forwarded to the Museum in November 1S95, through the 
Manager, " Indian Agriculturist," Calcutta, from the Assistant Collector, Tinnevelly District, 
a doing damage to young cotton and gram shoots. 



No. 3.] Some comparative Trials of Insecticide Pumps, etc. 113 



iv.— Some comparative trials of insecticide pumpsi 
IN relation to the treatment of tea blights, 

AND experiments IN THE TREATMENT OF RED 
DSPIER. 

By W. J. FLEET, f.h.a.s. 

Plates— Nos. IX and X. 

The following notes were derived from observation of the practi- 
cal use of insecticide sprayers on various descriptions and forms of 
tea-bushes on an extensive garden, and at more than one season of 
the year. The machines were all of the knapsack form, and sup- 
ported on the back by means of straps. Having been brought into 
working order they were placed in the hands of coolies, whose work, 
however, was under constant supervision. The pumps were utilised 
in the application of various descriptions of insecticides and fungi- 
cides, the active principle in some being in solution and in others in 
a state of suspension. 

Powder Diffusers :— 

1. Strawson's •' Coronette. "* 

2. Vermorel's "Torpille. "^ 

Liquid Sprayers :— 

3. Vermorel s "Eclair."^ 

4. Strawson's "Notus. "^ 

5. „ " Improved Antipest. "2 

6. Chiswick Co/s Sprayer.* 

1. Strawson's ^^ Coronette.'* — A well-constructed diffuser for 
sulphur and powdered preparations. The bellows are placed at base 
of the machine in a protected position and are worked by a side 
lever. The powder meets with the blast from the bellows after pass- 
ing from the body of the knapsack through a fine grating on which 
oscillates a brush. The density of the spray can be regulated by a 
feed-slide. 

2. Vermokfl's " Torpilhy — This is very similar in principle to 
the preceding and did equally good work. The bellows are placed 

1 Most of the pumps in use were supplied by the Trustees of the Indian Museum for the 
purpose of experiment, 

* Obtainable fron) Messrs. Strawson & Co., 77, Queen Victoria Street, London, E.G. 
3 Sold by Messrs. Charles Clark & Co., 20, Great Saint Helen's, London, E.C. 

* Can be procured throueh their Calcutta Agents, — 1 he Planters' Stores and Agency 
Company, Limited, 3 Mission Row, Calcutta. 



114 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



on the top of the knapsack. Three moving rods act instead of a 
brush to feed the material to the grating. 

3. Vermorel'S " £'£'/«z>. "—This sprayer did excellent work, 
working throughout all experiments without choking or any hitch. 
Power is applied by means of a side lever. The spray is fine, of 
considerable force, and can be directed as desired by means of a 
moveable nozzle. 

4. StrawsOn'S " Notus ." — This sprayer, of a useful size, is 
specially suited to insecticides containing matter in suspension, as 
owing to the presence of two moving blades or stirrers the liquid is 
kept in a continual state of agitation. A series of nozzle caps 
permit of regulating the fineness of the spray. 

5. StrawsON'S ^^ Improved Antipest.'*-~h well-constructed and 
finished sprayer. Possesses the advantage that all working parts are 
exterior to the knapsack containing the insecticide. A side lever 
works an air-pump. Two tubes connecting the nozzle to the machine, 
carry the one the insecticide, the other the compressed air. The 
air acting on the liquid at the point of junction at the nozzle mouth, 
produces a spray of varying form. The latter is regulated by two 
stop-cocks, one controlling the flow of liquid, the other the supply of 
air. The sprayer, owing to the want of means for agitation, is only 
suited to insecticides in a state of solution. 

6. ChisWICK Co.'S Sprayer-— Gives a large and powerful spray, 
and can be used for insecticides both in states of solution and sus- 
pension. Worked by a top lever and handle on the thrust and pull 
principle. This was found to be much more fatiguing when in 
continuous use than machines fitted with side levers in which the 
weight of the arm is utilised in the stroke. 

Experiments in the Treatment of Red Spider {Tetranychus 
bioculatus). 

The experiments now to be described were commenced on the 
29th April. This apparently late date of the application of the 
insecticides was due to two causes. First, Red spider this year came 
into evidence on the gardens later than usual; secondly, the object 
of the experiments was not to prove the \alue of sulphur, or pre- 
parations containing sulphur, in the treatment of Red spider (this 
being now a generally acknowledged fact, and taken advantage of 
by a yearly increasing number of gardens), but to make a compara- 
give trial of several insecticides that have been recommended or 
suggested. For this reason it was necessary to delay application 



No. 3.3 Some Comparative Trials of Insecticide Pumps, etc. 115 



Insecticide No 


I. 


» 


2. 


>j 


3- 


» 


4- 


I) 


5. 


» 


6. 


a 


7' 



until a considerable area of garden was attacked, to allow of the 
selection of a series of plots of an even character. 

An extent of old tea, heavily pruned some six years previously, 
was selected for the uniformity of the attack. 

In addition to the marking out of the plots, numerous individual 
bushes in each plot were numbered and memoranda made of the 
condition of each. The garden immediately surrounding the plots 
was sprayed with soft soap and sulphur to prevent, as far as possible, 
the spread of Red Spider from the surrounding area to that of the 
plots. 

Sulphur. 

Strawson's " Tea Velos." 

Soft Soap and Sulphur. 

Kerosene Emulsion. 

Chiswick Compound. 

Strawson's " M '' Insecticide. 

The special preparations in the above list were applied according 
to the directions supplied by the makers. These latter being also 
the manufacturers of sprayers, their machines were made use of, as 
far as possible, in the application of each insecticide. 

Nos, I and 2. " Tea Velos " is a fine powder and both it and the 
sulphur were applied by means of diffusers in the early morning 
when the dew was on the foliage and so admitted of the adherence 
of the dressing. 

No. 3 — was prepared as follows :— 

* Sulphur .,,.... 2 lbs. 

* Soft Soap , , , • , . 2 „ 
Water , , , , , . .3 gals. 

The sulphur and soft soap were gradually added to each other 
in a metal bowl, being worked the while by a strong iron spoon, 
until they were rubbed down to an even paste. This was then mixed 
with boiling water till the soap had dissolved. For application, 
dilute with 10 times the quantity of water, having first stirred the 
compound to cause the necessary suspension of the sulphur in the 
liquid. 

No. 4 — was made according to a standard formula : — 
Kerosene ..,,,,, 2 gals. 
Soft soap . . , , ^ . , I quart. 

Water • . i gal. 

Sulphur g. s. 



* The sulphur was procured direct from Italy ; the soft soap obtained from the North- West 
Soap Company, Calcutta. 



ii6 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Dissolve the soft soap in boiling water and add to the kerosene. 
Then by working a small force pump in the mixture it can be 
readily churned into an emulsion. Any one possessing the Chis- 
wick sprayer may unscrew the pump from the knapsack and use it for 
this purpose. 

The emulsion, which is complete by five minutes use of the pump, 
is milk-like in appearance and thickens on cooling and standing. 
It may be kept some days without fear of deterioration. For use it 
is diluted with 9 to 25 parts water, and in these experiments 15 parts 
was the quantity chosen. The sulphur was added in the proportion 
of I oz. to a gallon. 

No. 5.— The makers give some latitude in the final dilution. The 
proportion used was one to ten of water. 

Nos. 6 and 7. — These were diluted according to the accompany- 
ing instructions of the makers. 

Dry weather favoured the application of the insecticides and no 
rain fell till 6th May. 

The plots were examined on 1st May and reported on as 
follows: — 

Plot No. I. No live spider to be found. 

„ J. About 90% dead; a few weak and struggling. 
„ 4, Slightly superior to No. 3. 
„ 5. Similar to No. 3. 
„ 6, Inferior to Nos. 3 and 5. 

,, 7. Similar to No. 6, excepting bushes that were 
rather liberally sprayed. 

Examined 5th May. No rain since last examination. Plots all 
much the same, but No, 4 seems to have fallen behind Nos. 3 and 5. 

Examined loth May, Heavy rain has fallen since last date. 
Plots Nos, /, 2, J, 4, Practically free from spider. 

„ 5» ^" Less so. 

Plot No, 7« Spider numerous. 

Examined 15th May :— 

Plots Nos. /, 2. — Excellent. 

i» 3, 4> 5.— All good. 
Plot No. 6.— Defective. 

„ 7, — Red Spider fairly noticeable. 



No, 3.] Some Comparative Trials of Insecticide Pumps etc. 117 

Examined 15th June :•— 

Plots Nos. /, 2.— Practically no Red Spider, only one or two 

leaves found by careful searching. 
Plot No. 3. — Nearly as good. 

Plots Nos. 4i 5. — Bushes here and there showing little spider. 
Plot No, 6. — Not so good as the two previous. 

„ 7. — Still more Red Spider visible. 

The plots and surrounding four rows easily distinguished at a 
glance from rest of garden. 

Examined 15th July. Heavy rain has brought on vigorous flushing 
and the plots and surrounding garden are uniform in appearance. 

It was intended to redress all the plots at the expiration of three 
weeks' time, but a continuance of showery days made this impractic. 
able. 

An interesting point brought forward in the foregoing experi- 
ments, is the success attending the application of such an inexpen- 
sive insecticide as dry sulphur. All preparing and mixing of ingredi- 
ents is done away with, a great saving of labour is effected as water 
carriers are not required, and the sprayers are much less apt to choke 
and get out of order than those containing a liquid. 

Some extent of garden was dressed by women shaking bags of 
sulphur over the bushes. The bags were formed from squares of 
dammer.* A large area can in this manner be rapidly got over, but 
very much more sulphur is required than when using the sprayers 

Sulphuring to be effective should be done in the early morning 
when the dew is on the leaves. The sulphur then forms a thin 
coating over the surface of the leaf. This result is not so well secured 
after rain, as the latter tends to collect in drops on the smooth 
surface of the leaf, causing an unequal adhesion and distribution of 
the sulphur. 

With regard to liquid preparations of insecticides, allowing the 
drawbacks previously mentioned, they possess the advantage of being 
applicable throughout the day. 

* Obtainable from the Elgin Mills Company, Cawnpore. 



ii8 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



NOTES ON INSECT PESTS FROM THE EN- 
TOMOLOGICAL SECTION, INDIAN MUSEUM. 

BY E. BARLOW. ASSISTANT IN CHARGE OF ENTOMOLOGY. 



I. TEA PESTS. 

I. Acanthopsyclie (Brachycyttartis) subtercUbata, 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Psychida;.) 
Plate XI, Jig. /, a, larva-case , b, moth $ . 

Hampson. Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Moths, vol. i, page 
295, No. 627. 111. Het. IX, ined., pi. 159, fig. 23, pi. 176, fig. 12 (larva-case). 

In September 1896, Mr, J. Lancaster, Secretary to the Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Society of India, forwarded to the Indian 
Museum specimens of bag-worms (Psychidae) from the Chittagong 
district, where they were said to be defoliating tea and other plants. 
The following note which appeared in the Indian Agriculturist 
proves without doubt the destructive nature of the insect:— 

"The troubled planter of Chittagong has set the members of the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society of India and those interested in natural history, both 
from a scientific and practical point of view, a task in the way of investigation 
and observation. He has recently forwarded some specimens of leaf-worms which 
the reports are working great havoc among the tea-gardens in that district just 
now. From observation of the insect's movements it appears that it begins by 
attacking the most tender leaves and shoots and gradually eating up all the leaves 
upon the tree. Not only is this insect possessed of a voracious appetite, but there 
is much method in its system of securing a food supply. Having demolished all 
the choice leaves on one tree it goes on to the next. These insects commenced by 
attacking an avenue of Poinciana trees, and they have now spread to palms and 
fruit trees." 

The examples which consisted of larva-cases and imagos proved 
to be new to the Museum Collection, specimens were therefore for- 
warded to Sir G. F. Hampson, who very obligingly identified the 
insect as belonging to the species Acanthopsyche {Brachycyttarus) 
svbteralbata, Hamps., a species previously recorded from Ceylon. 
He describes the insect thus :— 

Male : Head, thorax and abdomen dark brown, wings dark 
brown, the underside of the hind wing shining bluish white. 

Larva-case covered by comminuted leaves and suspended by a 
silken thread, 

Exp. 15 Millim. 



Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 119 

2. Aspidiotus dictyospermi, Morgan, 
var. arecce, Newstead. 
(Sub-order Homoptera, Fam. Coccidse.) 

In January 1896, specimens of a scale-insect affecting tea plants 
were received in the Indian Museum from Dr. G. Watt, Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, with the 
information that they were sent to him as samples of Lecanium on 
tea. On examination of the scales, they, however, proved without 
doubt to belong to the genus Aspidiotus^ but unlike any of the same 
genus in the Indian Museum collection. To ascertain the correct 
specific identity of the insect, specimens were submitted to Mr. W. 
M. Maskel who kindly determined them as belonging to the species 
Aspidiotus dictyospermi, Morgan, var. arecse, Newstead, both the 
type and the variety being originally described from Demerara. 

The following is the description of the type by A. C. F. Morgan 
published in the Entomologist's monthly Magazine, Vol. XXV 
P-352. 

Aspidiotus dictyospermi^- $ scale greyish-white, with exuviae 
in the centre, depressed, of an elongate oval shape, aboutr2 mm. 
longest diameter. The centre of the larval skin is of a dark 
orange colour, whilst the exuviae are of a light yellow. 

% insect has three pairs of lobes. The median pair is the 
largest, notched on the outer lateral margin ; the second lobe is 
similar to the first in shape, biit smaller, and the third lobe is stilh 
smaller, with the outer lateral margin serrated. Two simple plates 
between the median lobes, two between the first and second lobes 
and three between the second and third. The third is followed by 
two long plates, serrated on the outer lateral margin. Anterior to 
the last plate the margin is serrate up to the commencement of the 
next visible segment. The lateral margins of the first and second 
lobes are thickened at the base. Four small spines situated as 
usual. Four groups of ventral glands, the anterior group consisting 
of three or four, and the posterior of two glands. The anus is situated 
just above the base of the median lobes. There is a considerable 
similarity between this species and A. ficus, but the plates are 
different, and the scale is completely different, the one oval 
greyish-white and flat, the other almost black, convex and circular. 

Found on Dictyospermum album from Demerara. 

Mr. Newstead describes the variety thus : — 

A. dictyospermi, Morgan, vsiv, arec^^ Newstead .-—Scale of the 
% circular, exuviae central, or nearly so; th# first exuviae in the form 



120 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

of a "nipple-like prominence " (Comstock), covered with white wax 
in fresh specimens, but red-brown or golden red-brown in denuded 
specimens ; nipple surrounded by a circular depression ; following 
this is a strong circular ridge, which, in many specimens, is covered 
with the same white material as the nipple; these are situated on ^ 
distinct circular prominence, or boss, with nearly perpendicular 
sides ; below this the scale becomes very flat and wide, and is of a 
rich orange-brown, varying to ochreous-brown. 

Diameter i — i^ mm. 

Scale of the $ of the same colour, and has the same structure 
at apex as the ? . 

Found on leaves of Areca triandra from Demerara. 



Undetermined Pests, 

(3) Moths. — Hyposidra sp. — In November i8g6 Mr. W, J. Fleed 
forwarded to the Indian Museum a single specimen of a Geometrid 
moth said to be attacking tea bushes both in the Borghat and in 
the new Salonah gardens in Assam. 

The moth appeared to be new to the Museum collection, 
but it was identified as belonging to the genus Hyposidra, Further 
specimens of the moth are required to enable the insect to be 
specifically determined. Mr. Fleet, who reared the moth from 
caterpillars, collected by him from the tea gardens, has furnished the 
following notes :— 

" 75^^ yM«e /Spd.— Caterpillars feeding on leaves of tea plants in Borghat 
and New Salonah Gardens, Geometrid : dark or chocolate brown, with seven 
white dotted transverse lines, one being at head, another at caudal extremity. 

Three placed in breeding cage. 

igth June. — Two added ; one pale brown, length Y*g inch, increasing. 

24ih June. — Two of the caterpillars have parasitic grubs coming out ; some 
have formed cocoons. 

26th June.— One of the caterpillars died, some ten grubs spinning themselves 
cocoons. Cocoons in clusters on under-side of leaf ; white and woolly, length 
about -^ij inch. 

27th 5^ M«e. -.Second caterpillar host died ; cocoons complete; removed to 
box. 

2gth June.— Third caterpillar died. Flies • in box, came out. 

ist 7MZy.— Fourth caterpillar died. Fifth caterpillar changed into chrysalis 
in soil, and the moth emerged 13th idem. 

• Examples of the parasitic fly have been sent to the Museum by Mr. Fleet. It is a minute 
llymcnopteious insect of the fa aily Chalcididae, and new to the Museum collection. 



No, 3,] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section, \2\ 



(4) Tineid caterpillar. — From the Officiating Reporter on Eco- 
nomic Products to the Government of India were received in 
September 1896 specimens ot insects said to be attacking tea 
leaves in Burma. No particulars accompanied the specimens 
which consisted of some larvae of an unknown moth belonging to the 
family Tineidse. 

(5) Beetles. — In September 1896 specimens of insects said to 
be more or less directly injurious to tea plants in Assam were 
forwarded to the Museum through Mr. D. Hooper, Officiating 
Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of India. 

No special report accompanied the insects which comprised the 
following : — 

{a) A Chrysomelid beetle of the species Diapromorpha mela- 
nopus, Lacord. 

This insect has been previously recorded in the pages of these 
Notes as attacking tea plants in Sibsagar, Assam. It is commonly 
known among the tea planters as the "orange^'' beetle. 

{b) A Chrysomelid beetle probably belonging to the species 
Criocerus impressa, Fabr. 

{c) A Chrysomelid beetle identified with Oides bipunctata^ F'abr. 



II.— INSECTS DESTRUCTIVE TO CEREALS AND CROPS. 
I. Jjeptocorisa acuta, Thunb. 

The Rice Sapper, 

Reports and specimens of this common rice bug were received 
in the Indian Museum from the undermentioned officers as being 
very destructive to paddy crops both in the Bengal and Madras 
Presidency during the year 1895-96. 

A full account of the pest may be found in Indian Museum 
Notes, Vol. I, No. i, pp. i to 4. 

(a) Through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, 
from the Manager, Court of Wards, Backergunge, who wrote 
on 3rd December, 1^95 •—■ 

" I have the honour to forward some *•' Mewa" insects which are doing damage 
to the paddy crops in some parts of the Dakhin Shabazpur Purgana." 

[b) From the Deputy Director of Land Records and Agriculture, 
Madras, who reported on 25th February 1896 :— 

" I have the honour to advise you of the despatch to-day of a small box 
containing insects which, I am informed, do a good deal of damage to paddy in 



122 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV 



Mnlnhnr. My infdrmnnt stntes that the local name is C/zriz///, and that last year 
tliey did an imiiuMisc amount of damage to the paddy here in places, very much 
more as far as I can make out than has ever been known before." 

\c) Tlirougli the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, 
from the Collector, Cuttack Collectorate, avIio wrote : — 

" I have the honour to forward herewith some specimens of insects which are 
destroying the Lo^Iik rice to a certain extent in this district. 

Knciuiry is being made as to how far the ravages committed by these insects 
extend, and what is the best moans of getting rid of them. I have directed the 
Sub-neputy Collector in charge of the enquiry to endeavour to get ryots try 
the experiment of smoking the fields by burning weeds, etc., to windward." 

{d) Through the Superintendent, Government Museum, Madras, 
with a report from the Collector of Ganjam, dated 8th Novem- 
ber 1896 : — 

" That m the paddy fields of some villages in Goomsur division, winged 
insects of a peculiar sort have appeared, and that they are sucking up the 
milk out of the paddy oars. 

Similar insects were not, it is reported, even before seen in Goomsur." 

{e) The Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, from 
the Sub-Divisional Onicer, Bhola, who wrote : — 

" The general charartcr of the insects herewith sent is that Ihoy thrust their 
long lips into tho padily, and suck the milk in its immature state after its ears 
shoot out .... 'Ihe present insects arc very export in Hying, and they 
will ily away in flock at once at the approach of man. The invasion of insects is 
reported to be greater on the lazumaddi side. They invade the crop both on 
the high and low land." 



2. XjC2>tispa pijgviwa, Baly. 

(Ord. Colcoptora, Fam. (luysomolid.'o, Sub-fam. Hispinae.) 

Plate No. XI, Jig. 3, a and h, beetle, dorsal and side vieirs. 

In December iSoC^ sj^ecimens of an insect causing damage to 
paddy stalks in the Malabar district were forw^uded to the Museum 
through the Superintendent, Governn\eut Museum, Madras, from the 
Special Assistant Collector, Malabar, who wrote : — 

" That n good deal of harm is being done to the existing paddy crop liy a 
peculiar kind of flies of which I forward some specimens in a bottle. 

Those flics sit in nnmbors on the stalks of growing paddy and when they do so, 
the rtalks begin to wither «nd f^radually decay. Complaint is heard on all sides 
of this post, ni\d il any romedy against its attack can bo suggested, it will be of 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 123 

great use to the cultivators, who will take measures to destroy it, and guard against 
its attack in future. The cultivators do not know what kind of flies these are, and 
know nothing about their habits and propensities." 

The insect proved to be the same as Lcpttspa pygtnsva^ Baly, a 
minute Chrysomelid beetle which has previously been recorded in a 
short article in the pages of these notes as attacking sugarcane in 
Poona. 

The following is the description of the insect taken from 
the Catalogue of Ceylon Hespidse by Joseph S, Baly, M. E. S.j etc. 

Leptispa pygmoea. L. elongata, angustata, cylindrica, Ifete 
viridi-aenea, subtus nigra ; thorace subquadrato minus crebre punctato, 
lateribusantice rotundatis ; elytris punctato-striatis, ad apicem sub- 
sulcatis ; antennarum articulo basali compresso, apice truncato, 
extrorsum dilatato. 

Long. 2 lin, 

L, narrow, elongate, cylindrical, deep metallic green. Head 
slightly flattened above, covered with irregular punctures ; basal 
joint of antennas compressed and dilated externally at its apex 
truncate. Thorax subquadrate; sides straight and parallel, rounded 
near their apex, narrowly margined, anterior margin indistinctly 
produced, rounded; above convex, coarsely punctured, puncturing 
rather less deeply impressed and less crowded, especially towards 
the sides, than in L. filiformis. Scutellum black, impunctate. 
Elytra scarcely broader than the thorax ; sides parallel ; apex less 
acutely rounded, dehiscent at the suture ; above convex, deeply 
punctate-striate, striae towards the apex of the elytra subsulcate. 
Beneath entirely black. 



3. Tani/niecus indicits, Faust. 

(Ord, Coleoptera, Fam. Curculionidae.) 
Injurious to poppy, wheat, etc. 

This insect was first brought to our notice in December 1891 
when it was reported from Ghazipur as doing injury to the seedlings 
of the Poppy {Papaver sommfdrutn) plant. Notes on the pest were 
published at the time in Indian Museum Notes, Volume ill. No. i, 
pages 12 and 1 18. 



124 



Indian Miissuvi Notes. 



[Vol. IV, 




In November 1895 the Director of Land Records and Agriculture, 

North-West Provinces 
and Oudh, forwarded 
to the Indian Museum 
specimens of this insect, 
with the information 
that they were attack- 
ing wheat and gram 
crops, etc., in his prov- 
inces. About the same 
time specimens, which 
proved to be of the same 
species, were also sent 
to the Museum through 
Mr. J. Lancaster, Secre- 
tary to the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, as causing 
great damage to riihbi crops, mangels and s-tueeds in Behar, 

The following report has been furnished by the Director of Land 
Records, North-West Provinces and Oudh : — 

" The insect known throughout the eastern districts as " godela " and identified 
on reference to the Superintendent, Indian Museum, as belonging to the family 
Curculionidse, genus Tanynnecus, species indictis, has this year attracted special 
attention bv extensive a ttacks on the newly-germinating spring crops, more parti- 
cularly wheat, peas, and gram, and sometimes but less frequently barley. It has 
long been known well bv poppy cultivators, its attacks inordinary- years being 
directed almost exclusively to newly germinated poppy plants. To these it has 
this year been specially fatal, having made no less than three sowings necessary, in 
many villages. The attacks of the " gadela " on young crops cease as soon as 
the temperature falls to a certain degree, and the cultivators believe that its special 
activitv- this year is due to the unusual continuance of a high temperature into 
the month of November. In connection with this point the normal temperature 
during each week in November at Allahabad is compared below with the actual 





lemperature. 




NOVEME 


ER 1895. 






1st week. 


2nd week. 


3rd week. 


4th weak. 


Actual ...... 

Normal ...... 


73'4 
71-6 


74'2 
1 6g'2 


71 -s 

67-4 


66-3 
65-0 



temperature this year. Its widespread ravages have this year attracted the atten- 
tion of cultivators of casts and tracts by whom and in which poppy is not grown, 
and a crop of new names have therefore been bestov^ed on it. It is known as 
"Shaikh Chillis," "Sher Bahadur," " Bahadura," " Bajpai"and possibly by other 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section^ 125 



names recently invented. The name " Shaikh Chilli " appears to have taken a 
firm hold in Sultanpur and " Bahadura " in parts of Fyzabad and Azamgarh. 
. The insect, a small grey weevil, makes its home amongst the loose clods and 
soil of newly-sown fields. It is reported that it is attracted by the smell of Kaitha 
and Bel fruit and collects in large numbers near fragments of such fruit when 
strewn over a field. It is then collected and destroyed by the cultivators. Irriga- 
tion has this year been largely resorted to to destroy it often at so early a stage 
<>n the growth of the crop that the young seedlings, especially of peas, have been 
hurt. It is said never to appear again in irrigated land or after the cold weather 
has fully set in. Th« young poppy is now springing up freely in fields on which 
earlier sowings were destroyed. 

The damage done by this insect to poppy is so constant and extensive that the 
discovery of a suitable insecticide for it would be a most valuable one. The insecti- 
cide should probably be applied to the soil before the germination of the young 
plants, as after germination they would be likely to be destroyed by the application 
of an arsenical preparation or kerosene emulsion. Kerosene as procurable every- 
where would be a suitable insecticide to experiment on. Cultivators of the valu- 
able poppy plant would no doubt be glad to devote a considerable amount of 
labour and to incur some small expenditure in kerosene and soap to secure their 
sowings against damage, but the purchase of expensive apparatus is not possible 
for them. If the Superintendent of the Indian Museum could suggest some 
simple way of applying a kerosene emulsion or arsenical preparation to the 
soil or even to the young plants, measures will be taken next sowing season to 
experiment with them. Expensive measures are useless to the cultivators, and 
the Department of Agriculture is itself not in a position to incur any large 
expenditure." 

As regards preventative and remedial measures against this de- 
structive insect the suggestions made were {;) deep ploughing of the 
field in the summer to destroy or expose pupae that lie near the 
surface ; (2) searching for the pupae and destroying them ; {3) at- 
tracting the perfect insects to fires of dry wood or of refuse material 
from the fields, since insects are known to be readily attracted by 
light ; (4) sowing only seeds selected from plants that have resisted 
the attack. 

Two force pumps and a small supply of *' London purple " v/ere 
also despatched to the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, North- 
West Provinces and Oudh, for experimental use against the pest. 



4. Araeoceriis fasciculatiis, Degeer 
(Ord. Coleop. Fam. Anthribidae.) 

The areca-nut Beetle. 

Plate No. XI, fig. 2i a, larva \ b, pupa; c and d, beetle, dorsal 
and side views ^ 



126 Indian Mttseum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

In January 1895, specimens of Betel-nut lAreca catechu) were 
received in the Indian Museum from Babu G. C. Chuckerbutty, Ento- 
mological Artist of the Museum, with the information that they had 
been seriously damaged by insects on being stored in the house, and 
consequently they were unfit for human consumption. The A reca 
nut, according to McCullock's Dictionary of Commerce and Com- 
mercial Navigation, is one of the indispensible ingredients which 
enter into the preparation of the pan or betel-leaf, which is chewed 
so universally by natives of all classes, and is therefore of great 
commercial value throughout India. 

On making a superficial examination of the affected nuts they 
were found to be badly drilled on all sides by minute holes and some- 
what discoloured in appearance. Splitting open into halves some of the 
nuts, beetles, in different stages of development, were found inside, 
which proved to belong to the family Anthribidae. As the Museum 
collection of this group of insects is very incomplete, the identifica- 
tion of the pest could not be locally made. Examples were, however, 
submitted to Mons. A. Fauvel of France, who very willingly 
examined the insect and determined it as belonging to Araeocerus 
fasciculatus, Degeer, a cosmopolitan species, probably originating 
in India, which has previously been reported as attacking coffee 
berries, ginger, Chinese figs, etc. 

The following is a description of the species, by T. Vernon 
Wollaston, M.A.,F.L.S., published in the Ann. and Mag. of Natural 
History, Vol. V, p. 18, 1870. 

"Ar^OCERUS FASCICULATUS. a. breviier ovalis^ crassus, hrun- 
neo-piceus,pube hrevi squamasformi demissa cinerea griseaque vestitus 
necnon in elytris plus minus obsoletissime [sc, in interstitiis alter- 
nis) longitudinaliter tessellatus ; capite prothoraceque [siibter pube) 
opacis, densissime et rugose punctatisy illo in medio temiiter carinu- 
lata oculis maximis promineniibus, hoc subconico^ postice lato bisi- 
nuatOy costa transversa in marginem basalem coeunte necnon utrinque 
marginem lateralem {usque ad medium lateris ductujn) efficiente, 
angulis posticis subrectis ; elytris apice truncato-rotundatiSy {suhter 
pube) subopacis, densissime et rugose granulatis ac leviter ere- 
nulato-striatis ; antennis pedibusque elongatis et {prsecipue illis) 
gracilibus, illis rujo-testaceis clava obscuriore, his rufo-ferruginets, 
tarsorujn ari° imo. longissimo." 
Long. Corp. tin. 2-2^. 

Two examples of an Ar^ocerus, which were taken at St. Helena 
by Mr. Melliss, 1 feel almost confident are referable to the A. /dscicw 
latus (which is usually known in collections as the coffeae of Fabri- 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 127 



cius), though I have thought it desirable to give a careful diagnosis 
of them, in the event, perhaps, of their being identified hereafter 
with some cognate form. The insect, hovi^ever, is evidently a vari- 
able one ; and there are individuals in the British Museum, bearing 
the label ^* cofe^e", which seem in no way to differ from the pair 
now before me ; whilst the fact that the species (the larva of which 
appears to subsist within various seeds and berries Avhich are used 
as articles of food) has become naturahzed, through the medium of 
commerce, in most of the warmer countries of the civilized world 
would go far to render it probable that the St. Helena oi^e is the 
true fasciculatuSy and has been established in the island (as else- 
where) by indirect human agency. 

The synonyms of the species as given in Dr, Gemminger et B 
de Harold, Catalogus Coleopterorum, are as follows : — 

Arseocerus fasciculatus, Degeer. Ins. V, 1775. p. 276, t. 16, f , 2 
J J „ Wollast Ann. nat. Hist., V., 1870, 

p. 18.— Lucas. Ann. Fr., 1861, 
P- 399. 
„ cacao Fabr. Syst. Enf., p, 64.— Oliv £";«/. IV, 80, p. 15 

t. 2. f. 21. a-b. 
„ capillicorniSy Say. Journ. Ac. Phil.y V, 2, 1827, p. 

249. 
„ moestus, Lee. Ann. Lye. I, p, 172. 

„ cassia, Winthem., Dej, Cat. 3 ed,, p. 259, 

J, cofe3s^ Fabr. Syst., El. U, p. 411. — Gyll. Schh. 

Gen. Cure. I, p. 175. — Labr. et Imh. 
Gen. Cure. I., nr. 55. 
„ crassicornis,¥ahr. Ent. 6)'^^. suppl., p. 159; Syst 

El. II, p. 399. 
„ griseus, Steph. ///. Brit., IV, p. 21 1, t. 21, f. 2. (forte) 

„ japonicus^ Thunb. Nov, Act. Ups. VII, p. 122. 

„ peregrinuSy Herbst. Kaf.Mll, p. 168, t. 106. f. g. 

saltatorius. Falderm. in litt. 
„ var, sambucinus, Boisd. Voy. Asfrol. II, p. 299 (forte) 

— MacLeay. Dej. cat, 3 ed., p. 259, 



5. Acridium peregrinum, Oliv. 
" Locust." 
The following reports regarding the appearance of locusts, have 
been received in the Indian Museum during the year 1896 : — 

{a) Through the Survey Commissioner and Director of Land 



I2S Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV, 



Records and Agriculture, Bombay, from the Assistant Collector, 

Karachi, who wrote, dated 7th July 1896 : — 

"To forward specimens of locusts that passed over Tatta on the morning 

of the 5th July 1896, and went into the Kohistan on the following day. The 

Mukhtyarkar of Tatta states that they have laid eggs in the Kohistan, but as the 

cultivation has not yet begun, no damage has been caused by their visit there. 

They have, however, damaged the Charkhi crops in Dehs Kotri, Ghulam Hussein, 

Chato Chand and Bao Purandas. 

"The Mukhtyarkar is taking measures to have the eggs destroyed. " 
The specimens that accompanied the report proved to be the 

"Locust" Acridium peregrinum, Oliv, 

(3) Forwarded through the Survey Commissioner and Director, 
Land Records and Agriculture, Bombay, from the ^Political Agent, 
Mahikantha, dated 31st October 1896: — 

*' A specimen of locusts which were seen passing here yesterday at about 5-30 
p. M. The flight passed continuously for about an hour from a westerly direction 
and went away towards Chhala (Baroda) in the East where it is said to have 
halted for the night, " 

Specimens received were identified with A, peregrinum^ Oliv. 
{c) From the Resident, Western Rajputana States, who wrote 
in November 1896: — 

" To advise the despatch by parcel post of a tin containing some samples of 
locusts which have recently visited certain parts of the Jaisalmir State." 
Specimens received in the Museum were identified as above. 
{d) From the Collector of Bankura, dated i6th November 1896: — 
" A swarm of locusts appeared in out-post Indpur of the Khotra Thana of 
this district on the 21st October last, and left towards Thana Ouda on that 
day. They visited several villages and wherever they alighted, devoured the 
rabi crops then on the ground, viz., pulses, Surguja {Guizotia abyssinea), 
etc. The extent of injury done to these crops by these insects in the jurisdiction 
of Thana Khotra is estimated at 2 annas in the villages where they alighted. 

(2) The insects then alighted in certain villages of Thana Ouda and made 
attacks on the rabi crops. The extent of injury done to the crops in the affected 
villages in Ouda is estimated at 8 annas. 

(3) They then left the district after visiting out-post Simlapal on their way, but 
did not injure any crops there. Their appearance in no other part of the district 
was heard of. 

(4) As there was no important rabi crop then on the ground and as the insects 
left the " Amondhan " and sugarcane untouched, the loss caused by the invasion 
was comparatively trifling. 

(5) No specimens of the insect could be sent to the Trustees of the Indian 
Museum as the Police did not send any nor could I obtain any specimen as the 
appearance of the insects was brought to my notice after their departure from this 
district. 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 129 

Extracts from the weekly season reports of the Bombay Presi- 
dency,which contain information on the appearance of locusts during 
the months of June to December 1896. 

The season reports have been forwarded to the Museum through 
the Under-Secretary to Government, Revenue Department, Bombay. 

Week ending 23rd June iSg6. — Shikarpur, — locusts appeared in Kakar and 
Nashirabad, but caused no serious damage. Hyderabad, — locusts appeared in 
More, but caused no damage, 

Week ending 30th June i8g6. — Karachi, — locusts in the talukas of Karachi, 
Manjhand, and Seh A'an ; no damage caused by them. Shikarpur, — locusts passed 
over Mehar taluka causing no damage. 

Week ending 'jth '^tdy.— Karachi, — locusts in taluka Kotri, catising no 
damage. Hyderabad, — locusts in the district, causing no damage. Thar and 
Parkar, — locusts having caused slight damage at Sanghar, are moving south- 
wards. 

Week ending 14th July. — Karachi, — locusts in Katri taluka, causing some 
damage to cultivation. Hyderabad, — locusts in Guni causing no damage. 

Week ending 21st July. — Karachi, — locusts in Deh Kohistan m Tatta taluka 
causing no damage. Thar and Parkar, — locusts appeared in Umarkot, Khipra 
and Chachra talukas causing no damage. 

Week ending 28th July.— Karachi, — locusts in taluka Mirpur Batora, causing 
no damage. Shikarpur,— locusts in four talukas, causing slight damage in one 
taluka. Upper Sind Frontier, — locusts passed over Thai on 23rd, causing slight 
damage. 

Week ending 4th August .~-Ka.rac\\\, — locusts In talukas Mirpur and Sakro, 
damaging grass and bajri crops. Shikarpur, — locusts in six talukas causing no 
damage. Hyderabad,— locusts appeared in four talukas, causing damage in two 
dehs of Naushahro taluka. Thar and Parkar, — locusts in desert. 

Week ending nth August. — Karachi, — locusts in talukas Mirpur, Sakro, 
Manjhand, and Kohistan, damaging grass and bajri crops. Shikarpur,— locusts 
appeared in eight talukas, damaging crops in part of one taluka only. Hydera- 
bad, — locusts appeared in Shahdadpur and Hala talukas, causing no damage. 

Week ending 1 8th August. — Karachi, — locusts in Manjhand, Kohistan, Tatta 
and Sakro talukas. Thar and Parkar, — locusts throughout desert talukas, caus- 
ing slight damage in the tapa of Umarkot; they are breeding in desert ; steps 
taken 10 destroy them. 

Week ending 2 ^th August, — Karachi, — locusts in Karachi, Kohistan, Tatta 
and Sakro Talukas, Shikarpur, — large flight of young locusts passed over Ubauro 
and Mirpur, causing no damage. Hyderabad,— locusts appeared in three talukas, 
causing no damage. Thar and Parkar, early millet in ear but slightly damaged 
by locusts in desert portion of Umarkot and Khipra. 

Week ending ist September, — Karachi, — locusts in Kotri, Kohistan, Karachi 
and Tatta talukas. Hyderabad, — locusts in four talukas, causing slight damage 
in two. Thar and Parkar, — locusts in six talukas, causing slight damage in three 
(indigo in Sanghar and tilseed in Khipro slightly damaged by insects). 

Week ending 8th September. — Karachi, — locusts in Manjhand and Kotri 
talukas, damaging crops. Shikarpur, — locusts in Ubauro taluka. Hyderabad^ — 
locusts in six talukas, causing slight damage in five. 



13© Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



Week ending i^th September. — Karachi, — crops slightly damaged by insects 
in Ghorabari, Ketibandar, Shahbandar, and Jati talukas. Locusts in Kotri and 
Kohistan talukas, Hyderabad,— locusts have caused slight] damage in two talukas. 
Thar and Parkar, — locusts in six talukas, causing slight damage. 

Week ending 22nd September, — Karachi, — locusts in Kotri, Kohistan, and 
Manjhand talukas. Hyderabad, — locusts have caused slight damage in Hydera- 
bad taluka. 

Week ending 30th September. — Karachi, — locusts in Kotri and Kohistan 
talukas. Hyderabad, — locusts in Hyderabad taluka, causing slight damage. 
Thar and Parkar, — locusts still in four desert talukas. 

Week ending 6th October. — Karachi, — locusts have caused damage to crops 
in Sahro, Kohistan, Kotri, and Manjhand talukas. Thar and Parkar, — locusts 
in four talukas. 

Week ending 13th October. — Karachi, — crops damaged by locusts in Kotri and 
Kohistan talukas. Shikar pur,— locusts passed over Shikarpur taluka in an 
easterly direction without doing damage. Thar and Parkar, — locusts have caused 
slight damage in Khipra taluka. 

Week ending 2otk October. — Karachi, — crops damaged by locusts in Sakro. 
Shikarpur, — locusts passed through five talukas, causing slight damage in two. 
Hyderabad, — locusts in five talukas, causing slight damage. Upper Sind 
Frontier, — locusts in four talukas, causing slight damage. Thar and Parkar, — 
locusts in three desert talukas, causing serious damage to gardens, trees, til and 
mung in Nagar Taluka, 

Week ending 27th October. — Karachi,— crops damaged by locusts in Sakro. 
Shikarpur,— large flights of locusts settled in four talukas, causing slight damage. 
Hyderabad, — locusts in Sakrand taluka damaging crops. 

Week ending 3rd November. — Karachi, — crops damaged by locusts in Man« 
jhand and Kohistan. Shikarpur,— flights of locusts visited seven talukas, causing 
slight damage in five. Hyderabad, — locusts in three talukas, causing slight 
damage. Baroda,— locusts have appeared in parts of Sidhpur taluka and have 
damaged standing crops. 

Week ending loth November. — Karachi, — crops damaged by locusts in Tatta, 
Kohistan, Karachi, Joti , and Shahbandar. Hyderabad, — locusts in Guni Taluka 
causing slight damage. Thar and Parkar, — locusts in two talukas causing slight 
damage. Ahmedabad, — standing crops damaged by locusts in a few villages of 
the Dhandhuka taluka. Kaira, — locusts have injured the cereal crops in some 
of the villages of Mehmadabad and Borsad talukas. 

Week endifig 17th November. — Karachi, — locusts appeared in seven talukas. 
Shikarpur, — locusts in four talukas, causing slight damage in one taluka. Ah- 
medabad, — locusts in certain villages of Dhandhuka taluka. 

Week ending 24th November. — Karachi, — sprouting seeds damaged by locust, 
in Dadu, Sakro, and Shahbandar talukas. Hyderabad, — cultivation damaged by 
locusts in the talukas. 

Week ending ist December. — Karachi, — locusts appeared in six talukas. 
Shikarpur,— locusts appeared in Kambar taluka, but caused no damage. Hy- 
derabad, — cultivation damaged by locusts in one taluka. 

Week ending 8th December. — Karachi,— locusts appeared in six talukas, but 
did no damage. Shikarpur, — locusts appeared in four talukas and caused slight 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 131 



damage in two. Upper Sind Frontier, — locusts appeared in Thul and Kashmor 
talukas, causing slight damage. 

Week ending isth December. — Karachi, — kharif crops slightly damaged by 
locusts in Sehwan, Kohistan, and Sakro talukas. Shikarpur, — locusts appeared 
in one taluka but caused no damage. 

Week ending 2gth December. — Upper Sind Frontier, — mustard crops damaged 
by locusts in Thai taluka. 



6. Other undetermined insects destructive to 

PADDY. 

a. Noctues caterpillar. — Specimens of a caterpillar said to be 
injurious to paddy crops were received in the Museum from Mr. F. C, 
Parsons, Special Settlement Officer, Malabar and South Canara, who 
wrote on the 29th March 1896 : — 

" I only know of it as a pest in the cultivation of rice in backwater swamps 
which takes place in Malabar in the hot weather (February to May). A plot of 
swamp is surrounded by a bund, the water is baled from the interior, the rice is 
transplanted, and when the seedlings have been in the ground about a month, 
this pest appears, often covering several acres in the course of a week, and eats 
away the young blades of the rice plant. The pest does not appear until the 
surface soil is getting a little dry from the action of the sun, but the drought is 
very shallow, for the water all round the outside of the bund is higher generally by 
four or five feet than the surface of the cultivated area inside the bund. 

On cutting the bund and letting in water the grub disappears at once and may 
not be seen again, but of course this means that the ryot has to bale the water out 
again and his seedlings are damaged. The same result follows a shower of rain 
which, however, but rarely falls at this time of the year. Sometimes the grubs 
are swept up with a broom and so prevented from destroying the whole crop." 

The specimens owing to their being immature could not be 
precisely identified, but they appeared to be not unlike the larvae of 
the Noctus moth Helothis armigera, Hubn, which is a well-known 
pest to agriculture. 

b. Microlepidopterous larva- — Specimens of an insect injurious 
to paddy plants in the vicinity of PoonamalU, were received on the 
loth January 1896, from the Board of Revenue, Madras, through the 
Superintendent, Government Central Museum, Madras. 

The insects were found to be the larvae of a Microlepidopterous 
moth, which cannot precisely be determined without the examination 
of the imago. 

The following is a report on the pest furnished by the Agricul- 
tural Inspector : — 

" Local name. — The insect whose attack on paddy crop was the object of 
inspection, is a worm locally known as " Urappuchchi." 



132 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. I^, 



Extent of damage done. — The existence of this pest was known to the Deputy 
Tahsildar, Revenue Inspector, and the ryots generally. The former, however 
owing to the very limited sphere of the attack, did not consider it necessary to be 
shown in the season reports. The pest is not one peculiar to this year, but seems 
to have been in existence for several years. As may be evident from the descrip- 
tion of its characteristics to be said further on, the insect appears to be peculiar to 
the wet crop of paddy. The attack is found on crops transplanted, and not those 
sown, on tender and not mature crops. The reason why the attack is not extended 
to crops of paddy sown and those mature may be that in the former case, the crop 
is comparatively dry, and coming up earlier, becomes over-matured for the insect 
to do any harm, and in the latter case, the plants become too hairy and hard for 
the insect. It was therefore not an unusual thing to see side by side fields in 
which some were attacked and some not. The usual time of appaarance is the 
mont'hs of November and December. At the time of my visit, any visible sign of 
attack was confined to a few stray fields of those that were transplanted late in 
the season, As I was informed, there were, however, evident signs that some 
time back the attack was much wider-spread, and since the'late rains the affected 
crops have mostly recovered. The damage done is usually only temporary, as 
the attack itself is only temporary, and during the succeeding period the effect of 
damage is greatly minimised, and under favourable circumstances, as when there 
is plenty of rainfall, the damage done is only inappreciable. The ryots attribute 
the appearance of the pest to deficient rainfall in October. 

Description and characteristics of the insect, — " Urappuchchi," as locally 

known, is a small sized green larva, about J of an inch long The crop subject 

to its attack, presents a grey and ashy appearance. The worm is not easily made 
out, for it lives in a tubular coat with which it provides itself. The coat is about 
f of an inch long, made up of a doubled piece of paddy leaf, in which both ends 
are cut clean. The doubled leaf is connected together at th^ sides by means of a 
gummy excretory matter and a hole is bored at the point of doubling, where its 
head is always to be found, thus forming a tube, in which the worm lives. The 
worm, while ascending, juts out its head and gets up holding the plant with its 
front pair of feet. It is usually to be found in the lower portion of the plant above 
water, where it securely connects the coat with the plant by gummy matter. When 
in any way disturbed, it shrinks itself well into the coat and at other times thrusts 
out its head to feed on the fine juicy shoots springing up. If by chance the coat is 
detached and with it the worm is thrown on the water, the coat serves as a float to 
enable the worm from sinking down and for lajing hold of any plant or leaf it 
may come across. To give motion to the float, the larva protrudes its heads and 
a portion of its body into the water, and gives a few jerks rightwise and leftwise 
by which the float is moved about, and when its headside comes in contact with 
a plant or a leaf dipping in water, it ascends as stated before. This instructive 
provision shows that the pest is a peculiar one to paddy, for I removed some of 
the larvae from their coats and dropped them in water when they were not able to 
help themselves and all their jerks did not serve to keep them afloat or to lay hold 
of a plant. 

The process of feeding does not consist in nipping off the leaves which would 
necessitate frequent change of positit n and result in considerable damage to the 
crop, but, as appeared to me, feeding on the sap of fine leaves springing up con- 
fined ordinarily to one locality, with the result that the top leaves appear deprived 
of green colour and soon dry up and wither-..,,.. 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 13/ 



Measures of relief adopted. — The measure of relief usually adopted is to stop 
the irrigation of the crop for a few days, so that by partially drying up the crop 
a check is given to the free feeding of the worms, and the crop is said to have some 
relief. Some ryots appear to flood the field with irrigation water and drain it off 
now and then. Some years before there was a practice of sticking the twigs of a 
tree known as Uramande here and there in the field affected, and the bitter taste 
of the leaves had some good efl[ect against the pest. But the ryots say that 
neither the twigs are available nor the remedy anywhere adopted.,....." 



III.— INSECTS DESTRUCTIVE TO FRUIT TREES. 

1. Mango tree borer. — On 25th June 1896 Mr. S. Srinivasalu 
Naidu, Extra-Assistant Conservator of Forests, Amraoti District, 
forwarded to the Indian Museum, specimens of an insect said to be 
doing a good deal of damage to young mango trees in his district. 
The insect proved to be the immature form of a Cerambycid 
beetle, which cannot be precisely identified without the examination 
of the imago. 

The following extract is taken from the report accompanying the 
specimens: — 

" The specimens, I regret, are not very good, but while I am trying to secure 
better ones, I thought it best to send up what I could get without loss of time. I 
examined the affected trees last month, and found the injury to have been done 
in two ways : — (i) The stem of the plant commencing from the base is attacked 
by the grub, which devours the living bark and to a certain extent some wood 
to the form of a spiral or in large irregular patches. These patches in the case 
of almost all the trees attacked practically girdle the trees and at once seal their 
doom. The grub reduces the bark and wood, it devours to a felt-like mass that 
exactly fills the groove made by the removal of bark, etc., by the grub, and serves 

to hide its destructive action from view (2) Small tunnels varying with the 

size of the beetle found inside them are to be seen on the stem and branches. 
The tunnel extends well inside and takes up the substance of the stem or 
branch either in the form of rings bearing a thin column of wood in the centre or 
in numerous longitudinal tunnels, in both of which cases the portion above dies 
and can be broken at the diseased part with hardly any pressure. Exceptmg 
the hole, which is the entrance of the tunnel and which generally is too small to 
attract attention, there are no outward signs for suggesting causes for damage. 

The trees attacked are about 10 years in age and vary in girth from 8" to 14" 
and in height average about 9 feet. The attack was first noticed in January last, 
and the specimens of insects were collected at the end of last month." 



(2) Orange tree pests. — Specimens in alcohol, of the following 
insects, said to be doing great damage to orange trees in the 



134 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Moulmein District, have been received from the Reporter on 
Economic Products to the Government of India, in December 
1896:— 

Bottle No. I contained two caterpillars of a Geometrid moth, and 
one larva of a Noctues moth. These are reported as attacking the 
leaves of the orange tree. 

Bottle No. 2 consisted of fourteen specimens of a Microlepidop- 
terous larva in different stages of development. Reported as destroy- 
ing the bark and the wood of the orange tree. 

Bottle No. 3 contained three larvae of a Cerambycid beetle, and 
one specimen of a Lucanid beetle of the genus CEgus. These are 
reported to attack both the bark and the wood of the orange tree. 



IV.— FOREST PESTS. 

Beetles, etc. — A rough report dated 20th July 1896, together 
with some specimens of forest-insects, have been received in the 
Indian Museum from Mr. E. Stebbing, Officiating Conservator of 
Forests in charge Tista Division, Darjeeling District. 

With one exception, these insects have not been previously 
reported as affecting forest trees in India, and it is therefore desir- 
able that further particulars should be obtained regarding them for 
record in the pages of these Not^s, 

The following are the insects mentioned in the report :— 

No. I. — Consists of pupae cases of a Curculionid beetle, which 
cannot be further identified without the examination of the imago. 
Mr. Stebbing writes " that on stripping off the bark from some 
felled Kadam {Anthocephalus cadamba) trees the rough cocoons were 
disclosed situated between the bark and the wood, a small portion 
of the latter being in many cases gnawed away (presumably by the 
larva) to form a slight cavity over which a rough collection of 
chips of wood and fibre had been put together by the larva to form 
a cocoon. 

The pupae-cases were found on the 14th April 1896 in Tista 
Valley. Elevation about 1,100 feet." 

No. 2. — Specimens of an insect found riddling the wood of Siris 
{Albizzia stipulatd) tree, — consist of undeveloped imagos of a Cur- 
culionid beetle in a poor state of preservation for precise identifi- 
cation. 

No. J. — Specimen of a calcareous egg-like case found in a newly 
fallen Amara {Spondias mangifera) tree, proves to be a pupa-case 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 135 



of the Cerambycid beetle, Plocederus obesus Gahen {^P.pedestris, 
Cotes). This insect has previously been reported as tunnelling into 
sdl [Shorea robust a), jangham [Odina wodier), and into dhah [Butea 
frondosa). 

No. 4, — Specimens of a Lucanid beetle taken from felled trees, 
namely Sauer [Betula cylindrostachys), Musr6 Katus [Castanopsis 
rufescens), and Kharani {Symplocos theee folia) in the Loolagaon 
forest. These appear to belong to the species Basilianus cantoris 
Hope. 

No, 5.— Specimens of a large black cockroach found associating 
with the Lucanid beetle (mentioned above). These appear to 
be the immature forms of Salgonea morio^ Burn. ? . 

No, 6, — Specimen of a hornet found in the centre of a decaying 
stump of Musre Katus [Castanopsts rufescens) in Loolagaon forest. 
This insect is unrepresented in the Museum Collection, but it belongs 
to the genus Vespa. 

No. 7. — Consists of an insect taken from a decaying Sauer tree 
in the Loolagaon forest. This is a beetle of the family Scarabaeidse, 
sub-family Dynastini. It is new to the Museum collection. 

No. 8. — Consists of a Cerambycid beetle which is unrepresented 
in the Museum collection. It was found tunnelling into the Sauer, 
tree in the above-mentioned forest. 

No. g. — Consists of a Curculionid beetle belonging to the genus 
Odoiporus. This insect was found dead in its burrow in a Lepcha- 
phal {Phoebe attenuafa) tree in the Loolagaon forest. 

No. 10. — Consists of a Buprestid beetle probably belonging 
to the species Melanotus /uscus, Fabr. No information has been 
received as to the injury done by this insect, beyond the report that 
it was found excessively numerous in the forest. 

A^^. //. — Specimen of a Curculionid beetle of the genus Odoi- 
porus. It was found on the Preng bamboo. 



V.-DETERMINATION OF SOME INSECT PESTS. 

Referring to previous years. 

I. The bamboo insects, (beetles of the family Bostrichidae) 
referred to Indian Museum NoteSf Volume I, No. i, page 43, have 
been determined by Mons. P. Lesnez as belonging to the species 
Dinoderus pilifrons, Lesne. and Dinoderus minutus, Fabr, 



136 - Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

2. Scarabaeid beetle(sub-fam. Rutelini) injurious to rose-treesand 
Cannas in Calcutta, identified by Herr Ernst Brenske as belonging 
to Adoretus cardom (see pi. XI, fig. 4), a species which he has 
described in the Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, 
Tome XXXII, 1893. The specimens were sent to the Museum by 
Surgeon-Major G. Ranking of Calcutta. 

3. Dipterous parasite bred from the larvae of the moth Trahula 
vishnu, destructive to castor oil-seed tree in Calcutta. This was 
kindly identified by Mr. F. M. vander Wulf as being the male 
of Crossocosmia sericaria, Rondani, the same species which is 
parasitical on silk-worms and other moths (see Indian Museum 
Notes, Volume III, No. 5, page 8). He reports that it seems to be 
a very common species in Japan, British India, Java, etc., as it is 
found in nearly every collection of Diptera from the oriental regions. 

4. Dipterous parasite bred from the larva of Enome ampla^ 
Walk., destructive to Peepul tree in Calcutta. Specimens sent 
to Mr. F. M. vander Wulf were in too bad a condition to be 
recognized with any certainty. He, however, reports that the insect 
seems to be a species of the genus Masicera. 

5. Aphids infesting the leaves of Crysanthemum plant in 
Calcutta, identified by Mr. G. B. Buckton as belonging to the species 
Aphis crysanthemij Koch. 



VI.-REPORTS OF RESULTS OF REMEDIES, etc, TRIED DURING 

THE YEAR 1895-96. 

(i) Paris Green, Bordeaux Mixture, and Kerosene 
Emulsion, etc. 

In a letter dated 27th May 1895 the late Lieut. -Colonel G. Gaisford, 
Political Agent, Quetta, reported: — ♦*'' I am experimenting with 
Paris green and Bordeaux mixture combined. So far I do not 
see any good has resulted. This is the more strange as we have had 
no rain, and the poisons are certainly still on both leaves and 
branches. I will let you know if any results^ likely to be of general 
benefit, accrue. 

The kerosene emulsion I find a great success. I used it on a 
bellow sprayer, for the Aphis on my rose-buds, for young twigs on 
fruit trees, which are affected. I use an old fruit can full of the 
emulsion. A roan just dips each twig in (and the Aphis are only 



No. 8.] Notes on insect pests from the Entomological Section. 137 



found on the young tender leaves). He goes round with a light 
bamboo-Jegged table, about 4 feet high, and with the aid of this he 
can reach most of the affected twigs. 

Last winter I washed or rather scrubbed all my fruit trees with a 
mixture consisting of lib. soap dissolved in 8 quarts of water, by 
boiling, to which, when removed from the fire, was added i quart 
of crude carbolic acid. 

This undoubtedly had a most excellent effect. The trees look 
clean, and fresh, and healthy, and all eggs, larvae, etc., etc., were got 
rid of. 

We are much troubled, too, with bark-lice, which tap most of the 
trees. To such an extent is this sometimes done that the ground 
below the tree looks as if it had been varnished. This pest, however, 
is easily kept down in a garden as I think I once before told you. 
They are always on the under-side of the branch, and so easily seen. 
A cooly goes round and examines each tree, with a tin of kerosene 
emulsion and a rag in his hand. When he sees the lice he rubs 
them to death with his fingers. He then washes the place with the 
wet rag, and any insect that may have escaped his fingers is killed 
with the emulsion. 

I keep the emulsion in use right through the summer, and I used 
to wash out my fowl house and to cleanse any dirty thing there may 
be. 

I have a force pump, and a plentiful supply of London purple. 

We ought to grow as good fruit as any in California, in these 
elevated valleys. The peaches I raise from imported trees could not 
well be beaten, and all other fruits might well be grown." 



2. LOCUSTS AND ARSENIC (»). 
Experience in Experiments. 

The Tnanda Division Agricultural Association (Victoria County, 
Natal) at their last meeting authorised the Locust Committee to draw 
up a report on the present aspect of the locust pest, recommending 
such remedial measures as the experience of the division during the 
past two years has shown to be most effective. The Committee 
met on the 21st instant, and after a careful consideration of the 
evidence before them, submit the following for general information. 

The Committee have information that in certain localities, princi- 
pally along the immediate coast belts, there has been a large deposit 

(i) Reprint of a Report by Mr. LeonardAcutt, President of the Inanda Division Agricultural 
Association, Victoria County, Natal. 



j«g Indian Musettm Notes. [Vol. IT» 



of eggs, but that, taking the division generally, the Committee are 
assured that the deposit is considerably less than it was last year, 
and that of the eggs which have been laid, a much larger percentage 
will be destroyed by maggots, ants, etc., than was the case last year. 

All measures taken for the destruction of locusts in past seasons 
were only partially successful, with the exception of the plan of 
poisoning with arsenic, and this met with the most absolute and 
unqualified success. Although every publicity was given at the time 
to the success of the use of arsenic, very little seems to be known 
generally of this important fact, and the principal object of the Asso- 
ciation in authorising a report is to give as full information as 
possible as to the effectiveness, cheapness, and safety of dealing with 
the young locusts by poison. 

The evidence before the Committee was so conclusive that they 
consider it to be established beyond doubt that the *' hoppers," 
however numerous, can be destroyed in a few days by the judicious 
use of arsenic. Crops, therefore, need not suffer for months from 
the ravages of the " hoppers," and should the winged locusts from 
other districts swoop down later in the season, the crops will be 
vigorous, and so be in a better condition to withstand any attacks. 
Again, arsenic is effective in destroying flying locusts, but not to the 
same extent as with the "hoppers", for the reason that the "flyers" 
come suddenly, feed, and are gone before the poison can be put 
down ; still it should be kept ready for use, and put down upon any 
appearance of a locust flight. 

The following testimony will be of interest. One man says : — 
"Last season on 400 acres I spent over ^^300 in driving the 
winged locusts to prevent, if possible, their depositing their eggs, in 
destroying eggs, and in digging trenches, and driving the young 
locusts, all with only partial success. Towards the end of the season 
I tried arsenic, and^ cleared my fields in a few days. This year I have 
let them feed, let them deposit their eggs, and let them hatch, secure 
in the knowledge that by the use of arsenic I can kill all that hatch 
on my land, and prevent any which may come from adjoining lands 
from ever getting beyond my boundary clearings or firebreaks.-" 

Mr. Wilkinson, of Ottawa Estate (who was the first to use arsenic 
with any success, and to whom the thanks of the Colony are due) 
says:— "I had all hands killing locusts, and did very little good and, 
from the time I began to use arsenic, an average of six men per diem 
at a cost of 7^., with a few shillings for chemicals for the season, 
cleared my place (700 acres) in 10 days, and kept it clear from inroads 
of locusts from adjoining lands." 



No. 3.] Notes on insect pests from the Entojnological Section, 139 

The mode of application is as follows : — Take itb arsenic, ilB 
caustic soda. Take four gallons of water, bring to boiling point, 
add the caustic soda ; when dissolved, add the arsenic, stir well and 
boil for a few minutes, care being taken not to inhale the fumes. 
Keep this mixture under lock and key. Take as required half a 
gallon of this mixture and add four gallons of hot or cold water and 
lolB of brown sugar. Dip bagass, grass, or mealie stalks in this 
liquor and place along roads, in cane-fields, or anywhere about grass 
or low-growing crops, or splash with a whitewash brush on to any- 
thing which the locusts may be observed to have a taste for. Locusts 
will come from a hundred yards or more, attracted by the smell of 
the sugar ; they eat and die, and are eaten by other locusts, and, if 
they are taking the poison freely, in three or four days' time will be 
seen covering the ground with their dead bodies, or will be found 
where they have crept under grass or other cover to die. Some 
people recommend a much stranger solution than the above, which 
is that used by Mr. G. Wilkinson and is the weakest in use, and of 
course if it is found to be equally effective with the stronger solutions 
it is safer to use. 

With regard to the safety with which this poison may be used, 
if the liquor is kept under lock and key, and the due precautions are 
taken not to leave the sweetened liquor where any human being can 
get at it, but to take it direct to the fields, it will be seen that, once 
applied as directed, there is no chance of any human person being 
poisoned and the small amount of poison in a piece of grass, bagass, 
or mealie stalk is not enough to injure stock of any kind ; even fowls 
have been known to feed on the arsenic-destroyed locusts without 
hurt. Should any information with regard to the use of arsenic be 
required, any enquiries addressed to the Secretary of the Inanda 
Division Agricultural Association, Verulam, will receive attention. 

The Committee, in conclusion, would record their appreciation 
of the public service rendered by Mr. Arnold Cooper by his scientific 
researches into the diseases which are undoubtedly attacking the 
locusts in this Colony, and they look with interest for his promised 
paper on the results of his further investigations. 



(3) Storage of cereals into pits, etc., as a 

PREVENTIVE MEASURE AGAINST WEEVIL. 

The following report of experiments regarding the storage of 
cereals into pits, etc^ as a preventive measure against weevil, has 



I^O Indian Museum Notes [Vol. 17. 



been received in the Museum, in August 1896, from the Commissary- 
General of the Punjab Command. The results of these experiments, 
however, show more or less the failure of the methods adopted for 
protecting grain, etc., from ^Yeevil ; — 

Peshawar District. — Result of storage in pits. — The pit was built in the 
following manner. A depth of 5 to 6 feet was dug out and with the earth so 
excavated a kutcha mud wall of the same height built up so as to give a total depth 
of about 1 2 feet. 

Two feetof charcoal was placed at the bottom of the pit and the sides lined 
with a wall of bhoosa about 2 feet thick, 2,000 maunds barley were stored in 
April 1894. On opening the pit in October 1894 the barley was found to be in 
very good preservation, but next to^the walls of the pit to a breadth of about 4 
inches, the barley had become damped, probably through damp communicated 
through bhoosa from the surrounding soil. There was a good deal of heat, but no 
sign of weevil. 

Results of storage in Towers. — The tower was built on the same principle as 
the loose bhoosa towers, viz., circular earthen enclosure roofed over with mud» 
but with charcoal at the bottom, bhoosa at the sides and matting at top. 

Barley was stored in this tower in April 1894. On opening the tower in October 
1894, it was found to be in perfect preservation. No sign of weevils, no damping, 
no deterioration in any way, but there was a good deal of heat which was due to 
the moisture natural to the grain itself. 

A further experiment was made during the rainy season (winter months). The 
tower was opened on 2nd March 1895, the grain was perfectly dry at the top and 
sides ; a small proportion appeared to have been eaten, but the presence of weevils 
was confined to the top only, the grain in the middle and at the bottom was free. 

Rawalpindi District. — Result of storage in a pit. — The pit made was of the 
following dimensions : — Depth 12 feet, diameter 20 feet, at bottom, 3 inches char- 
coal was well beaten down, over which 20 inches white bhoosa was placed and 
covered with chatai matting. At the sides there was chatai matting next to the 
grain, then 2 feet bhoosa between the chatai and the walls, well trodden down. 
The top was first covered with chatai, then a layer of coarse churrie, over that 
about 3 feet dry earth, and finally three times plastering. 

It was filled with 2,000 maunds wheat on the 19th February 1894, and on 
being opened on the 13th February 1895 white ants were found to have penetrated 
through the earth at top, and the grain for about 6 inches from top surface was 
found caked from damp and honey-combed in places with earth carried in by white 
ants, and also contained a species of small weevils. Eighteen inches below the top 
surface of grain, the temperature was 74°, and from the centre to bottom of pit it was 
91° to 95°. 

Damp had penetrated on one side of the pit from 6 inches to 13 inches and con- 
tinued right down to the bottom and slightly for about 2 feet down in one place 
on another side. 

The wheat had a musty smell, but this diminished as the men got further down 
and the grain at the botton was found to be the best preserved. 

Result of storage with Napthaline, — An experiment was made with one 
pound of wheat with Napthaline placed in it. 



Nt). 3»] Notes on insect pests from the Enlomological Section. 141 



The result is a failure, the Napthaline did not prove to be a safeguard against 
the attack of weevils. 

Result of storage in thegs, — Thegs are made of gunny in the shape of a 
Cylinder like the rum vats but of equal circumference in both ende. 

In the thegs put up at Rawalpindi weevils germinated in large numbers. 

Lahore District. — Result of storage in pits. — At Ferozepore a pit was 
constructed In which gram was stored on 31st December 1894. It was opened 
about the end of March 1895, and the gram was found to be in a good state of 
preservation, except a small quantity at the sides, which had become mouldy, 
apparently through rain getting in. 

At Mian Mir, 1,810 maunds gram was placed into a pit 6 feet below ground 
level and 6 feet above; i foot bhoosa laid at bottom and at top and round sides ; 
top, sides and bottom were tarred inside. 

The pit was filled with gram on 29th and 30th June 1894 and opened on loth 
April 1895. On opening, noxious smell and considerable heat was perceived. 
One foot to ij foot of gram at top was weevil eaten ; at sides to 3 inches at bottom, 
sides and bottom to 6 inches the gram was mildewed ; otherwise the gram was 
sound with no marks of eggs, etc., in it, 

Result of storage in a Kaloti. — " Kaloti " is a small circular hard sun-baked 
mud tower about 8 feet high, constructed gradually in circular layers of 2 feet each, 
i| inches thick, with 6 inches bhoosa at bottom. 

It was filled with 63 maunds gram on 27th and 29th August 1894 and opened 
on 25th April 1895. On opening, no smell or heat was perceptible, and the gram 
was to all intents and purposes practically sound and even better than that in the 
pit. Dryage or less found on weighing out 2 maunds 38 seers or 7*3 per cent, per 
annum. The kalotis hold a very small quantity of grain. 

Note. — No report of loss by weevils has been recorded. 

Result of storage in thegs. — One thousand maunds gram, 2nd sort, were stored 
in 4 thegs at Mooltan, but the experiment resulted in a loss to the State. 

SiRHiND District. — Result of storage in a pit. — Two thousand maunds new 
wheat taken direct from the fields was placed in a pit which was made by enclosing 
one end of the verandah of a godown. The pit was filled in on 30th May 1895 and 
opened on 31st May 1896. The loss due to damages by weevil amounted to n*i3 
per cent, per annum. The wheat stored in this pit was of the "Kutha" (hard) 
kind. 

Result of storage in a "wooden vat. — A wooden vat in which rum used to be 
stored, was utilized for storing wheat, 407 ; maunds wheat was put into it on the 2nd 
July 1895. The pit was opened after 253 days and the wheat was found to be very 
much weevil eaten. The wheat stored in the vat was of the " Pissia " (soft) kind. 

Result of storage in a masonry theg. — The masonry theg was made by 
building up one corner 'of a godown and 20 maunds wheat was put into it on the 
2ist July 1893 in the following manner :— A thick layer of bhoosa at the bottom 
and sides, then a layer of wheat, next a layer of bhoosa, and then the 2nd layer of 
wheat, and so on. On top there was a layer of bhoosa. 

It was opened on the 4th May 1894 with the following result :— 

Good wheat i»295l lbs. 

Weevil-eaten wheat * , . , 159^ „ 

Less . . o , . , 145 „ 



142 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

With reference to the above, a trial might be made of storing 
some samples of wheat in a pit lined throughout, and finally covered 
over with a layer of neam leaves, and floored with a layer of quick- 
lime. The quick-lime should, of course, not come into actual con- 
tact with the grain. 

To give this experiment a fair trial it should be undertaken with 
properly dried grain and in dry weather. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Misceilansoiis Notes, 143 



REPRINTS AND MISCELLANEOUS NOTES. 



I. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE SPECIES OF INDIAN 
ALEUEODID^.* 

By W. M. Maskell. 
Plate No. XII. 

[Note.— The first and second insects described here have been previously 
referred to in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. III., No. 5, p, 53. The third has been 
found to infest rose trees in Quetta ; specimens were forwarded to the Museum by 
the Deputy Conservator of Forests, Quetta, Baluchistan, in July 1893.— E. B.J 

(i) Aleurodes barodensiSf MaskelU 

Eggs orange-coloured, rather large, oval, pedunculated ; length 
about Y^o i"' ^^^ ^SS^ ^"^ empty shells are found in large 
numbers on the leaf. 

Larva dark-brown, becoming later almost black ; elongated 
elliptical ; slightly convex ; abdominal segments fairly distinct, 
length about -Jg- in. Margin minutely crenulated and bearing a 
short white waxy fringe, which is frequently very fragmentary or 
absent. Dorsum bearing, within the margin, a row of about 
thirty-two small simple circular pores ; within these is a transverse 
row of four on the anterior thoracic region^ another transverse row 
of four on the anterior abdominal region, a longitudinal row of four 
on each side of the abdomen, and oiie on each side of the vasi- 
form orifice. Vasiform orifice subconical, the posterior extremity 
slicrhtly produced ; operculum short, rounded, subconical ; lingula 
cylindrical at the base, afterwards widened, finally tapering, not 
quite reaching the edge of the orifice. 

Pupa- case very dark-brown or glossy-black, very elongated, 
elliptical, with sides nearly straight^ the width only about one- 
third of the length. Dorsum sometimes slightly convex, sometimes 
flat sometimes slightly concave ; abdominal segments indistinct. 
Vasiform orifice apparently as in the larva, but difficult to make out 
on account of the very dark colour of the case. Margin crenulated, 
and bearing a very elegant, long, snowy-white fringe of slender 
waxy cylindrical tubes. There is frequently some white powdery 
meal on the dorsum, which probably bears pores as in the larva, 



* Reprinted from the Transactions of the New Zealand Insiitute, 1895. 



144 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV» 

but it is most difficult to detect them. The ventral surface is 
flat, brown ; the rudimentary organs are not distinct, owing to the 
dark colour. 

Adult form unknown. 

Hab. — In India, on Saccharum officinale. My specimens were 
sent by Mr. Cotes, late of the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from Baroda. 
He informed me they were rather damaging to the sugar-cane in 
those parts. 

The very elongated form is distinctive, besides the black colour. 

(2) Aleurodes eugenice, Maskell. var., aurantii. 

Larva very pale-yellow, sometimes almost white; form roundly 
elliptical, flattish ; length about -^^ in. Dorsum striated, but the stria- 
tions are very faint, except near the margin. Margin not at all 
thickened, finely fluted and crenulated, bearing no hairs or fringe. 
There are three small marginal depressions and three dorsal patches, 
as in the pupa. 

Pupa-case very pale-yellow, roundly elliptical or sub-circular, 
flattish and thin ; length about g-V inch, reaching sometimes as much as 
■^^ in. The enclosed pupa is only faintly discernible dorsally, rather 
darker than the case, the abdominal segments moderately distinct ; on 
turning over the case the rudimentary organs are less confused than 
in A. eugenise. Dorsum of the case very finely marked with radiating 
striae, which are a little more conspicuous near the margin. Margin 
not thickened, almost entire, divided by deep narrow channels into 
segments narrower than those of A. eugenise. There are three 
marginal depressions, two opposite the rostrum and one at the 
abdominal extremity, and three radiating patches terminating at 
these depressions ; the patches end (as in the type) in crenulated 
circular orifices, but are composed of great numbers of very minute 
circular pores or dots, which do not form a lace-work pattern. Vasi- 
form orifice subtrapezoidal or subelliptical, broader than long, oper- 
culum nearly fitting the orifice ; lingula very short, cylindrical with 
a dilated end, sometimes obsolete. 

Adult form unknown. 

Hab. — In India, on Citrus aurantium. Mr. Cotes, late of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, sent me some orange-leaves from North- 
West Himalayas thickly covered with this insect. 

I attach this as a variety to A. eugenise on account of the simi- 
larity in several respects, notably in the dorsal radiating patches, 
though it differs in some others. It has none of the marginal or 
dorsal characters of A. citriy Riley and Howard. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, I45 

(3) Aleiirodes cotesi% Maskel!. 

Larva yellow, the median region darker than the margin ; form 
elliptical ; length about -^^^ inch. In the earliest stste only very faint 
indications of the insect itself appear, and the whole is very thin and 
flat ; later on the enclosed future pupa begins to be visible, and the 
ventral surface becomes more convex ; the eyes also appear. The 
larval integument becomes too small for the growing insect, and splits 
longitudinally ; and in the early pupal state it may be seen attached 
along the dorsal edges of the pupa-case. Margins somev/hat 
thickened, the adjacent tubes forming minute crenulations, and within 
it the dorsum bears numbers of very small circular pores ; from these 
and from the marginal tubes is produced a quantity of white waxy 
matter, some of which covers the dorsum in scattered patches, and 
the rest spreads out round the larva in a very long fringe of delicate 
threads, frequently much longer than the insect itself. This waxy 
matter is very brittle, and, as a rule, the whole surface of a leaf is 
powdered over with the fragments, making the leaf look as if 
mildewed. 

Pupa-case, in the earliest state, scarcely distinguishable from the 
late larva ; afterwards, as the insect grows, it becomes much thicker. 
The form remains elliptical ; the length reaches about -g^-g- inch. The 
dorsal disk is slightly convex, flattened towards the margin; it is 
larger than the ventral disk, and slightly overlaps the sides, which 
are vertical. The hollow thus formed is covered by a ring of thin 
white wax, and there is also a plate of wax beneath the ventral 
si';/face ; portions of this ring and of the plate are frequently seer 
amongst the long threads of the larva. The pupal margin is crenu- 
lated but bears no fringe, and the dorsum has no pores or wax. The 
outline of the enclosed pupa may be made out indistinctly on the 
dorsum, and the rudimentary organs ventrally on turning over the 
case. . Vasiform orifice subconical, with regularly convex sides, the 
anterior edge concave, operculum sub-elliptical ; lingula very short, not 
extending beyond the operculum. 

Adult form unknown. 

Hab. — In India, on Rosa. My specimens were sent by Mr, Cotes 
late of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. They came from Quatta 
Baluchistan. I have named the species after him. 

The overlapping of the sides by the dorsal disk of A. cotesii is 
found also in a New Zealand species, A. fagt, Maskell, 1889; but that 
insect has no fringe, and the margin bears twenty-four hairs. 



u 



I4& Indian Museum Notes. £VoI» IV. 



11. THE BQT-FLY OF THE INDIAN ELEPHANT. 

At a meeting of the Mathematical and Natural Science Section 
of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of Vienna held on 2nd July 
1896, a communication was made by Professor Friedr. Brauer to the 
effect that, in conjunction with Herr Anton Handlirsch and with the 
courteous co-operation of Herr Alois Kraus, Inspector of the Imperial 
Menagerie at Schonbrunn, he had succeeded in breeding out the 
oestrid of the Indian elephant {Cobboldia elephantis, Cob.), which 
was hitherto known only in the larval state. Since it is the inten- 
tion of Professor Brauer to furnish fuller details later in a special 
memoir, he contents himself with giving the following short diagnosis 
of the genus and species in the perfect condition :— 

Genus COBBOLDIA, Brauer. 

Head vesicular, with strongly projecting front. Antennae ex- 
tremely prominent, owing to the large hatchet-shaped third joint 
with fine and bare arista. Beneath the antennae a very broad and 
deep heart-shaped antennary pit, without a septum, extending to the 
oral margin ; therefore the facial ridge very short between the facial 
ano-les (" Vibrissenecken''). Oral cavity deep, the rudiment of the 
proboscis fairly well developed, as in Cephenontyta, with large 
claviform palpi. Face and cheeks shining, bearing tubercles 
("schwielig"). Ocelli present, eyes bare. Thoracic suture complete. 
Wino-s large. Apical transverse vein present, posterior transverse 
vein nearer to the angle of the third vein than to the small transverse 
vein ; angle of the third vein V-shaped, without projecting stump ; 
first posterior cell open. Alula of moderate size, squamae very large. 
Clavi and pulvilli moderately large. Legs slender, short ; first tarsal 
joint as long as all the others put together. Abdomen elongate, 
oval, in the male with forceps-shaped hypopygium tucked under it ; 
in the female the ovipositor straight, telescopic, chitinous, divided 
into four segments (when protruded half as long as the body). 
Ventral plates triangular, separated from the dorsal ones by a broad 
membrane. Fifth plate cleft in the male. Macrochaetae absent. Hypo- 
pleurae with a row of hairs. 

Spec. Cobboldia elephantis^ Cob. 

Gastrophilus elephantis, Cob. olim (from the larva), Trans. Linn. 
Soc, 1881. 

Cobboldia elephantis, Brauer (from the larva), Wien. ent. Z 
1887. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 147 

Black, short and thickly clothed with hair; head and antennee 
reddish yellow ; proboscis and palpi black. Wings dark, blackish 
blue, metallic ; basal cells, alulae, and squamae snow-white. Halteres 
and legs black. On the head and on the margins of the abdominal 
segments silvery white reflexions. In general appearance resembling 
a Pharyngomyia. Female with the front broader and the ovipositor 
black ; otherwise precisely like the male. 

Length of body 12-14 millim. 

Length of wing lo-ii millim. 

The larvae leave the host in the early hours of the morning, 
pupate in from one to two days, and the imago appears sixteen days 
after the exit of the larvae. 

Copulation takes place immediately.— -5'zVs^««^j3. kais. Akad, der 
Wiss. Wien, Jahrg 1896, No. XVII, pages 180-182. 



III. FOOD OF WOODPECKERS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

{'Reprint of a report by F. E, L, Bealy Esq,, published in Bulletin 
No. 7, United States, Department of Agriculture, Division of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy, iSg^.) 

General Remarks. — With the possible exception of the crow, 
no birds are subject to more adverse criticism than woodpeckers. 
Usually no attempt is made to discriminate between the numerous 
species, and little account is taken of the good they do in destroying 
injurious insects. The name ' Sap-sucker ' has been applied to two 
or three of the smaller kinds, in the belief that they subsist to a great 
extent upon the juices of trees, obtained from the small holes they 
make in the bark. There can be little doubt that one species, the 
Yellow-bellied Woodpecker {Sphyrapicus varius), does live to a con- 
siderable extent upon this sap. Observation does not show that 
other species have the same habit, but it is a difficult point to 
decide by dissection, as fluid contents disappear quickly from the 
stomach. 

Many observers have testified to the good work these birds do in 
destroying insects, while others have spoken of harm done to fruit 
or grain. Both are correct within certain limits. 

Field observation on the food habits of birds is attended with 
so many difficulties as to render it a very unreliable source from 
which to draw general conclusions. The most conscientious and 
careful person is often deceived, not only as to the quantity of a 



148 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



particular kind of food eaten by a bird, but as to the fact that it is 
eaten at all. The further difficulty of keeping a number of birds, 
or even a single one, under constant observation makes an estimate 
of relative proportions of different kinds of food impossible. When 
much mischief is done the fact is apparent, but there is no way to 
find out bow much good is done during the same time. For these 
reasons it often happens that reports on food habits, based on obser- 
vations of wild birds, not only conflict with each other but also dis- 
agree with the results obtained from stomach examinations. This 
last method must be taken as the court of final appeal, and it is evi- 
dent that a collection of stomachs covering every month in the year, 
and as nearly as may be all points of the bird's range, becomes more 
and more trustworthy as it increases in size ; in other words, the 
more stomachs examined the nearer correct will be the result as to 
the bird's annual diet. 

The present paper is merely a preliminary report, based on the 
examination of 679 stomachs of Woodpeckers, and representing only 
seven species — all from the Eastern United States. These species 
are the Downy Woodpecker [Dryobates pubescent), the Hairy Wood- 
pecker {D. villosus)y the Flicker or Golden-w^inged Woodpecker 
{Colaptes auratus), the Red-headed Woodpecker {Melanerpes ery- 
throcephalus)y\h& Red-bellied Woodpecker {Melanerpes carolinus), 
the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker [Sphyrapicus varius), and the great 
Pileated Woodpecker [Ceophlceiis pileatus). Examination of their 
stomachs shows that the percentage of animal food (consisting 
almost entirely of insects) is greatest in the Downy, and grades down 
through the Hairy, Flicker, Pileated, Red-head, and Yellow-bellied 
to the Red-bellied, which takes the smallest quantity of insects. 
Professor Samuel Aughey stated that all of these species, except the 
Pileated (which was not present), fed upon locusts or grasshoppers 
during the devastating incursions of these insects in Nebraska. The 
vegetable matter, of course, stands in inverse order. The greatest 
quantity of mineral matter (sand) is taken by the Flicker, somewhat 
less by the Red-head, very little by the Downy and Hairy, and none 
at all by the Yellow-bellied and Pileated. 

The stomachs of all of the seven species except the Red-head and 
the Red-bellied contained the substance designated as * cambium ' in 
the accompanying list of vegetable food. This is the layer of 
mucilaginous material lying just|inside of_^the bark of trees, and from 
which both bark and wood are formed. It is supposed by many to 
be the main object sought by woodpeckers. Except in the case of 
a single species the stomach examination does not bear out this 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, 149 

view, since cambium, if present at all, was in such small quantities 
as to be of no practical importance. The Yellow-bellied Wood- 
pecker, however, is evidently fond of this substance, for in the 
stomachs examined it formed 23 per cent, of the whole food of the 
year. It was found in 37 stomachs, most of which were taken in 
April and October. Of 18 stomachs collected in April, 16 contained 
cambium, and one of the remaining contained no vegetable food what- 
ever. Moreover, as the true cambium is a soft and easily digested 
substance, it is probable that what is usually found in the stomachs 
is only the outer and harder part, which therefore represents a much 
larger quantity. The extent of the injury done by destroying cam- 
bium must depend on the quantity taken from individual trees. It 
is well known that woodpeckers sometimes do serious harm by 
removing the outer bark from large areas on the trunks of fruit trees. 
The rings of punctures often seen around the trunks of apple trees 
are certainly the work of the Sapsucker, though sometimes attributed 
to the Downy and Hairy Woodpeckers. But the bird is not suffi- 
ciently numerous in most parts of the country to do much damage. 
It is a difficult task to summarize the results of the investigations 
herein detailed, more especially if an attempt is made to decide as 
to the comparative merits or demerits of each particular species. 
The stomach examinations do not always corroborate the testimony 
received from observers, and many no doubt will be inclined to 
think they have seen more harm dofte by some members of this 
family of birds than is shown by the data here published. If birds 
are seen feeding repeatedly on a certain kind of food the inference 
is that they are particularly fond of it, but the truth may be that 
they are eating it because they can find nothing they like better, 
and that a collection of their stomachs from many localities would 
show only a small percentage of this particular food. 

In reviewing the results of these investigations and comparing one 
species with another, without losing sight of the fact that comparative 
good is not necessarily positive good, it appears that of seven species 
considered, the Downy Woodpecker is the most beneficial. This is 
due in part to the great number of insects it eats, and in part to the 
nature of its vegetable food, which is of little value to man. Three- 
fourths of its food consists of insects, and few of these are useful 
kinds. Of grain it eats practically none. The greatest sin we can 
lay at its door is the dissemination of poison ivy. 

The Hairy Woodpecker probably ranks next to the Downy in 
point of usefulness. It eats fewer ants, but a relatively larger per- 
centage of beetles and caterpillars. Its grain-eating record is trifling; 



150 Indian Museum Notes, [ Vol. V. 

two stomachs taken in September and October contained corn. 
For fruit, it seeks the forests and swamps where it finds wild cherries, 
grapes, and the berries of dogwood and Virginia creeper. It eats 
fewer seeds of the poison ivy and poison sumac than the Downy. 

The Flicker eats a smaller percentage of insects than either the 
Downy or the Hairy Woodpecker, but if eating ants is to be considered 
a virtue, as we have endeavoured to show, then surely this bird must 
be exalted, for three-fourths of all the insects it eats, comprising 
nearly half of its wholefood, are ants. It is accused of eating corn ; 
how little its stomach yields is shown on another page. Fruit con- 
stitutes about one-fourth of its whole fare, but the bird depends on 
nature and not on man to furnish the supply. 

Judged by the results of the stomach examinations of the Downy 
and Hairy Woodpecker and Flicker it would be hard to find three 
other species of one common birds with fewer harmful qualities. 
Not one of the trio shows a questionable trait, and they should be 
protected and encouraged in every possible way. Fortunately, only 
one, the Flicker, is liable to destruction, and for this bird each farmer 
and land-owner should pass a protective law of its own. 

The Redhead makes the best showing of the seven species in 
the kinds of insects eaten. It consumes fewer ants and more 
beetles than any of the others, in this respect standing at the head, 
and it has a pronounced taste for beetles of very large size. Un- 
fortunately, however, its fondness for predaceous beetles must be 
reckoned against it. It also leads in the consumption of grasshop- 
pers ; these and beetles together forming 36 per cent, of its whole 
food. The stomachs yielded enough corn to show that it has a taste for 
that grain, though not enough to indicate that any material damage 
is done. It eats largely of wild fruit, and also partakes rather freely 
of cultivated varieties, showing some preference for the large ones, 
such as apples. In certain localities, particularly in winter, it feeds 
extensively on beechnuts. No charge can be brought against it on 
the score of injuring trees by pecking. 

The Red-bellied Woodpecker is more of a vegetarian than any 
of the others. In certain localities in Florida it does some damage 
to oranges, but the habit is not general. On the other hand, it eats 
quantities of ants and beetles. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker seems to show only one ques- 
tionable trait, that of a fondness for the sap and inner bark of trees. 
Both field observations and the contents of the stomachs prove this 
charge against it, but it is not probable that forest trees are exten- 
sively injured, or that they ever will be, for aside from the fact that 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes 151 

the bark of many trees would be unpalatable, an immense number 
of birds would be required to do serious damage. But with fruit 
trees the case is different. Their number is limited, and there are 
no superfluous ones as in the forest. In localities where the bird is 
abundant considerable harm may be done to apple trees, which 
appear to be pleasing to its taste. 

The Pileated Woodpecker is more exclusively a forest bird than 
any of the others, and its food consists of such elements as the woods 
afford, particularly the larvae of wood-boring beetles and wild fruits. 
The species is emphatically a conservator of the forests. 

In describing the stomach contents of the different woodpeckers 
a quantity of material is classed under the term " rubbish." The 
great bulk of this stuff is rotten wood and bark, picked up in digging 
or insects in decayed timber, and apparently swallowed accidentally 
with the food. If the six woodpeckers which had eaten rotten wood 
are compared with respect to the quantity of this material contained 
in the stomachs, it is found that the Hairy Woodpecker stands at the 
head with 8 per cent., the Downy next with 5, the Flicker with 3, the 
Red-head and Yellow-belHed with 1 per cent, each, and the Pileated 
with only a trace. From this it appears that the Hairy Woodpecker 
is preeminently a woodpecker^ while the Red-head and Yellow-bellied 
do much less of this kind of work. The difference in habit is obvious 
to the most casual observer. The Red-head is ordinarily seen upon 
a fence post or telegraph pole hunting for insects that alight on these 
exposed surfaces, and watching for others that fly near enough to 
be captured in mid-air. Unlike other wood-peckers, he is seldom 
seen digging at a rotten branch except in spring, when he prepares 
a home for the family he intends to rear. The Yellow-bellied, as 
will be shown presently, does much wood (or bark) pecking, but of 
another kind. 

The following tables show the food percentages of the stomachs 
examined :— 



»52 



Indian Museum Notes, 



[Vol. IV. 

















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No. 3.] 



Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 



»53 



Relative proportions of larval and adult beetles [Coleoptera) 
in stomachs of seven species of woodpeckers. 





to 

u 
nJ 

E 
o 


.E 2 

C (U 


bfl 

c 

C ft 

P. 


Peecentage 

OF whole 
NUMBER. 


Percentagr 

of stomach 

contents, 


Name of species. 


s.s 

IS 
2" 


<J 


a\ Number c 
° larval Cole 












"3 

< 




"3 

< 


> 


Downy Woodpecker (Dryo- 

bates pubescens) . 


140 


SO 


38 


43 


II 


13 


Hairy Woodpecker {Dryo- 
bates villosus) , 


82 


27 


46 


33 


56 


6 


18 


Flicker {^Colaptes auratus) 


230 


67 


18 


25 


8 


8 


2 


Red-headed Woodpecker 
{Melanerpes erythroce- 
phalus) . < . . 


lOI 


83 




82 




31 




Red-bellied Woodpecker 

[Melanerpes carolinus) , 


22 


6 


4 


27 


18 


7 


3 


Yellow-bellied Sapsucker 
{Sphyrapicus variiis) 


81 


15 


I 


19 


I 


5 


Trace. 


Pileated Woodpecker {Ceo- 
phlceus pileatus) , 


23 


4 


12 


17 


52 


2 


I 



DOWNY WOODPECKER. 

{Dryodates pubescens.) 

This little woodpecker is the smallest, not only of the seven species 
under consideration, but of all those inhabiting the United States. 
He is also one of the most familiar, being no stranger to the shade 
trees about houses and parks, while his fondness for orchards is well 
known. He is so quiet and unobtrusive that the first notice one 
has of his presence may be a gentle tapping or scratching on the 
limb of a tree within two or three yards of one's head, where our 
diminutive friend has discovered a decayed spot inhabited by wood- 
boring larvae or a colony of ants. 

One hundred and forty stomachs of the Downy Woodpecker have 
been examined. They were collected during every month in the year 
and in 21 States, the District of Columbia, Ontario, and New Brunswick. 
A few of the western sub-species {Dryobates pubescens gairdneri) 
from British Columbia, have been included. The stomachs contained 



\\ 



154 Indian Museum Notes, [ Vol. IV. 

74 per cent, of insects, 25 per cent, of vegetable matter, and i 
per cent, of mineral matter or sand. The insects belong to the 
following orders : Ants [Hymenoptera], beetles {Coleoptera)^ bugs 
{Hemiptera), flies {Diptera), caterpillars {Lepidoptera), and 
grasshoppers [Orthoptera). Spiders and myriapods were also 
present. While all of these were eaten to some extent, they 
appear in widely different proportions. The ants constitute 
almost one-third of all the animal food, or about 23 per cent, 
of the whole, indicating a very decided taste for this rather acid 
and highly flavoured article of diet. Beetles stand a little higher 
in order of importance, amounting to about one-third of the entire 
insect food, or somewhat more than 24 per cent, of all. Many 
of these belong to the family of May beetles, a few were the 
predaceous ground beetles, but by far the greatest number were 
wood-boring larvae, a fact showing that this little bird while securing 
his dinner is doing good work for the forest. One-fifth of the animal- 
food, or 16 per cent, of the total, consists of caterpillars, many of 
which apparently are wood-boring species ; others are kinds that live 
on stems and foliage. Among insects the most interesting are the 
bugs {Hemtptera), which are represented in the stomachs by several 
species, notably by plant-lice {Aphides)^ which in several instances 
were found in considerable quantities, amounting to 4 per cent, of the 
whole food. From the minute size and very perishable nature of 
these insects, it is evident that they must disappear from the 
stomach in a very short time, and it is fair to infer that many 
more were eaten than shown by the food remains. Spiders, includ- 
ing harvestmen or daddy longlegs, were eaten freely, and 
amounted to nearly one-tenth of the whole. A few bits of snail shell 
were found in one stomach. 

Eleven Downy Woodpeckers from Kansas collected in winter 
(December), deserve special notice. Eight of them had eaten the 
eggs of grasshoppers to an average extent of 10 per cent, of all their 
food. This, besides being in itself a good work, emphasizes the fact 
that this bird resorts to the ground for food in case of necessity. 

Professor Samuel Aughey examined four stomachs of the Downy 
Woodpecker in Nebraska, all of which contained grasshoppers. 

The late Dr. Townend Glover, Entomologist of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, states that the stomach of a Downy Wood- 
pecker shot in February " was filled with black ants." He states 
further, " On one occasion a Downy Woodpecker was observed 
by myself making a number of small rough-edged perfora- 
tions ia the bark cf a young ash tree, and upon examining the tree 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 155 



when the bird had flown it was found that wherever the bark had 
been injured the young larvae of a wood-eating beetle bad been 
snugly coiled underneath and had been destroyed by the bird." 1 

In the matter of vegetable diet, the taste of the Downy Wood- 
pecker is varied, prompting him to eat a little of a good many things 
rather than a large quantity of any one. 

The following is a list of the vegetable substances that were 
identified : — 



MiSC ELLANEOUS — 

Poison ivy seeds (Rhus radicans). 
Poison sumac seeds {Rhus vernix). 
Harmless sumac seeds {Rhus 

sp. f). 
Mullein seeds ( Verbascum thap- 

sus). 
Hornbeam seeds {Ostrya virgi- 

niana) , 
Nut, unidentified. 
Flower petals and buds. 
Galls. 
Cambium. 
Seeds, unidentified. 
Rubbish. 



Grain — 

Indeterminable. 

Fruit — 

Dogwood berries {Cornus fiorida), 

{C. alternifolia) and {C. asperi- 

folia). 
Virginia creeper berries ( Partkeno- 

cissus ^ quinquefoUd). 
June or service berries (Amelan- 

chier canadensis). 
Strawberries {Fragarid). 
Pokeberries {Phytolacca decandra). 
Apples. 
Unidentified. 

Material believed to be fragments of grain was found in two 
stomachs, but the quantity was so small that it may be dismissed 
without further comment. Fruit is by far the largest item of 
vegetable diet, forming one-tenth of the whole food. Strawberry 
seeds were found in only one stomach, apple pulp was supposed to be 
identified in two, and the other varieties mentioned in the table were 
distributed in about the same proportion ; so that no great economic 
interest can attach to this part of the birds' diet. The seeds and 
other things included under the head " Miscellaneous " constitute 
about one-twelfth of the total food. Seeds of poison ivy were found 
in twenty stomachs and poison sumac in one. These plants, far 
from being harmful to the birds, seem to form a very agreeable 
article of diet, and are eaten by many species. Unfortunately these 
seeds are protected by a hard, horny covering which successfully 
resists the action of the stomach, so that they pass through the 
alimentary canal uninjured. It is probable that we owe to birds, 
more than any other agency, the presence of these noxious plants 
beside fences, copses, and hedge rows. The remaining vegetable 
food, about 5 per cent, was classed as rubbish, and will be discussed 
in connection with some of the other woodpeckers. 

1 United States Agiicultural Report for 1865-1866, pp. 37 and 38. 

2 Commonly called Ampetopsis. See (List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta) 
prepared by a committee of the Botanical Club of the A, A. A. S., 1S93-94, which has been 
followed in all questions of botanical nom6nclatuie. 



ie5 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



No beechnuts were found in any of the stomachs examined, but 
Dr. Merriam informs me that in Northern New York they feed 
extensively on this nut, particularly in fall, winter and early spring. 
On April 5th, 1878, Dr. Merriam " shot four Downy Woodpeckers 
all of whose gizzards were full of beechnuts and contained nothing 
else. The birds were often seen on moss-covered logs, and even 
on the ground, searching for the nuts exposed by the melting snow." 
Dr. Merriam states also that he has seen this woodpecker in the fall 
eat the red berries of the mountain ash. 



HAIRY WOODPECKER. 

{Dryobates villosus.) 

This woodpecker is as common as the Downy in most parts of 
the United States, and to the ordinary eye can only be distinguished 
by its greater size, its colour and markings being almost exactly 
the same. The Hairy is a noisier bird, however, often making his 
presence known by loud calls and obtrusive behaviour and by rapid 
flights from tree to tree. Like the Downy, he has been accused 
of depredations on fruit, but the stomachs examined ^do not show 
that cultivated varieties form any considerable part of his fare. 
Beside the general resemblance between the two birds there is 
also a remarkable similarity in their food habits, as shown by the 
stomach contents ; the greatest difference being that the Hairy 
eats a smaller percentage of insects than the Downy. Eighty-two 
stomachs have been examined, collected during every month in the 
year, except February ; and coming from nineteen States, the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, though 
most were from the Northern United States. The proportion of 
different kinds of food is as follows : — Animal 68 per cent. ; vegetable 
31 per cent. ; mineral i per cent. The insect material was made up 
of ants, beetles, caterpillars, bugs, and grasshoppers. Spiders and 
myriapods also were present. An inspection of the percentages 
shows that ants are not so highly prized by the Hairy as by the 
Downy, since they constitute only about 17 per cent, of the whole 
food, or one-fourth of the insect portion. Beetles, both larval and 
adult, stand relatively higher than in the case of the Downy, compris- 
ing 24 per cent, of all food, or more than one-third of the insect 
matter. Caterpillars were eaten in greater quantities, both actually 
and relatively, amounting to 21 per cent, of the whole food, or more 



No. 3. ] 



Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 



157 



than one-third of all the insect material. Spiders are well repre- 
sented, and aggregate nearly 6 per cent, of the entire food. Among 
the miscellaneous insects were a few aphids or plant lice. Grass- 
hoppers were found in only i stomach, but Professor Aughey found 
them in 4 out of 6 stomachs examined by him in Nebraska. 

Mr. F. M. Webster states that he has seen a Hairy Woodpecker 
successfully peck a hole through the parchment-like covering of 
the cocoon of a Cecropia moth, devouring the contents. On examin- 
ing more than 20 cocoons in grove of boxelders he found only 2 
uninjured. 

The Hairy Woodpecker selects a somewhat larger variety of 
vegetable food than the Downy, though of the same genera, 
character. The following list of fruits and seeds found in the 
stomachs does not indicate that the bird visits orchards and gardens 
for fruit so much as swamps and thickets, where wild grapes, 
woodbine, and dogwood abound. 
Grain— - Fruit — contd. 



Corn. 

Fruit— 

Dogwood berries {Cornus fiorida 

and C. asp erif olio). 
Virginia creeper berries (Partheno 

cissus quinque folia). 
June or . service berries (Amelan- 

chier canadensis). 
Spice berries (Benzoin benzoin). 
Sourgum berries {Nyssa aquatica). 
Wila black cherries {Prunus sero- 

tinn). 
Choke cherries, {Prunus virgini- 

and) 



Black-berries or rasp-berries 

{Fubus). 
Pokeberries, {Phytolacca decandra). 
Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous — 

Poison ivy seeds ( RIius vadicans). 
Poison sumac seeds {Rhus vernix)* 
Harmless sumac seeds {Rhus 

glabra). 
Barngrass seeds {Ch ameer aphi 

sp.?). 
Hazelnuts. 
Seeds, unidentified. 
Cambium. 

Spruce foliage {Picea). 
Rubbish. 



Wild grapes {Vitis cordifolia). 

The only grain discovered was corn, which was found in two 
stomachs. In one case it was green corn in the milk, but this is 
hardly sufficient to prove the habit of eating corn. Fruit aggregates 
a little more than 1 1 per cent, of the food of the species, and is 
fairly distributed among all the items in the above list. Since 
blackberries are the only kind of cultivated fruit found in the 
stomachs, and since they grow wild in abundance, it is evident that 
the Hairy Woodpecker does not at present cause any great damage 
by his fruit-eating habits. The substances in the miscellaneous list 
form about 1 1 per cent, of the whole food, and are practically 
of the same character as in the case of the Downy. Poison 



« 



158 Indian Museum Notes, C Vol. IV. 

ivy seeds were eaten by seven birds, and poison sumac by only one, 
so that not so many seeds of these undesirable shrubs are distri- 
buted by the Hairy as by the Downy. The weed seeds in the 
stomachs were few in number, but in Iowa both the Hairy and the 
Downy Woodpeckers feed largely on weed seeds in winter, sto- 
machs taken then containing little else. Rubbish amounts to about 
one-twelfth of all their food, which is the largest percentage shown 
by any species, 

Dr. Merriam informs me that in Northern New York the Hairy 
Woodpecker, like the other woodpeckers of the Adirondack region, 
feeds largely on beech-nuts. In late fall, winter, and early spring 
following good yields of beech-nuts, the nuts form the principal food 
of the woodpeckers. 



FLICKER. 

{Colaptes auratus.) 

This bird, one of the largest and best known of our woodpeckers, 
is more migratory than either the Hairy or Downy, in winter being 
scarce or absent from its breeding range in the Northern States, 
when it is very abundant in summer and early fall. The Yellow- 
shafted Flicker is distributed throughout the United States, east of 
the Rocky Mountains. In the West it is replaced by the Red-shafted 
Flicker, which may be considered the same so far as food habits are 
concerned. Under one or the other of its various titles of Flicker, 
Golden-winged Woodpecker, High-holder, Yellow-hammer, Pigeon 
Woodpeckef, and Hairy-wicket, it is known to every farmer and 
schoolboy and, unfortunately to certain so-called sportsmen also, for 
this is the one woodpecker that is often seen in city markets. In 
most places it is a much shyer bird than either of the preced- 
ing, and while it frequents the farm and approaches buildings freely, 
it keeps more in the tops of the trees and does not allow so near 
an approach of its greatest enemy, man. This is particularly true 
in the north-eastern part of the country, where large bags of Pigeon 
Woodpeckers are annually made among the wild cherry trees in 
which the birds feed. The Flickers soon learn whom they have 
to fear, and such knowledge seems to be hereditary. They are very 
prolific, rearing from six to ten young at a brood, and so keep 
reasonably abundant in most parts of the country. The Flicker is 
the most terrestrial of all the woodpeckers, in spite of his high-perch- 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 159 

ing and high-nesting proclivities, and may often be seen walking 
about in the grass like a meadow lark. 

In the investigation of its food habits 230 stomachs were 
examined, taken in every month of the year, although January and 
February have but i each. They were collected in 22 States, the 
District of Columbia, and the North-West Territory, and are fairly 
well distributed over the region east of the Rocky Mountains. They 
contained 56 per cent, of animal matter, 39 per cent, of vegetable, 
and 5 per cent, of mineral. It will be seen that the quantity of 
animal or insect material is less than in either of the preceding 
specieSj and the mineral matter somewhat greater. The following 
orders of insects were represented : Ants [Hymenoptera), beetles 
{Celeoptera)f bugs {Hemiptera), grasshoppers and crickets (Or- 
thoptera), caterpillars {Lepidoptera), Mayflies {Epkemerida) and 
white-ants [Isoptera). Spiders and myriapods also were present. 
An inspection of this insect matter shows the rather remarkable 
fact that more than three-fourths of it, or 43 per cent, of the whole 
food, consists of ants. If the mineral matter is thrown out as not 
being properly food, we find that more than 45 per cent, of the 
Flicker's food for the year consists of ants. Among the stomachs 
examined several contained nothing but arts. In two of these the 
actual number of ants present in each stomach exceeded 3,000. 
These were mostly small species that live in burrows in the earth, 
so that it is evident that when Flickers are seen upon the ground 
they are usually in search of ants, although the other insects found 
in the stomachs account in part for this ground feeding habit. Pro- 
fessor Samuel Aughey examined eight stomachs of Flickers in Dixon 
Country, Nebr., in June 1865. All of them contained grasshoppers, 
and the number in each stomach varied from 15 to 48. 

As a large part of the food of the seven woodpeckers studied 
consists of ants, the question may be asked whether the birds are 
doing good or harm by destroying them. There are so many different 
species of these insects, and they have such widely different habits, 
that it is difficult to make any assertion that will apply to all, but it 
is safe to say that many kinds are decidedly harmful, because they 
attend, protect and help to spread plant, root and bark lice of 
various species. These lice are among the worst enemies of plant 
life and everything which tends to prevent their destruction is 
prejudicial to the interests of agriculture. Other species of ants 
destroy timber by burrowing in it ; still others, in warmer climates 
do much harm to fruit trees by cutting off the leaves and under- 
mining the ground. Many species infest houses and buildings 



u 



i6o 



Indian Museum Notes, 



[ Vol. IV. 



Appreantly, then, birds do no harm in destroying ants, but on the 
contrary probably do much good by keeping within bounds these 
insect pests, whose greater abundance would be a serious injury 
to man. The Flicker takes the lead in this work, eating ants 
to the extent of nearly half of his whole food. 

Next in importance to ants are beetles, which form about lo 
per cent, of all the food, less than half the quantity eaten by th6 
Hairy and Downy Woodpeckers. Among these were May beetles 
and their allies, a few snapping beetles, but the greater number 
were Carabids or predaceous ground beetles. Most of these were in 
the adult form, but some larvae of tiger beetles were identified. 
As these last live in burrows in the sand, and as Carabids live upon 
the ground, their presence in the stomachs again points to the 
terrestrial habits of the bird. The same is true of the grasshoppers 
and crickets. None of the other insects mentioned were eaten to 
any great extent, the whole aggregating only about 3 per cent. Two 
stomachs contained each a single bed bug. Where they were obtained 
it is as difficult to surmise as it is to understand what motive could 
prompt the bird to swallow such an insect. Five stomachs contained 
each a few bits of a snail shell. 

In the matter of vegetable diet the Flicker has the most extensive 
list of any of the 7 woodpeckers, and many of the articles of food can 
only be obtained on the ground or among low bushes. Following 
is a list of all the vegetable substances identified in the Flicker's 
stomachs : — 



Grain — 
Corn. 
Buckwheat. 

Fruit— 

Dogwood berries (Cornus florida 

and C. asperifolia). 
Virginia creeper berries (Partheno- 

cissus qui nque folia). 
Hack berries {Celtis occidenialis). 
Black alder berries {Ilex ■verti- 

cillata). 
Sourgum berries ( Nyssa oquatica). 
Cat or greenbrier berries {Smilax 

glauca). 
Blue berries (Vaccinium, sp.). 
Huckleberries {Gaylussacia, sp.). 
Pokeberries {Phytolacca decandra). 
June or service berries {Ame- 

lanchier canadensis)^ 
Spiceberries {Benzoin beneoin). 



FRviT—contd. 

Elderberries {Sambucus cana- 
densis and S. pubens). 
Mulberries {Morus). 

Wild grapes {Vitis cordifolia). 

Wild black cherries {Primus 
serotina). 

Choke cherries {Prunus virgini- 
ana). 

Cultivated cherries. 
Black berries {Rubus), 
Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous — 

Poison ivy seeds {Rhus radicans). 

Poison sumac seeds {Rims vernix). 

Harmless sumac seeds {Rhus copal- 
Una and R. glabra), 

Waxberries or bayberries {Alyrica 
cerifera). 

Juniper berries {Juntperus virgi- 
niana). 



No. 3, Reprints an(i Miscellaneous Notes. i6i 



Ragweed (Ambrosia). 

Magnolia seed {Magnolia grandi- 
flora). 

Acorns (Quercus). 

Seed unidentified. 

Cambium. 

Rubbish. 



Miscellaneous — contd. 

KnoUveed or smartvveed (Polygonum 

convolvulus, P, persicaria, P. lapa- 

thifolium). 
Clover seed (Trifolium repens). 
Grass seed (Phleti7n). 
Pigweed seed (Chenopodium). 
Mullein seed (Verbascum thapsus). 

Of the two kinds of grain in the above list, corn was identified in 
5 stomachs, buckwheat in i. One of the stomachs containino" corn 
was taken in March and the bird had made a full meal of it, probably 
because he could get nothing else. Three of the others were col- 
lected in September, and the corn was evidently " in the milk." The 
fifth was taken in October, and is of a somewhat doubtful nature. 

The Department of Agriculture has received a number of reports 
that implicate woodpeckers in damage done to crops. The only one 
of any consequence is from Dr. E. S. C. Foster, of Russell County 
Kans., who states that the Red-headed and Golden-winged Wood- 
peckers damage corn in the roasting ear by tearing open the husks. 
He does not say for what purpose the husks are torn open, though 
some observers have declared that the object is to obtain the grub 
which sometimes infests the ear. The testimony furnished by the 
stomachs does not indicate that the Golden-wing has much to do 
with corn stealing, for it appears that out of g8 stomachs taken in 
September and October, the season of harvest, only 4 contained corn 
at all, and these in quantities ranging from 4 to 30 per cent, of the 
stomach contents. The buck-wheat was eaten in September. The 
Flicker has a rich and varied list of fruit, embracing at least 20 
different kinds, nearly all of which are wild. 

The two items of grain and fruit together constitute about 25 
per cent, of the whole food, the grain, however, being of little conse- 
quence. With all this fruit-eating the Flicker trespassed upon man 
preserves for cherries only, and these were found in only i stomach. 
Several observers, however, have testified that some damage is done. 
T. J. Parrish, of Cooke County, Tex., states that the Yellow-hammers 
and small woodpeckers feed on peaches, plums, grapes, and cherries. 

Miscellaneous vegetable substances aggregate a little more than 
10 per cent, of the whole food of this bird, and like the fruit list, 
consist of a variety of elements. Poison ivy seeds were found in 20 
stomachs, poison sumac in 5, and bayberries in 14. All these seeds 
are coated with a white substance resembling wax, and while the 
quantity is small compared with the size of the seeds, it is probably 
rich in nutritive properties, for the seeds are a favorite article of 



1 62 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



winter diet with many birds. A number of weed seeds were found, 
and if eaten in considerable quantities would be a great argument in 
the bird's favour, but unfortunately they occurred in only one or two 
stomachs each, and so may be considered as merely picked up 
experimentally in default of something better. It is possible that a 
series of stomachs taken in the winter months might show a larger 
percentage, as has been observed in the case of other species cf 
birds, including at least 2 woodpeckers. The mineral element of the 
stomach contents is larger in the Flicker than any of the others, 
forming 5 per cent, of the whole, and consisting principally of fine 
sand. It was noticed that the greatest quantity was present in 
stomachs containing ants, showing that the sand was picked up 
accidentally in gathering the ants from their hillocks. 



RED-HEADED WOODPECKER. 

{Melanerpes eryihrocephalus.) 

The handsome Red-head inhabits suitable localities throughout 
the United States, east of the Rocky Mountains, but is only casual 
in New England. He is a familiar bird on telegraph poles and fence 
posts, and seems to prefer these rather unpicturesque objects to 
other apparently more fruitful hunting grounds. He feeds largely on 
insects found upon these bare surfaces, but the vegetable matter in 
his stomach shov/s that he forages in other pastures also. 

Fifty years ago Giraud stated that on Long Island the Red-headed 
Woodpecker arrives early in April, and during the spring "subsists 
chiefly on insects. In the summer it frequents the fruit trees, ripe 
cherries and pears seeming to be a favorite repast. In the fall it 
feeds on berries and acorns, the latter at this season forming a large 
portion of its food."^ 

In its fondness for mast it resembles its relative, the California 
Woodpecker, whose habit of storing acorns is one of its most con- 
spicuous traits. In the northern parts of its range, where the oak is 
replaced by the beech, the Red-head makes the beech-nut its principal 
food. Dr. C. Hart Merriam has given much testimony under this head.* 
He states that in Northern New York, where it is one of the com- 
monest woodpeckers, it subsists almost exclusively on beech-nuts 
during the fall and winter, even picking the green nuts before they 
are ripe and while the trees are still covered with leaves. He has 
shown that these woodpeckers invariably remain throughout the 
winter after good nut yields and migrate whenever the nut crop fails. 

* Birds of Long Island, by J. P. Giraud, Jr. 1S44, page 180. 

3 Birds of Connecticut, 1877, page 66; Bull-Nuttall Ornith. Club, Volume III, 1878, 
age 124; Mammals of the Adirondacks, 1884, page 226. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, 163 

He says : "Gray squirrels, Red-headed Woodpeckers, and beech-nuts 
were numerous during the winters of 1871-72, 1873-74, 1875-76, 
1877-78, 1879-80, 1881-82, 1883-84, while during the alternate years 
the squirrels and nuts were scarce and the woodpeckers altogether 
absent ;" and adds that in Lewis Country, New York, " a good squirrel 
year is synonymous with a good year for Melanerpes, and vice versa." 
In early spring, following nut years, when the melting snow un- 
covers the ground, they feed on the beech-nuts that were buried 
during winter. On April 5, 1878, at Locust Grove, New York, he 
shot six whose gizzards contained beech-nuts and nothing else. 

In an interesting article in the Auk\ Mr. O. P. Hay says that in 
Central Indiana during a good beech-nut year, from the time the nuts 
began to ripen, the Red-heads were almost constantly on the wing, 
passing from the beeches to some place of deposit. They hid the 
nuts in almost every conceivable situation. Many were placed in 
cavities in partly decayed trees, and the felling of an old beech was 
certain to provide a feast for the children. Large handfuls were 
taken from a single knot hole. They were often found under a patch 
of raised bark, and single nuts were driven into cracks in the bark. 
Others were thrust into cracks in gate-posts ; and a favorite place 
of deposit was behind long slivers on fence-posts. In a few cases 
grains of corn were mixed with beech-nuts. Nuts were often driven 
into cracks in the ends of railroad ties ; and the birds were often 
seen on the roofs of houses pounding nuts into the crevices between 
the shingles. In several instances the space formed by a board 
springing away from a fence was nearly filled with nuts, and after- 
wards pieces of bark and wood were brought and driven over the nuts 
as if to hide them from poachers. 

In summer Dr. Merriam has seen the Red-heads '* make frequent 
sallies into the air after passing insects, which were almost invariably 
secured.^' He has also seen them catch grasshoppers on the ground 
in a pasture. 

Dr. A. R. Fisher saw several Red-headed Wood-peckers feeding 
on grasshoppers in the streets at Miles City, Mont., in the latter part 
of July 1893. Several of the birds were seen capturing these insects 
near the hotel throughout the greater part of the forenoon. From a 
regular perch on top of a telegraph pole or cottonwood they de- 
scended on their prey, sometimes eating them on the ground, but 
more often returned to their former post to devour them. The fol- 
lowing interesting observation was made by Dr. G. S. Agersborg, of 
Vermillion, S, Dak^ : — 

Last spring in opening a good many birds of this species with the object of 
ascertaining their principal food, I found in their stomachs nothing but young 

1 Auk. Volume IV, 1887, pages 194, 195. 

> BuU-Nuttall Ornith. Club, Volume 111, 1887, page 97. 



ig. Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



grasshoppers. One of them, which had its head-quarters near my house, was 
observed making frequent visits to an old oak post, and on examining it 1 found a 
large crack where the woodpecker had inserted about lOO grasshoppers of all sizes 
(for future use, as later observation proved), which were put in without killing them, 
but they were so firmly wedged in the crack that they in vain tried to get free. I 
told this to a couple of farmers, and found that they had also seen the same thing, 
and showed me posts which were used for the same purpose. Later in the season 
the woodpecker whose station was near my house, commenced to use his stores 
and to-day (February lo), there are only a few shrivelled-up grasshoppers left. 

Mr. Charles Aldrich, of Webster City, Iowa, states that he saw a 
Red-headed Woodpecker catching grasshoppers on the prairie half a 
mile from timber. In Nebraska grasshoppers were found in four out 
of six stomachs examined by Prof. Samuel Aughey. 

Besides depredations upon fruit and grain, this woodpecker has 
been accused of destroying the eggs of other birds and even of 
killing the young ; and from Florida comes a report that it enters 
poultry houses and sucks the eggs of domestic fowls. Mr. Charles 
Aldrich, of Webster City, Iowa, says that a Red-headed Wood- 
pecker was seen to kill a duckling with a single blow on the heady 
and then to peck out and eat the brains.^ In view of such testimony 
remains of eggs and young birds were carefully looked for in the 
stomachs examined, but pieces of egg-shell were found in only one 
stomach of the Flicker and two of the Red-head. 

A very unusual trait has been recorded by Dr. Howard Jones, of 
Circleville, Ohio. Dr. Jones says he has seen the Red-headed Wood- 
pecker steal the eggs of eave swallows, and in cases where the necks 
of the nests were so long that the eggs were out of reach, the wood- 
pecker made a hole in the walls of the nest and so obtained the 
contents. In a colony of swallows containing "dozens " of nests, not 
a single brood of young was raised. One of the woodpeckers also 
began to prey upon hen's eggs, and was finally captured in the act 
of robbing the nest of a sitting hen.^ 

No traces of young birds or of any other vertebrates were dis- 
covered in the stomachs of any of the seven species under consider- 
ation, except bones of a small frog which were found in the stomach 
of a Red-bellied Woodpecker {Melanerpes caroliniis) from Florida. 

The Red-head has been accused of doing considerable damage to 
fruit and grain, and both charges are fairly well sustained. In 
Northern New York, Dr. Merriam has seen it peck into apples on the 
tree, and has several times seen it feed on choke cherries {Primus 
•virginiana), 

Mr. August Jahn, of Poke County, Ark., writes that it has 
damaged his corn to the amount of $io or $15. and Dr. J. R. Mathers, 

1 Am. Nat. Volume Vl, No. 5, May 1S77, page 308. 

' Ornith. and Oologist, Volume VIH, No. 7, 1SS3, page 56. 



No. 3.3 Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 165 

of Upshur County, W. Va., says that the same species feeds on 
cherries, strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries, and that its 
depredations are sometimes serious, According to Mr. Witmer 
Stone, of Germantown, Pa., Red-headed Woodpeckers have been 
observed to strip a blackberry patch of all of its fruit. Mr. W. B. 
McDaniel, of Decatur County, Ga., also reports that the Sap-sucker 
and Redhead eat grapes and cherries, the loss being sometimes con- 
siderable. These examples show the nature of the evidence contribu- 
ted by eye-witnesses, the accuracy of whose observations there is no 
reason to doubt. That the stomach examinations do not reveal more 
damaging points against the species is not surprising, for a person 
seeing a bird eating his choice fruit, or in some other way inflicting 
damage, is more impressed by it than by the sight oi a hundred of 
the same species quietly pursuing their ordinary vocations. Thus an 
occasional act is taken as a characteristic habit. 

One hundred and one stomachs of the Redhead were examined 
from specimens collected throughout the year, although the bird is 
not generally abundant in the Northern States during the winter 
months. The specimens were taken in 20 States, the District of 
Columbia and Canada, and are fairly well distributed over the whole 
region east of the Rocky Mountains. The contents of the stomachs 
consisted of animal matter, 50 per cent.; vegetable matter, 47 per cent. ; 
mineral matter, 3 per cent. The animal and vegetable elements are 
nearly balanced, and the mineral element is larger than in any except 
the Flicker. The insects consist of ants, wasps, beetles, bugs, grass- 
hoppers, crickets, moths, and caterpillars. Spiders and myriapods 
also were found. Ants amounted to about 11 per cent, of the whole 
food, which is the smallest showing of any of the seven species under 
consideration, and is in harmony with the habits of the bird, which 
collects its food upon exposed surfaces where ants do not often occur. 
Beetle remains formed nearly one-third of all food, the highest record 
of any one of the seven woodpeckers. The families represented were 
those of the common May beetle {Lachnosterna) which was found in 
several stomachs, the predaceous ground beetles, tiger beetles, 
weevils, and a few others. Among the May beetle family is a rather 
large, brilliant green beetle, known to entomologists as Allorhina 
nitiday but commonly called by the less dignified name of 'June bug.' 
It is very common during the early summer in the Middle and South- 
ern States but less so at the North. This insect was found in 1 1 
stomachs, and 5 individuals were identified in a single stomach, which 
would seem an enormous meal for a bird of this size. Another large 
beetle eaten by this woodpecker is the fire-ground beetle {Calosoma 



1 66 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



calidum), a predaceous beetle of large size and vile odor. Passalus 
cornutus, one of the staghorns, a large insect, was also found, as 
well as a pair of mandibles belonging to Prionus brevicornus, one of 
the largest beetles in the United States. A preference for large 
beetles is one of the pronounced characteristics of this woodpecker. 
Weevils were tound in 15 stomachs, and in several cases as many as 
10 were present. Remains of Carabid beetles were found in 44 
stomachs to an average amount of 24 per cent, of the contents of 
those that contained them, or 10 per cent of all. The fact that 43 per 
cent, of all the birds taken had eaten these beetles, some of them to 
the extent of 16 individuals, shows a decided fondness for these 
insects, and taken with the fact that 5 stomachs contained Cicindelids 
or tiger beetles forms a rather strong indictment against the bird. 

Grasshoppers and crickets formed 6 per cent, of the whole food, a 
larger percentage than in any of the other seven species. The aggre- 
gate for all other insects is 4 per cent, and the most important kinds 
are wasps and their allies. As this bird has often been seen capturing 
insects on the wing,^ it is probable that the wasps were taken in that 
way. 

The vegetable food of the Redhead presents considerable variety, 
and shows some points of difference from that of the other wood- 
peckers. The tollowmg, is the list of substances identified : 



Grain :— 

Corn. 
Fruit :— 

Dogwood berries {Cornus'candidissima 
and C. -florida). 

Huckleberries {Gaylussacia). 

Strawberries {Fragaria). 

Blackberries or raspberries {Rubus). 

Mulberries {Morus). 

Elderberries {Sambucus). 

Wild black cherries {Prunus serotina). 

Choke cherries {Prunus virgimana). 

Cultivated cherries. 

Wild grapes {Vitis cordifolia). 



Fruit — continued. 

Apples. 

Pears. 

Unidentified. 
Miscellaneous : 

Sumac seeds (Rhus copallina 
and R. glabra). 

Ragweed seeds {Ambrosia). 

Pigweed seeds {Che no podium). 

Acorns {Quercus). 

Seeds unidentified. 

Galls. 

Flower anthers. 

Rubbfsh, 



Corn was found in 1 7 stomachs, collected from May to September 
inclusive, and amounted to more than 7 per cent, of all the food. 
While it seems to be eaten in any condition, that taken in the late 
summer was in the milk, and evidently picked from standing ears. 
This being the largest percentage of grain shown by any of the seven 
species corroborates some of the testimony received, and indicates 



• See Merriam, Bull. Nuttall Ornith. 
and Stream, Volume IX, January 17, 18 



Club, Volume III, July i 87S, page 126 j also Forest 
3, page 451. 



No. 3.3 Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 167 



that the Redhead, if sufficiently abundant, might do considerable 
damage to the growing crop particularly if other food was not at 
hand. While the fruit list is not so Jong as in the case of the Flicker, 
it includes more kinds that are, or may be, cultivated ; and the 
quantity found in the stomachs, a little more than 33 per cent, of 
all the food, is greater than in any of the others. Strawberries 
were found in i stomach, blackberries or raspberries in 15, cultivated 
cherries in 2, apples in 4, and pears in 6. Fruit pulp was found in 33 
stomachs, and it is almost certain that a large part of this was obtained 
from some of the larger cultivated varieties. Seeds were found in 
but few stomachs, and only a small number in each. 



RED-BELLIED WOODPECKER. 

{Melanerpes carolinus.) 

The Rea-bellied Woodpecker is a more southern species than any 
of the others treated in this bulletin. It is not known to breed norm 
of the Carolinian fauna, and is abundant in Florida and the Gulf 
States. Curiously enough it sometimes migrates north o its breed- 
ing range to spend the winter. 

Only 22 stomachs of this species have been obtained by the divi- 
sion. These were collected in nine States, ranging from Florida to 
Michigan and from Maryland to Kansas, and in every month, except 
April, June, and July. An examination of their stomachs shows 
animal matter (insects) 26 per cent, and vegetable matter 74 per 
cent. A small quantity of gravel was found in seven stomachs, but was 
not reckoned as food. Ants were found in 14 stomachs, and 
amounted to ii percent, of the whole food. Adult beetles stand 
next in importance, aggregating 7 per cent, of all food, while larval 
beetles only reach 3 per cent. Caterpillars had been taken by only 
two birds, but they had eaten so many that they amounted to 4 per 
cent, of the whole food. The remaining animal food is made up of 
small quantities of bugs {Hemiptera), crickets {Orthoptera), and 
spiders, with a few bones of a small tree frog, found in one stomach 
taken in Florida. 

Dr. B. H. Warren states that the stomachs of three Red-belHed 
Woodpeckers captured in winter in Chester and Delaware counties 
Pa., contained black beetles, larvae, fragments of acorns, and a few seeds 
of wild grapes. The stomachs of eight adults from the St. John's 
River, Florida, contained red seeds of two species of palmetto, but no 



¥ 



1 68 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

insects. Two additional stomachs from the same locality contained 
palmetto, berries, fragments of crickets {Nemobius and Oracharis 
saltator), a palmetto ant [Camponotus escuriens) and numerous joints 
of a myriapod, probably Julus} 

Dr. Townend Glover found in the stomach of a Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker killed in December " pieces of acorns, seeds, and gravel, but 
no insects. Another, shot in December, contained wing-cases of 
Buprestts, and a species of wasp or Polistes, acorns, seeds, and no 
bark. A third, shot in May, was filled with seeds, pieces of bark 
and insects, among which was an entire Lachnosterna, or May 
bug."2 

The vegetable food of the Red-bellied Woodpecker contained in 
the 22 stomachs examined by the division consisted of the following 
seeds and fruits :— 



Fruit — continued. 

Saw palmetto {Sabal serrulata). 

Holly {Ilex opaca). 

Wild sarsaparilla {Aralia midi- 

caulis). 
Bayberries {Myrica cerifera). 
Pine (Pinus echinata). 
Poison ivy (Rhus radicans). 
Ragweed (Atnbrosia sp,). 



Grains— 
Corn, 

Fruit — 

Mulberries {Morus rubra). 
Wild grapes {Vitis cordifolia). 
Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quin- 

quefolia). 
Elderberries (Sambucus canadensis). 
Rough-leaved cornel {Cornus asperi- 
folia). 

Corn was found in only two stomachs. The other items were well 
distributed, and none of them appear to be specially preferred, unless 
it may be the poison ivy, which was found in six stomachs, and 
amounted to nearly 12 per cent, of the whole food. Although eight of 
the 22 birds were collected in Florida, no trace of the pulp of oranges 
was discovered, but that oranges are eaten by them is shown by the 
following interesting notes.: — 

Dr. B. H, Warren states that in Florida the Red-bellied Wood- 
pecker is commonly known as * Orange Sap-sucker * and 'Orange 
borer.' Dr. Warren collected 26 of these woodpeckers in an orange 
grove near Volusia and found that 1 1 of them contained orange 
pulp. Three contained nothing else; the others had eaten also 
insects and berries. 

Corroborating Dr. Warren's account, Mr. William Brewster 
states that at Enterprise, Fla., in February 1889, he saw a Red- 
bellied Woodpecker eating the pulp of a sweet orange. Mr. Brewster 
states that the woodpecker attacked the orange on the ground, peck- 
ing at it in a slow and deliberate way for several minutes. On 
examining the orange it was found to be decayed on one side. " In 
the sound portion were three holes, each nearly as large as a silver 

1 birds of Pennsylvania, 2nd. ed., iSyo, pp. 174, 175. 
" U. S. Agricultural Repoit for 1865, 1866, p. 3S, 



No, 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 169 

dollar, with narrow strips of peel between them. The pulp had 
been eaten out quite to the middle of the fruit. Small pieces of rind 
were thickly strewn about the spot.'' Upon searching closely he 
discovered several other oranges that had been attacked in a similar 
manner. All were partially decayed and were lying on the ground. 
He was unable to find any on the trees which showed any marks of 
the woodpecker's bill.^ 

Mr. Benjamin Mortimer, writing of the same bird at Sanford, Fla., 
says : 

During February and March 1889 while gathering fruit or pruning orange 
trees, I frequently found oranges that had been riddled by this woodpecker, and 
repeatedly saw the bird at work. I never observed it feeding upon fallen oranges. 
It helped itself freely to sound fruit that still hung on the trees, and in some 
instances I have found ten or twelve oranges on one tree that had been tapped 
by it. Where an orange accidentally rested on a branch in such a way as to 
make the flower end accessible from above or from a horizontal direction, the 
woodpecker chose that spot, as through it he could reach into all the sections of the 
fruit, and when this was the case there was but one hole in the orange. But 
usually there were many holes around it. It appeared that after having once com- 
menced on an orange the wood-pecker returned to the same one repeatedly until 
he had completely consumed the pulp, and then he usually attacked another very 
near to it. Thus I have found certain clusters in which every orange had been 
bored, while all the others on the tree were untouched. An old orange grower 
told me that the " Sap-suckers," as he called them, never touch any but very ripe 
oranges, and are troublesome only to such growers as reserved their crops for the 
late market. He also said that it is only within a very few years that they have 
shown a taste for the fruit ; and I myself observed that, although Red-bellies were 
very common in the neighbourhood, only an individual, or perhaps a pair, visited 
any one grove.' 



YELLOW-BELLIED WOODPECKER OR SAPSUCKER. 

{Sphyrapicus varius.) 

This species is probably the most migratory of all our wood- 
peckers, breeding only in the most northerly parts of the United 
States, and in some of the mountains farther south. In the fall it 
ranges southward, spending the winter in most of the Eastern 
States. It is less generally distributed than some of the other wood- 
peckers, being quite unknown in some sections and very abundant 
in others. For instance, Dr. C. Hart Merriam states that in the 
Adirondack region during migration it outnumbers all other species 
of the family together, and throughout the summer is second in num- 
bers only to the Hairy Woodpecker ; and at Mount Chocorua, New 

» The Auk, Vol. vi, 1889, pp. 337—338. 
- The Auk, Vol. vii, 1890, p. 340. 



170 Indian Muse tint Notes. CVol. IV. 

Hampshire, Mr. Frank Bolles found it the most abundant species. In 
Minnesota also it is very common. On the other hand, near my 
home in Massachusetts only two or three were observed each year ; 
and during a residence of eight years in Iowa it was noted only three 
or four times. 

It is to this species that the term " Sap-sucker " is most often and 
most justly applied, for it drills holes in the bark of certain trees 
and drinks the sap. It feeds also on cambium, insects, and wild 
fruits and berries. 

In writing of the habits of these woodpeckers in northern New 
York in 1878, Dr. Merriam states: — 

They really do considerable mischief by drilling holes in the bark of apple, 
thorn-apple, and mountain ash trees in such a way as to form girdles of punctures, 
sometimes 2 feet or more in breadth (up and down) about the trunks and branches. 
The holes, which are sometimes merely single punctures, and sometimes squarish 
spaces (multiple punctures) nearly half an inch across, are placed so near together 
that not unfrequently they cover more of the tree than the remaining bark. Hence, 
more than half of the bark is sometimes removed from the girdled portions, and 
the balance often dries up and comes off. Therefore it is not surprising that trees 
which have been extensively girdled generally die, and mountain ash are much 
more prone to do so than either apple or thorn-apple trees, due, very likely, to 
their more slender stems. The motive which induces this species to operate thus 
upon young and healthy trees is, I think, but partly understood. It is unques- 
tionably true that they feed, to a certain extent, both upon the inner bark and 
the fresh sap from these trees, but that the procurement of these two elements of 
sustenance, gratifying as they doubtless are, is their chief aim in making the 
punctures I am inclined to dispute. As the sap exudes from the newly-made 
punctures, thousands of flies, yellow jackets, and other insects congregate about 
the place, till the hum of their wings suggests a swarm of bees. If, now, the tree 
be watched, the woodpecker will soon be seen to return and alight over the part 
of the girdle which he has most recently punctured. Here he remains, with motion- 
less body, and feasts upon the choicest species from the host of insects within easy 
reach. In making each girdle they work around the trunk, and from below up- 
wards, butt hey may begin a new girdle below an old one. They make but few 
holes each day, and after completing two or three remain over the spot for some 
little time, and as the clear fresh sap exudes and trickles down the bark, they place 
their bill against the dependent drop and suck it in with evident relish — a habit 
which has doubtless given rise to the more appropriate than elegant term Sap- 
sucker, by which they are commonly known in some parts of the country. I have 
several times watched this performance at a distance of less than 10 feet, and all 
the details of the process were distinctly seen, the bird looking at me, meanwhile, 
'out of the corner of his eye.' When his thirst is satisfied he silently disappears, 
and as silently returns again, after a few hours, to feast upon the insects that have 
been attracted to the spot by the escaping sap. This bird, then, by a few strokes 
of its bill, is enabled to secure both food (animal and vegetable) and drink in 
abundance for an entire day ; and a single tree, favorably situated, may suffice 
for a whole season.' 

,i Bull. Nuttall Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, Jany. 1879, pp. 3—5. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. I71 



The late Frank Bolles has published some interesting detailed 
observations respecting the food habits of the Sap-sucker. His con- 
clusions are :— 

That the Yellow-bellied Woodpecker is in the habit for successive years of 
drilling the canoe birch, red maple, red oak, white ash, and probably other trees, 
for the purpose of taking from them the elaborated sap, and in some cases parts 
of the cambium layer ; that the bird consumes the sap in large quantities for its own 
sake and not for insect matter which such sap may chance occasionally to contain ; 
that the sap attracts many insects of various species, a few of which form a consider- 
able part of the food of this bird, but whose capture does not occupy its time to 
anything like the extent to which sap-drinking occupies it ; * * * * that the 
forest trees attacked by them generally die, possibly in the second or third year 
of use; that the total damage done by them is too insignificant to justify their 
persecution in well-wooded regions.^ 

Mr. Bolles shot eight Sap-suckers in July andJAugust 1890. Their 
stomachs " were well filled with insects." Some of these were 
examined by Mr. Samuel H. Scudder, who states : — 

The insects in the different stomachs are in all cases almost exclusively com- 
posed of the harder chitinous parts of ants. In a cursory examination 1 find little 
else, though one or two beetles are represented, and No. 4 must have swallowed 
an entire wasp of the largest size, his heads and wings attesting thereto.^ 

In a subsequent article Mr. Bolles gives the result of an attempt 
to keep several young Sap-suckers alive on a diet of dilute maple 
sirup. Unfortunately for the experiment, the birds obtained and 
greedily devoured numerous insects attracted to the cage by the 
sirup. How many of the insects were eaten was not known, but all 
of the birds died within four months. Examination of their bodies 
showed fatty degeneration of the liver — a condition said to be usual 
in cases of starvation. Mr. Bolles states : — 

The most probable cause of this enlargement of the liver, which seems to have 
been the reason for the death of the three Sap-suckers, was an undue proportion of 
sugar in their diet. In a wild state they would have eaten insects every day and 
kept their stomachs well filled with the chitinous parts of acid insects. Under 
restraint they secured fewer and fewer insects, until, during the last few weeks 
of their lives, they had practically no solid food of any kind.^ 

Mr. Bolles has thus proved by experiment that concentrated sap 
(saturated with sugar) is not sufficient to sustain life, even with the 
addition of a small percentage of insects. The logical inference is 
that sap, while liked by the birds and consumed in large quantities 
holds a subordinate place as an article of food. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker is represented in the collection 
by eighty. one stomachs, distributed rather irregularly through the 
year. None were taken in February, March, or November, and only 

1 The Auk, Vol. VIII, July, 1891, p. 270. 

2 The Auk, Vol. VIII, July, 1891, p. 269. 

3 The Auk, Vol. IX, April, 1892, p. 119, 



l« 



1^2 Indian Museum Notes. [^Vol. IV* 

a few in January, June, and December ; the great bulk were collected 
in April, August, September, and October. They were obtained from 
fifteen States, the District of Columbia, and Nova Scotia. All were 
from the Northern States, except a few from North Carolina, Virginia 
and the District of Columbia. Unlike any of the preceding species 
the vegetable element of the food here exactly equals the animal 
part. The insect matter was made up of ants, wasps, beetles, flies, 
bugs, grasshoppers, crickets, and Mayflies. Some spiders also were 
present. Of the whole food, 36 per cent, consisted of ants, a higher 
percentage than in any other woodpecker except the Flicker. 
Beetles amounted to 5 per cent, and do not appear to be a favourite 
food. Flies [Dtptera) in various forms were eaten in larger numbers 
than by any of the others. Among them were several long-legged 
crane flies {Ttpultds). Spiders were eaten to a small extent only, 
and most of these were phalangers or " daddy-longlegs,'' which, taken 
with the crane flies, would indicate a slight preference for long- 
legged prey. Bugs, wasps, caterpillars, crickets, and mayflies 
collectively amount to about 6 per cent., no one of them reaching any 
very important figure. Professor Samuel Aughey examined five 
stomachs of the Yellow-beUied Woodpecker in Nebraska, all of which 
contained grasshoppers. The number in each stomach varied from 
15 to 33. 

Mr. William Brewster states that at Umbagog Lake, Maine, 
" After the young have hatched, the habits of this Yellow-bellied 
Woodpecker change. From an humble delver after worms and 
larvae, it rises to the proud independence of a fly-catcher, taking its 
prey on wing as unerringly as the best marksman of them all. From 
its perch on the spire of some tall stub it makes a succession of 
rapid sorties after its abundant victims, and then flies off to its nest 
with bill and mouth crammed full of insects, principally large 
Diptera.'' 1 

The vegetable food of the Sapsucker is varied. The following 
fruits and berries were found in the stomachs :— 
Fruit — \ Miscellaneous :— 

Dogwood berries {Cor7tus florida). 

Black alder berries {Ilex verticillata). 

Virginia creeper hemes {Parthenocissus 
quinquefolia). 

Wild black cherries {Prunus serotina). 

Black berries or raspberries {Rubus). 

Unidentified. 



Poison ivy seeds {Rhus radians). 

Mullein seeds {Verbascum 

thapsus). 
Juniper berries {Juniperus 

viriginiana). 
Buds, 

Seeds unidentified. 
Cambium. 
Rubbish. 



Bl. NuttiU Ornith. Club., Vol. I,i876,N o . 3, page 69. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes, 173 



The quantity of fruit found in the stomachs formed 26 per cent, 
of the entire food, but the only kinds identified that might possibly 
be cultivated were blackberries and raspberries, and these were in 
only two stomachs. Unidentifiable fruit pulp was found in 12 
stomachs. Miscellaneous seeds to the amount of 5 per cent, complete 
the list of substances eaten by this species. Poison ivy seeds were 
found in only one stomach, and most of the other things were dis- 
tributed in about the same proportion. 

Dr. Merriam informs me that in the fall in northern New York 
the Sap-suckers feed on ripening beechnuts, the small branches 
bending low with the weight of the birds while picking the tender 
nuts. 



GREAT PILEATED WOODPECKER. 

[Ceophlaeus pileatus.) 

Excepting the Ivory Bill this is the largest woodpecker in the 
United States, where it inhabits most of the heavily-wooded districts. 
It is shy and retiring, seldom appearing outside of the forests, and 
difficult to approach even in its favourite haunts. Its large size, 
loud voice, and habit of hammering upon dead trees render it con- 
spicuous. Its strength is marvellous, and one unacquainted with it 
can scarcely credit a bird with such power of destruction as is some- 
times shown by a stump or dead trunk on which it has operated for 
ants or boring larvae. 

Only 23 stomachs of the Pileated Woodpecker have been 
obtained; all taken in the months of October, November, December, 
and January, and collected from six states, the Districts of Columbia 
and Canada (including New Brunswick). Fifty-one per cent, of the 
contents of these stomachs consisted of animal matter or insects ; 
49 per cent, of vegetable matter. The insects were principally ants 
and beetles, with a few of some other orders. The ants were mostly 
of the larger species that live in decaying wood. A large proportion 
of the beetles were in the larval form, and all were of the wood- 
boring species. There were also a few caterpillars, also wood- 
borers, a few plant lice, several cockroaches, of the species that live 
under the bark of dead trees, a few white ants, and a few flies, with 
one spider. 

The gizzard of a Pileated Woodpecker, shot by Dr. Merriam in 
the Adirondacks, April 25, 1882, contained hundreds of large ants 



»74 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



and no other food. Six stomachs, collected by Dr. B. H. Warren 
on the St. Johns River in Florida, contained numerous palmetto 
ants {Campanotus escuriens), and remains of other ants, several 
larvse of a Prionid beetle {Orihosotna brunnea), numerous builder 
ants {Cremastogaster lineolata), one larva of Xylotrechtts, and one 
pupa of the white ant {Termes). The insects were determined 
under Professor C. V. Riley.* 

Seeds and berries of the iollowing plants were found in the 
stomachs examined by the division : — 

[Parthenocissus 



Sourgum {Nyssa aquaticd). 
Flowering dogwood {Cornus florida). 
Black haw {Viburnum prunifolium). 
Cassena {Ilex cassine). 
Hackberry {Celtis occidentalis). 
Persimmon [Diospyros virginiand). 
Wild grapes {Vitis cordifolia). 



Virginia creeper 

quinquefolia). 
Greenbrier {Smilax rotundifolia 

and S. glauca). 
Sumac {Rhus copalhna). 
Poison sumac {Rhus vernix). 
Poison ivy {Rhus radicans). 



In addition to the seven species of woodpeckers whose food has 
been already discussed, fifty-seven stomachs have been examined, 
belonging to twelve species and sub-species, mostly from the 
southern and western parts of the United States and British 
Columbia, as follows : 

Stomachs. 
Nuttall's Woodpecker {Dryobates 7iuitalit) . . , . .7 
Red-cockaded Woodpecker {Dryobates borealis) . . . .12 

Bsiird's Woodpecker {Dryobates scalarisbairdi) .... 3 

Gilded Flicker {Colaptes chrysoidei) ...... 3 

Red-shaked PVickev {Colaptes cnfer) . . . . . .11 

North-Western Flicker {Colaptes cafer saturatior) . - . . 5 

Ca\\iovx\\a.'Wood'peckeT {Melanerpes formicivorns bairdi) . .1 

Lewis's Woodpecker {Melanerpes torquatiis) . , . . 3 

Gila Woodpecker {Melanerpes uropygialts) ..... i 

Red-breasted Sapsucker [Sphyrapicus ruber) . . . . i 

Arctic Three-toed Woodpecker {Pic aides arcticus) . . . . 7 

Alpine Three-toed Woodpecker {Picoides americanus dorsalis) . 3 

With such a small number of stomachs it is hardly worth while 
to discuss the food of each species. The Three-toed Wood peckers 
{Picoides), however, deserve passing notice, since their food contains 
a larger percentage of wood-boring larvae than any other wood pecker 
examined. As the food of the two species is practically the same, they 
may be considered together. The contents of the ten stomachs con- 
sist of animal matter, 83 per cent. ; vegetable matter, 17 per cent. It 
is a question whether this should not all be considered as animal, for 
the vegetable portion consisted almost entirely of rotten wood and 
similar rubbish, probably taken accidentally, and is not in any proper 

1 Birds of Pennsylvania, 2nd. ed., 1890, p. 177. 



No. 3.] Reprints and Miscellaneous Notes. 175 



sense food, the exception being in one case where a little cambium 
bad been eaten by one individual of the Arctic Three-toed Wood- 
pecker {Picoides arcticus) and a few skins of some small fruit by one 
Alpine Three-toed Wood-pecker {P. americanus dorsalis). The 
animal food consisted of 63 per cent, of wood-boring Coleopterous 
larvse (beetles), 1 1 per cent, of Lepidopterous larvae (caterpillars), 
probably also wood-borers, and 9 per cent, of adult beetles, ants, and 
other Hymenopterous insects. 



I 



G. I. C. P. O.— No. 564 R. & A.— 7-2-99-.loo.-C. V. P, 



pJ^Npj^N MUSEUM NOTES. 

ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES. 

Volume IV. — No. 4. 




guijlisheb bp Jtuthoritp 0! the ^0bernmcnt til hxhh, 
department of pebertue anb ^griettUure. 



C A L C U TTA: 
OFFICE OF THE SUPEf?INTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1899. 



Price Rupee ane* 



NOTICE. 



The serial Indian Museum Notes, issued by the Trustees of the 
Indian Museum, Calcutta, under the authority of the Government of 
India, Revenue and Agricultural Department, is to take the place of 
Notes on Economic Entomology, of which two numbers have appeared. 
For the views expressed, the authors of the respective notes are alone 
responsible. 

Thepartsof the serial are published from time to time as materials 
accumulate. Communications are invited ; they should be written on 
one side only of the paper and addressed to— 

THE EDITOR, 

Indian Museum Notes, 

Calcutta. 

Correspondence connected with Economic Entomology should be 
accompanied by specimens of the insects to which reference is made. 
Caterpillars, grubs, and other soft-bodied insects can be sent in strono- 
spirit ; chrysalids and cocoons alive, and packed lightly in leaves or 
grass ; other insects, dried and pinned," or wrapped in soft paper. 
Live insects should be sent when there is a reasonable probability 
of their surviving the journey. Caterpillars, grubs and other, im- 
mature insects can often be only approximately determined; they 
should therefore, where possible, be accompanied by specimens of 
the mature insects into which they transform ; when this is not pos- 
sible, they should still be sent, as they can always be determined ap- 
proximately, and uncertainty must necessarily arise in discussing 
insects when, actual reference to the specimens cannot be made. 

Insects forwarded for determination should, in all cases, be accom- 
panied by a detailed report showing precisely in what their economic 
importance is believed to consist. 

Calcutta; 
i8th July i8g8. . . 



FEB 8 1900 



CONTENTS. 



Page 



I. Original Communication — 



(i) Diagnoses Melolonthidarum novarum ex India Orientaliiby 

Herr Ernst Brenske . . , , . , ,176 



2. Notes on insect-pests from the Entomological Section, Indian 
Museum : by E. Barlow, Assistant in charge of Entomology : — 

(i) Tea Pests • . ... .180 

(ii) Insects destructive to cereals and crops ; (i). Wheat and Paddy 
pests, etc. ; (2) Cotton pests ; (3) Poppy pests; (4) Indigo 
pests ; (5) Insects infesting vegetable plants j ( 6 ) Sugar-cane 
pest ; (7) Locusts .... 



(iii) Insects. infesting fruit trees ... 
(iv) Forest pests . . . . • 

(v) Determination of some insect-pests, etc. 
(vi) Some beneficial insects in India , 

(vii) Reports of results of remedies, etc., tried during the year 1897 



188 
209 
210 
216 
217 
220 



3, Reprint — 

(i) The Horse Bot-flies. Extracts from a Report by H. Osborn. 
Reprinted from Bull. No. 5, United States Department of 
Agriculture, Division of Entomology, 1896 • . • 222 



EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate XIII— 

IG. I. HoLOTRiCHiA iMiTATRix, Brensk. n. sp., a and i, beetle dorsal 
and side views (natural size); c, antenna (enlarged). • 

„ 2. HoLOTRiCHiA ANDAMAN? A, Brensk. n. sp., a and b, beetle dorsal and 
side views (natural size); c, antenna (enlarged). 

^, 3. Serica CALCUTTA, Brensk. n. sp., a and ^, beetle dorsal and side 
views ; c, antenna (enlarged). 

„ 4. Serica assamensis, Brensk. n. sp,, a and b, beetle dorsal and side 
views ; c, antenna ; d, hind leg (all enlarged). 

Plate XIV— 

Fig. I. EuPROCTis laiifascia, Walk., a, larva ; b and c, moths $ and $ , 

„ 2. Thosea cervina, Mcore, a and b, larva dorsal and side views 
c, cocoon ; d and e, moths $ and ? . 

y, 3. Thosea divergens, Moore, a cocoon ; Z> and c, moths $ axxd ?. 
„ 4. Belippa lohor, Moore, a, cocoon ; b and c, moths $ and 2 . 

Plate XV— 

Fig. I. Cremastogaster rogenhoferi, Mayr., a, ant ; 6, nest (quarter 
natural size). 

„ 2» Plutella maculata, Curt., fl and i, larva dorsal and side views ; 
c, chrysalis; d, moth ; e, piece of cauliflo\\er attacked by larvae. 

„ 3. Eriococcus paradoxus, var. indica, Mask., piece of twig covered 
with larva scales. 



Vol. IV. ] [No. 4. 

I. ORIGINAL COMMUNICATION. 

DiAGTNOSES Melolonhidarum novarum ex IndiA 
Orientali: by Ernst Brenske. 

1. Serica (Autoserica) Calcuttce n. sp. 

P/ate XIU, ^g. J. 

Long. 8, Lat. 5 mill. S. Calcutta. 

Sericse carinifronti similis, sed interstitiis elytrorum magis 
convexioribus ; Femoribus posterioribus usque ad apicem dilatatis, 
Tibiis posticis valde dilatatis. Antennis, decern articulatis, flabello 
trifoHato stipiti paulo breviore. 

2. Seriea (Autoserica) nag ana n. sp. 

Long. 10, Lat. 5*5 mill. S» Naga Hills. 

Elongato-ovata, nitida, brunnea ; Antennis decem articulatis, 
flabello trifoliato, stipiti longitudine. Clypeo antice angustato, densis- 
sime leviter ruguloso punctate, fronte subtilissime punctata, leviter 
carinata; thorace lateribus antice leviter rotundato, subtiliter punctate, 
angulis posticis rectis ; elytrorum interstitiis parum convexis. 



3. Serica assamensis n. sp. 
Plate XIII, /^. 4. 
Long. 6-6-8, Lat. 4-4*3 mill. (J ? . Duars, Assam. 
Flava, capite thoraceque flavo-rubris, opalinea. Clypeo leviter 
tridentato, lato minus angustato, subtiliter punctato, brevissime 
spinoso, linea media longitudinaliter leviter carinata. Thorace lato, 
transverso, lateribus antice paulo rotundato postice recto, angulis 
posticis obtusis. Elytris seriatim striatis, interstitiis parum convexis. 



I jy Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV* 

Femoribus tibilsque posticis minus dilatatis. Antennis decern 
articulatis articulis 2-7 brevissimis, flabello trifoliato in utroque sexu 
brevissimo, maris vix longiore. 

[This beetle is destructive to tea plants in Duars, Assam.] 

4. Moplia viridula n. sp. 

Long. 4'5-5'5, Lat. 2, 5-3 mill. Khasi Hills. 
H. viridissimae similis. Supra viridi, subtus aurantiacio vel argentio 
squamulosa ; nigra, pedibus fuscis subtiliter squamosis. Thorace basi 
gibboso, clytris planis, Pygidio piano apice leviter impresso ; tibiis 
anticis tridentatis ; unguibus anticis apice fissis, posticis simplicibus. 

5. Schi^onycha rhi^otrogoides n. sp. 

Long. 13, Lat. 6 mill. ^. Senafe (Abyssinia). 
Lurida ; antennis novem articulatis, tibiis anticis tridentatis, 
unguiculis apice fissis. Clypeo rotundato, sutura fovliter, vertice subti- 
liter carinato ; thorace laxe punctato, ciliato, scutello ciliato ; elytris 
subtilissime setosis. Pygidis glabro disperse ciliato, pectore villoso 
Clava trifoliata, stipite longitudine. 

6. Brahmina shillongensis n. sp. 

Long. 14, Lat. 6 mill, ? . Shillong. 
Br. cardoni similis, sed major, clypeo profunde emarginato, 
densius punctato. Thorace lateribus minus rotundato, angulis 
anticis valde porrectis, elytris magis ruguloso punctatis, Pygidio 
acuto-rotundato, convexo ; subtus opaco ; pectore baud piloso. 



7. Holotrichia Alcocki n. sp. 

Long. 23, Lat. 12 mill. ?. India Orient. 
Opaca, parum nitida, pruinosa. Clypeo parum sinuato ; profunde 
et grosse punctato, fronte foveolato punctato, pilis sat elongatis ; 
thorace brevissimo, margine posteriore valde calloso, lateribus 
crinulatis, disco disperse punctato, linea impunctata media vix 
distincta; elytris ad aplcem parum latioribus, angulo suturali acuto ; 
Pygidio, parvo, piano, laxe punctato, apice piloso. Antennis decern 
articulatis, clava brevissima ; tibiis anticis tridentatis. Holotrichia; 
cavifronti affinis et subsimilis sed fronte haud impressa, 



No. 4'] Original Communication. 178 



8. Holotrichia imitatrix n. sp, 
Piaie XIII, ^g. I. 

Long. 20, Lat, 10 mill. $ . Sikkim, 
Nitida, flavo-brunnea, capite thoraceque obscurioribus, subtus 
abdomine parce pectore dense flavo pilosio. Clypeo antice profunda 
sinuate, fronte fortiter carinata, dense punctate. Thorace parutn 
transverse, antice angustate, angulis anticis acutis, lateribus glabris 
postice rotundatis, angulis posticis sat rotundatis, disco densissime 
punctate ruguleso. Elytris dense punctatis, baud costatis. Pygidio 
ruguloso punctate. Antennis novem articulatis. 

Brahminse phytaloidi celose et statura simiHs, sed tarsis medio 
dentatis,' fronte carinata. 



9. Holotrichia scrohipennis n. sp. 

Long. 23, Lat. 12 mill. $. India or. 
Opaca, parum nitida. Holotrichiae scrobiculatse valde affinis et 
similis, capite latiore, clypeo antice parum dimidiate fronte dense, 
rugoso punctate, thorace densissime ruguloso punctato baud piloso, 
Pygidio fere rotundate. 



10. Molotrichia prohlematica n. sp. 

Long. 16, Lat. 8 mill. $ $ . Srinagar. 
H. singhalensis similiter, opaca, subtus dense pruinosa ; antennis 
decem articulatis; a genere Brahmina differt praesentim unguibus 
medio dente armatis. Clypeo medio valde emarginato, fronte den" 
sissime ruguloso-punctato. Thorace lateribus magis,angulatim dila- 
tato, densissime subtiliterque ruguloso punctate^ elytris leviter 
costatis, baud dense punctatis. Pygidio rotundate acute punctato. 

Ad Sectionem Hoi. eurystomse. 

II. Holotrichia andamana n. sp. 

Plate XIII, fig. 2. 
Long. 17, Lat. 9-5 mill. $ $. Andaman Island (W. Davidson). 
H. eurystomse sirailis, supra glabra subtus pruinosa; lata, fere 
plana ; clypeo breviter sed distincte emarginato, hie et fronte dense 



179 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



rugulosa punctatis ; thorace transverse, densissime, subtlliterque 
ruguloso punctato, lateribus modice rotundatis, angulis posticis 
obtusis ; elytris dense rugoso-punctatis, vix costatis, pectore medio 
breviter piloso. Pygidio densissime ruguloso punctato. 



12. Holotricliia singhalensis n. sp. 

Long. 17, Lat. 8'5 mill, i, Ceylon. 

Pfsecedenti similis, minus plana longior, et supra parum irides- 
cens. Clypes breviter inciso, fronte densissime ruguloso-punctato, 
thorace parum transverse, dense ruguloso-punctato, angulis posticis, 
obtusis ; pectore glabro. Pygidio punctato Ad Sectionem H. 
eurystomae Burm. 



13. Ilelolontlia (SchonJierria) rangunensis n. sp. 

Long. 20*5, Lat. 10 mill, Rangoon. Unicam ^ in Indian Museum. 
Picea, compressa, subparallela ; antennarum clava septem-foliata 
prima abreviata ; capite, thorace elytrisque rugoso, punctatis, disperse 
setoso-squamulosis, pygidio lato densius flavo setoso, abdomine 
lateribus baud maculatis. Tibiis anticis tridentatis, unguibus basi 
dentatis. Mesosterno subtiliter producto, noduloso. 



14. Gymnogaster indica n. sp. 

Long. 20, Lat. 10 mill. ^. N. Khasi hills, Unicum in Indian 
Museum. 

Habitus Polyphyllidarum ; antennis decem articulatis flabello guin- 
quefoliato elongato-curvato, articulo secundo tertioque brevibus, 
quarto paulo, quinto magis transverso ; tibiis anticis tridentatis, 
abdomine glabro, pectore hirsuto. Clypeo parvo antice angustato, 
sutura elevata, fronte carinata ; thorace lateribus antice angustato 
angulis posticis late rotundatis ; disco densissime punctato. Elytris 
minus densius, fortiter punctatis, baud costatis. Pygidio parvo 
ruguloso. 

Haec distinctissima species a genere typico Gymnogaster paulo 
differt ; tibiis anticis tridentatis. 



i 



No. 4..] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomo logical Section, 180 



NOTES ON INSECT-PESTS FROM THE ENTOMO- 
LOGICAL SECTION, INDIAN MUSEUM : 

By E. Barlow, Assistant in charge of Entomology. 



I. TEA PESTS, 
t. Euproctis latifascia, Walker. 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. LymantriidEe.) 
Plate XiV, Jig. I, — a, larva; b, and c, moths $ & %, 

Euproctis lacti fascia, Wlk. Cat. IV, p. 831 ; C. and S. No. 945 
U&m'g. Faun.B, Ind. Bur. and Ceyl. mofhsA.-p, 472. 
No. 1056. 
„ antica, Wlk. Cat. IV, p. 835; C. and S. No. 933. 

postica, Wlk. Cat. XXXII, p. 348 ; C. and S. No. 950. 

„ abdominalis, Moore, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 398 ; Butt. lU. 
Net. VII, pi. 123, figs. 4, 5. 

In March 1897, from Messrs. Andrew Yule & Co., were received 
some living specimens of a caterpillar which had been doing a great 
deal of damage to tea plants in the Darjeeling district. The 
caterpillars were said to be in millions and to be quite stripping the 
bushes of their old leaves. 

The caterpillars forwarded were evidently full-grown specimens, as 
immediately on their arrival in the Museum, when transferred to a 
rearing cage, they began to transform themselves into chrysalids. 
The moths which emerged after about twelve days, were identified 
as belonging to the species Euproctis latifascia of Walker, who 
describes the female as follows : — 

White. Antennae with testaceous branches. Abdomen brown, 
white at the base, luteous at the tip. Length of the body 6 lines ; of 
the wings 20 lines. 

/;r«3.— 'Nepaul. 

According to Sir G. F, Hampsoo, the species is identical with 
Walker's Euproctis antica and E. postica, and Moore's E. 
abdominalis, which have been described thus : — 

Euproctis antica, Wlk. ^ and ?. White, head, palpi, fore part 
of the thorax and fore legs luteous in the male, testaceous in the 
female. 



l8i Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

Female. — Abdomen and fore wings with a very slight testaceous 
tinge. Length of the body 5-7I lines ; of the wings 12-18 lines. 

Hab. — Nepaul, Hong Kong, India. 

Euproctis postica, Wlk. $. White. Palpi porrect, smooth, hardly 
extending beyond the head; third joint conical, not more than one- 
fourth of the length of the second. Antennae very broadly pecti- 
nated. Abdomen brown above ; apical tuft, small, white. Legs pubes- 
cent ; hind tibiae with four long slender spurs. Wings rather short. 
Fore-wings rounded at the tipes ; exterior border convex, very 
slightly oblique. Length of the body 6^ lines ; of the wings 14 
lines. 

Hab, — Hindostan. 

Euproctis abdominalis, Moore, $ and $ . Cream-white ; abdo- 
men blackish ; anal tuft ochreous ; legs white. 

Expanse, <J iyV> ? ^A ^"ch. 

Hab. — Dharmsala. 

Allied to E. postica. Wings comparatively longer and narrower. 



2. Thosea cervina, 'Moove. 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Limacodidse.) 

Plate XIV, /fg. 2 — a and b, larva dorsal and side views ; c, cocoon 
d and e, moths $ & ^ . 

Thosea cervina, Moore An. Mag. Nat. His, XX. 1877, p. 348; id. Lep. Ceyl. 
II, pi, 129, figs. 2, 2a (larva) ; C. and S. No. 1275 
Hamp, Fauna B. Ind. Ceyt. and Burm. Moths, Vol. 1 
p. 379, No. 832. 
„ duphxa, Moore, Lep. Ceyl. II, p. 130, pi. 131, fig. 3 ? ; C. and S. 
No. 1276. 
In July 1894 '^ were received from Messrs. Finlay, Muir & Co. 
specimens of live cocoons, the caterpillars of which were reported to 
have done a good deal of damage to tea plants on the Rungamuttee 
garden in Jalpaiguri. 

From the cocoons, two moths, a male and female, were success- 
fully reared in the Museum ; these, however, proved to be unrepre- 
sented in the Museum Collection, but they were so far identified as 

^ The account of this pest should have appeared in the preceding number of 
Indian Museum Notes, but owing to the delay in ascertaining the identity of the species 
it was withheld. —Ed. 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section, 182 



belonging to the genus Thosea. For more precise determination, the 
female moth was sent to Sir G. F. Hampson of the British Museum 
who very kindly identified it as Thosea cervina, Moore. His 
description of the moth is given below : — 

Male. — Head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Fore-wing silky 
gray-brown, with a dark speck at end of cell, and a slightly 
incurved line from costa just before apex to near outer angle 
which is red-brown with a pale outer edge. Hind wing and under- 
side dull brown. Antennae with basal joint pale j a conspicuous 
white spot at end of fore tibia. 

Female. — With the sub-marginal line of fore wing erect; the 
basal joint of antennae dark ; no white spot on tibia. 

Larva green, with a yellow-bordered dorsal irregular band 
linear and purplish anteriorly, dilated at middle and cleft behind, 
purple streaked, and with the angles at middle red ; anterior and 
posterior subdorsal spinous tubercles ; lateral and sub-lateral series 
of longer tubercles. 

Hab,—S\k\i\m ; Ceylon. Exp. 3 38, ? 44 millim. 

The remedial measures suggested were that children might 
be employed to remove and destroy the caterpillars. If this were 
carefully done, and if also the cocoons were searched for, in and 
on the ground near the affected trees, and were destroyed, it 
would (if not of any immediate benefit) at any rate be likely to 
prevent or to alleviate a reoccurrence of the pest in a future 
year. 



3, Thosea divergens, Moore. 
Plate XWjJig. S—a, cocoon ; b and c, mot/is J & $ . 

Thosea divergens, Moore, Ze^J. Aik. p. 75, pl. 3' fig"- 23 : C. and S. No. 1325 ; 
Hamp. Faun. B. Ind. Bnr. Ceyl. Moths, I, p. 380, No. 835- 
Aphendala divaricata, Moore, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1884, p. 376; C. and .S". 
No. 1296. 

This insect is another addition to the Indian Tea pests, of the 
genus Thosea. 

In March 1897, specimens of a living cocoon were sent to the 
Museum by Mr. J. W. Fleet, with a note, that they were taken from 
the Bishnauth Tea Gardens, Darrang, Assam, where they had been 
doing damage to tea bushes. 



183 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol- IV. 



From the cocoons, several moths emerged in the latter end of the 
month. They appeared to be new to the Museum collection and were 
forwarded to Sir G. F. Hampson who determined them as belong- 
ing to the species Thosea divergens, Moore, = Ap/iendala divaricata* 
Moore. 

As the Museum Library does not possess Mr. Moore's descrip- 
tion of T. dtvergenSf it is not printed here, the description of 
A. divaricata^ however, is quoted below. 

Aphendala divaricata, $ . Upper-side pale purplish, brownish- 
ochreous, Forewing with a slender dark ochreous-brown band curv- 
ing upward from posterior margin at one-third from the base to 
one-third before the apex, and from which a straight erect similar 
band extends from its costal end to the posterior angle. Body dark 
ochreous-brown. Expanse if inch, 

//«<5.— Silcuri, Cachar. 



4. JSelippa loJior, Moore, 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Limacodidae.) 

Plate XIV, ^g. 4 — a, cocoon ; b and c, moths $ &" % . 

■Belippa lohor, Moore, Lep. E. I, Co., p. 430, pi. xiiia, fig. 3 ; Hamp. Faun. 
Brit. Ind. Bur. Ceyl. Moths. I, p. 400. No, 897. 

In March 1897, Mr. W. J. Fleet forwarded to the Museum several 
living specimens of a cocoon, with the statement that he had collected 
them from the Salonah Tea Estate, Assam. About the same time 
similar (live) cocoons were also sent to the Museum through Dr. G. 
Watt, Reporter on Economic Products to the Government of India 
as infesting tea plants in the Doom Dooma Tea Gardens, Dibrugarh 
Assam. 

The samples of cocoons were separately confined in a breedino- 
cage, from which, after a lapse of a week, moths began to emerge. 
These on examination proved to belong to the genus Belippa j the 
species being new to the Museum collection. 

On submitting specimens of the moth to Sir G. F, Hampson for 
identification, he pronounced it to be identical with Belippa lohor, 
Moore, the female being almost indistinguishable from that of 
Belippa laUana, Moore, and hitherto unknown to entomologists. 

Mr. Moore describes the male, as deep ferruginous; fore-wino 
with patches on the disc, and a small patch at the apex, black hind- 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests front the Entomological Section, 184 

wing with a triangular hyaline space from exterior margin ; the 
anterior and abdominal margins fuliginous- brown J thorax with two 
black spots in front, and one on each side; base of abdomen black. 
Expanse i^ inch. 

Hab. — Cachar, Java. 



5, Astyciis lateralis, Fabr. 

(Order Coleoptera, Fam. CurculionidfE.) 

Astycus lateralis, Fabr. Ent. Syst, I, 2, p, 454; — Gylh. Schh. Gen. Cur. II 
p. 92; — Bohem. Schh. Gen. Cure. VI, i, p. 249. 
„ obtusus, Sturm. Cat. 1826, p. 172. 
„ rutilans, Oliv. Ent. V. 83, p. 333, t. 25, f, 367. 

Through Dr. G. Watt, Reporter on Economic Products to the 
Government of India, were received in the Museum in July 1897, 
specimens of a weevil said to be attacking tea plants in Assam. 
The original sender wrote concerning them that " they came during 
one night in thousands and simply stripped the bushes they w^ere on." 
Fortunately they are easy to catch. 

The specimens proved to be the same as Asticus lateralis, Fabr. 
which has previously been recorded as attacking various plants in 
different parts of India. 

In i88g, Mr. Beck submitted specimens of this insect for examina^ 
tion, and reported, that they attacked the leaves of the "Some" 
plant in the Raj Gardens, Darbhunga. In Vol. II, Indian Museum 
A'c'if^.y, page 151, it is referred to as '^ a small greenish weevil reported 
in the beetle stage as defoliating vau\her:ty{Morus) bushes in Rangoon. 
Also thought to be the species which has been reported by 
Mr. Thompson as tunnelling into the timber of Chir {Pinus longifolia) 
in the North- Western Provinces; in this case the injury is no doubt 
done by the larvse of the insect." 



6, Diapromorpha inelanopus, Lacord, 

(Order Coleoptera, Fam. Chrysomelidse.) 
Diapromorpha melajiopus, Lacord. Mon. p. 238; Deg. Cat, 3, ed., p. 442. 
„ pallens, Oliv. Ent. VI. 96, p. 863, t. 2, i. 27. 

In July 1897, specimens of a beetle which proved to be 
Diapromorpha melanopus^ Lacord, were sent to the Museum by 



i85 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 



Messrs. Williamson, Magor & Co. who reported that it had been 
doing damage among the tea bushes on one of their Assam Estates 
'n the Jorehaut district. 

This insect (known as the " Orange'" beetle) is commonly found 
in tea gardens in Assam, where it no doubt does a good amount of 
injury by eating up the tender stems of tea-shoots. 

Specimens accompanied by complaints of damage done by it are 
annually sent to the Museum, but no action, it appears, has hitherto 
been taken to ascertain the life-history of the pest. 

Some previous accounts of it may be found in Indian Museum 
Notes, Vol. I, page io6, and Vol. II, No. 4, p. 7. 



7. Cremastog aster rogenJioferif Mayr. 

(The red and black ant of the Tea bushes.) 
Plate XV, fig, /, a. ant ; b, nest. 

In his report on the '' Pests and Blights of the Tea Plant of 
Assam, 1898, " Dr. G. Watt, Reporter on Economic Products to the 
Government of India, makes mention, in page 257, of a red and 
black ant which he had observed infesting tea bushes in Assam. 

His elaborate account of the habits, etc., of the insect is very 
interesting, but his identification of the species with Cremastogaster 
content a, Mayr., is incorrect. Dr. Watt was good enough to present 
specimens to the Entomological Section of the Indian Museum, these 
are undoubtedly identical with authentically named specimens of 
Cremastogaster rogenhoferiy Mayr., in the Museum collection. 

To make quite certain, a few examples of the insect were des- 
patched to Dr. Forel, of Zurich, who confirmed the identifica- 
tion as " Cremastogaster rogenhoferi, Mayr., one of the commonest 
species of India." 



8. Euproctis caterpillar'^, — On the 19th March 1897, from 
Dr. G. Watt, Reporter on Economic Products to the Government 
of India, were received specimens of a caterpillar reported as doing 



Uo. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 186 



a deal of damage to the tea bushes in Darjeeling. The following 
is an extract which he forwarded regarding the pest :— 

*" A new sort of this blight has developed. A blackish-brown hairy species, 
they attack the old leaves and strip the trees. This pest does all its ravages at 
night and hides itself under clods and stones during the day. I have boys on catching 
some thousands daily. They appear on the dry ridges and are not found in any 
damp hollows. They have stripped some 50 or 60 acres on an adjoining garden 
and are now attacking the bark. On lower portions of Lebong and M. S. they 
have now appeared and are doing considerable harm. lam sending you a bottle- 
full in spirit. I fancy they will disappear with rain, but of this there is no sign." 

The specimens appeared to be the larvae of a L)'mentriid moth 
probably of the genus Euproctis^ ar.d not unlike the tea caterpillars 
sent in by Messrs. Andrew Yule & Co. from the Darjeeling 
district. (See p. 180). 



9. Psyckid caterpillar, — In July 1897, specimens of a bag-worm 
said to be doing great injury to tea plants in the Golaghat district^ 
Assam, were forwarded to the Museum through the Secretaryj 
Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India. 

The specimens proved to be the larvae of a Psychid moth 
probably belonging to a species hitherto undescribed. We have 
oniy a few examples of the larva-case of this insect in our collection, 
but unfortunately we possess no moths, and Sir G. F. Hampson 
does not mention this species in his catalogue of moths of British 
India, Ceylon and Burma. 

The most curious thing noticeable in this interesting group of 
moths is their larva-cases or protective coverings, which are usually 
composed of a silk lining with twigs, grass, and bits of leaves or 
vegetable matter attached on the outside, and are so constructed 
as to resemble little bundles of dried sticks, leaves, etc. In this 
insect, however, the larva-case is smooth and is covered with a coat- 
ing of very finely divided vegetable matter and exactly resembles 
a thorn. 



10, Coleopterous larvse.—\x\ July 1897, Mr. D. Hooper, Curator of 
Economic Museum, sent to the Indian Museum specimens of grubs 
reported as tea pests for identification. He wrote: — 

" A correspondent in Nazira Division, Sibsagar, has sent me the accompanying 
bottle of white grub {Lachnosterna hnpressa) as a tea pest. Most of the smaller 



187 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



forms seem stages of the larvae of that beetle, but I cannot think the very large 
ones can be the same species. I shall be much obliged for your opinion and, if 
possible, determination. I have found the very large one all over Assam imbedded 
in hard mud-houses of which I send a sample. It is particularly common in hard 
clay soils and does much damage to rice. These I at first mistook for queen white- 
ant houses until I dug them out for myself and found them invariably occupied 
by identically similar larvse to the large ones herewith supplied. They are no 
doubt a species of Lachnosterna, but are they L. impressa ? 

" I shall be very glad of any suggestions, more especially whether the very large 
larvae have been known to injure the tea in the event of their being pronounced 
distinct from the smaller form." 

The specimens proved to belong to two different species of 
insects, namely : — The large grubs are the larvae of a Melolonthine 
beetle probably belonging to the genus Lepidiota, and the smaller 
ones are apparently the immature forms of Lachnosterna im- 
pressa. 



II. Coccids. — Four bottles containing specimens of scale insects 
reported as infesting tea plants in the Darjeeling district, were 
received in the Museum through the Reporter on Economic Products 
to the Government of India. The following particulars regarding 
the insects are taken from his forwarding letter, dated 28th May 
1897: — 

" No. I seems somewhat like Aspidiotus flavescens and is said to be the most 
dangerous of the series. It attacks the young twig of young tea, the scale- 
insects inserting themselves below the bark and thus raising and distorting it, 
in older twigs the life seems sucked out of the plant through this rupturing of the 
bark and the withdrawal of the sap. The young insects are alive and seen 
escaping." 

" No. 2 is said to be a twig with long white blotches." 

" No. 3, a twig with large wax insects." 

" No. 4, similar insect of smaller size and with orange-coloured central portion." 

The specimens proved to belong to four different kinds of 
Coccids, namely : — No. i consisted of badly preserved specimens of 
larvse apparently of Aspidiotus thex, Mask ; No. 2 consisted of 
examples of an unknown Coccid not represented in the Museum 
collection ; No. 3 consisted of a few larva-scales probably belongincr 
to the species Ceropldstes ceriferus ; and No. 4 contained specimens 
of a Coccid hitherto not reported as occurring in India. 

Specimens Nos. 2 and 4 were forwarded to Mr W. M. Maskell 
for identification, and his report on them is given below : — 

" The two parcels of tea leaves with Coccids. One of these in- 
sects is eviaently a Pulvinaria^ but only the white cylindrical cot- 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section, 188 

tony sacs remain : the insects themselves (as usual in the genus) 
have fallen off: therefore I cannot identify the species. 

" The other (No. 4), of which you sent three specimens and a 
small coloured drawing, is a Ceroplastes. The specimens are not 
sufficient for clearness. They seem to me to be, nearly certainly, 
either C. vinsonii. Sign. (Mauritius), or C. flortdensis, Comst., 
which Green reports on tea in Ceylon. Very probably both these 
are the same species : but your insects are not in the full-grown stage 
or at least I think not. Every character corresponds to C vinsonh, 
but also nearly all to floridensis. If you could let me have undoubtedly 
adult specimens and larvae, I should be more positive. However 
the thing seems to be one or other of the two species named." 



12. Ceronema s^* [Coccid] — In May 1897, the same officer for- 
warded to the Museum specimens of tea leaves attacked by scale- 
insects. No report accompanied the specimens and no locality was 
mentioned in the forwarding note. 

The insects appeared to be new to the Museum collection and 
were forwarded to Mr. W. M. Maskell who very kindly identified 
them as belonging to the genus Ceronema. He wrote, "this is a 
peculiar and abnormal form which I have had a few months ago 
from Japan, on Ilex crenata and an unnamed plant. I am very much 
inclined to attach it to my genus Ceronema of 1894: the main 
difference from the single species Cero. banksise being that the 
curling white processes in your insect spring from the median 
region and curl outwards, while in C. hanksias they are marginal 
and curl inwards. But I have not yet made up my mind, at least 
on some minor points." 



II.— INSECTS DESTRUCTIVE TO CEREALS AND CROPS. 
I, Wheat and paddy pests, etc. 

I. Tanymeciis indicus, Faust. 

(Ord. Coleoptera, Fam. Curculionidae) 

Wheat pest. 

In December 1897, specimens of a Curculionid beetle, which 
proved to be Tanymecus indicus Faust, were forwarded to the 



189 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



Museum through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, Panjab, 
from the Settlement Officer, Jhelum district, as doing great damage 
to wheat in a small area in the north of Tabsil Chakwal, 

This insect has been previously referred to in the pages of these 
Notes as doing a great deal of injury to agricultural crops in several 
parts of India. It has been reported [a] as attacking the seedlings 
of the poppy plants in Gazipur ; {b) attacking wheat and gram 
crops in the North-Western Provinces ; and [c) attacking rabi cropg 
in Behar. 

The following report has been furnished by the Settlement 
Officer :— 

"Herewith specimens of an insect which has done great damage to the 
sprouting ^vheat in a small area in the north of Tahsil Cbakwal ; I have seen some 
of the fields damaged which have been sown and re-sown twice or thrice with the 
same result : the insect feeds on the part of the young plants above the surface 
of the ground, in the day-time it burrows into the soil (here light and friable), and 
the zamindars say, attacks the roots of the plants also. The pest is quite new to 
every one in these parts, and I should be glad to know if you can obtain the in- 
formation, what the insect is, and what can be done to destroy it, should it appear 
on larofe numbers." 



a. Chrysomelid beetle, — In August 1897, a single specimen of 
a beetle was received in the Indian Museum from the Sub-Divisional 
Officer, Barasut, with a report that it had damaged the aus paddy 
crop at Kizipore in the Barasut Division. 

The insect is a Chrysomelid beetle, of the genus Pachmephorus ? 
and is new to the Museum Collection. It is locally called 
"Majra." Further specimens are required to enable the insect 
to be precisely determined. 



b, Nociues moth.'^l^ September 1897, some specimens of an 
immature larvae of a Noctues moth were received in the Indian 
Museum, through the Director, Land Records and Agriculture, 
Bengal, from the Commissioner of the Orissa Division, Cuttack, as in- 
juring the paddy crop in the Bhudrack sub-division, where the insect 
is called " Dhali-poka.'' 

The specimens forwarded are insufficient for precise identifi- 
cation. 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 190 



c, Micro-lepidopterous moth.-~—\n September 1897, specimens of 
an insect destructive to paddy plant were received in the Indian 
Museum from the Sub-Divisional Officer, Magura, w^ho wrote :— 

" These insects appeared in June and July last and damaged the plants of 
Aus and Aman paddy in this sub-division, but disappeared as soon as heavy rains 
set in. They have re-appeafed in certain tracts in this sub-division with the cessa- 
tion of rains. 

" The insects are called by the cultivators, ' IVIodhupoka ' fronn a sort of gum 
or juice attached to their bodies, )A;hich tastes sweet. 

" They made the leaves of the paddy plants first to be twisted and then to turn 
gray, and look as if sun-burnt. The plants lose their green colour in a day or 
two. They have damaged the plants where there is no water in the khet or even 
where there are two to three yards water. I have not been able to see the stages 
of their development." 

The specimens appeared to be the caterpillarsof a micro-lepidop- 
terous moth, which cannot be identified without the examination of 
the imago into which they transform. 



d. Grasshoppers attacking paddy crop,-— In October 1897, speci- 
mens of Acridid3e were forwarded to the Museum by the Superin- 
tendent, Government Museum, Madras, as the locusts which had 
appeared in the Head-quarters Deputy Collector's Division of the 
Ganjam district where they are reported to have attacked the paddy 
crop. 

The specimens proved to belong to two distinct species of grass- 
hoppers, namely, Hieroglyphus furcifer, Sauss., and Euprepocne- 
mis bramina, Sauss. Both the insects have previously been referred 
to in the pages of these Notes as occasioning damage to crops in 
several parts of India. 



e, Noctues caterpillars destructive to rice crops.'— In December 
1897, some caterpillars known locally as " Ledapok, " were forwarded 
to the Museum, through the Director, Land Records and Agricul- 
ture, Bengal, from the Collector of Chittagong, with the information 
that they had been doing much damage to the rice crops in the 
Satkania Thana. . 



IQI 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



The insects are apparently the larvse of the Noctues moth, 
Heliothis armigera, Hubn., which has previously been reported as 
destructive to crops in all parts of India, and in many other parts 
of the vi'orld. 

Accounts of it may be found in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. I, 
pp. 97 and 109, pi. VI, fig. 4 ; and Vol. II, pp. 24, 27 and 160. 



/. Leucania itnipiinctaf Haw. 
(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Noctuidse.) 

JOWARI PEST. 

Leucania unipuncta. Haw., Lep.Brit., p. 174 (1803). 

„ extranea, Guen. Noct. i, p. 77, No. 104 ; C. and S. No. 1674. 

Specimens of a moth, reared from caterpillars w^hicli are said to 
have done an enormous amount of damage to jowari crops in the 
district of Poona, have been received in the Indian Museum from the 
Assistant Superintendent of the Poona Farm in September 1897. 



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The following is an extract from the report furnished by 
Mr. J. Mollison, Deputy Director of Agriculture : — 

" The caterpillars when they are in large numbers and when hard pressed for 
food, take to almost any crop. They apparently prefer jowari and strip the leaves 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests f font the Entomological Section. 192 

of all green tissues, except the midribs. They are not cut worms. They feed at 
night, crawl up the stems find are found in colonies, 5 to 20 in a lot, lightly covered 
with soil in the driest parts of the soil surface during the day. The insects are found 
usually at first in one portion or along one side of a field, but they sweep across 
it in about two days stripping every plant. 

" The chrysalides are red-brown in colour, the covering being tough. They are 
further protected by a cemented coating of earth which has no distinct outer surface, 
the inner surface being cemented as described in the form of the chrysalis. The 
chrysalides are found quite close to the surface of the field about \ inch or so under 
the surface. I think that if this position is much disturbed, the moths will not be 
able to emerge. I have, therefore, taken the precaution of ploughing the affected 
fields expeditiously. In this way the chrysalides are turned down about 4 inches 
below the surface. The moth, I believe, emerges from the chrysalis in about 8 
days, but we have been unable to rear the caterpillars in confinement. We have 
got moths from perfectly formed chrysalides collected in the field. The 
caterpillars are found chiefly in fields Vv'hich have been manured with farm yard 
manure this season. 

" I liave been particularly struck this year with the unusually large numbers of 
moths and butterflies, and unquestionably cultivated plants are affected with insect, 
pests to a greater extent than usual." 

The insect proved to be a Noctues moth belonging to the species 
Leucania unipuncta, \{a.^.=sexfranea, Guen. It is referred to in the 
pages of these Notes as attacking paddy crops in Bengal, oat 
{Avena sativa) plants in Sibpur, and pea { Pisum sativum) in 
Patna. 

Sir G. F. Hampson describes the species as pale brick-red or 
very pale brown and irrorated with dark specks and blotches. Fore 
vf'm^ with slight traces of the orbicular and reniform stigmata ; a 
minute white speck at lower angle of cell with a black speck inside 
it ; fairly prominent postmedial and marginal series of black specks 
the former curved ; and indistinct oblique dark apical streak. Hind 
wing pale suffused with fuscous, in the red specimens less suffused 
towards base. Underside of hind-wing sometimes with faint cell- 
spot and postmedial series of specks. 

Hal. — Universally distributed. Exp. 44-50 millim. 

As regards remedial measures, Mr. MoUison writes:— 
" The only practical means of preventing damage is to reap at once the 
affected portion. Scarify the surface of the ground to expose the caterpillars a 
hand rake does well for the purpose ; hand pick and drown the cattrpiliars in a 
tub half filled with water. If this method is adopted, crow and other birds in 
large numbers are soon attracted to the field, and are extremely industrious in dis- 
posing of the caterpillars. If the crops when cut from an affected field is left in 
swathe, the caterpillars will be foand on the following day under the swathe, and 
not covered with soil, so that by moving a yard or two of swathe at a time, tiie 
caterpillars can very readily be collected.'* 



193 Indian Museum Notes. [ Vcl. IV. 

2. Cotton pests. 
a- Oxycarenus lugubris, Motsch. 

The Egyptian Cotton bug. 

Specimens of this insect have been received in the Indian 
Museum in May 1897, through the Director, Land Records and Agri- 
culture, Panjab, from the Superintendent of the Experimental Farm, 
Nagpur, who wrote : — 

" These insects are doing great damage to the green bolls. They bore small 
holes when the boll is green and consequently it never comes to perfection. The 
plants are in such a thriving condition that one will admire to look at them. As 
for Cairo cotton plant growing, I have been thoroughly successful, but these insects 
are doing such a damage that if they continue to live for a month more, I will 
not get a single perfect boll." 

This insect has previously been reported from several parts of 
India in connection with cotton, vide Indian Museum NoteSy Vol. II, 
pp. 32-35, and Vol. Ill, No. 5, p. 56. The description of it may be 
found in a paper on Indian Rhynchotaby the late Mr. E. T. Atkinson 
in the pages of these Notes {Indian Museum Notes^ Vol, I, 
p. 188). 



b. Noctues caterpillar destructive to cotton. — In August 1897, 
specimens of a caterpillar said to attack cotton crop in the Poona 
Farm were received in the Museum from the Assistant Superinten- 
dent, Poona Farm, Kirkee. 

The specimens proved to be the larvae of a Noctues moth, which 
Cannot be precisely identified without the examination of the imago 
into which they develope. 



3. Poppy pests. 

a. Noctues moths. — Specin^ens of insects reported to be attack- 
ing poppy plants in Azamgarh have been received in the Indian 
Museum through the Director ^f Land Records and Agriculture, 
North-West Provinces and 0"dh, from the Sub-Deputy Opium 
Agent, Azamgarh, 



No, 4- ] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 194 



The following is an extract from the report (dated 26th March 
1897) :- 

" I am forwarding to you two samples of the caterpillars which destroy poppy. 
In the bottle labled A, are specimens of those which only appear towards the 
middle or close of the season. The specimens obtained of this sort, I found on 
the under-part of the leaf, and these were evidently hatched on it from ova depos- 
ited thereon and the attack on the leaf commenced on the spot, on the under 
side where they first came into existence. I found by keeping them as boys 
keep silkworms at home that they grew rapidly and also changed colour as 
they grew. The specimens sent are not full grown. I believe they would have 
grown another quarter of an inch and have been stouter in proportion. The 
growth of these caterpillars is so rapid that in fifteen days they become full grown. 
Since I collected them they have matured and are passing into the chrysalis stage. 

"I send you specimens of these in a match box together with a portion of the 
cells formed by them. 

"The specimens in the bottle B, are the sort which live under ground and 
attack the young plant in its earlier stage, and frequently denude whole fields, 
the natives call them * Kator' or " Kumwah. " 

The insects received are as follows : — 

(i) Specimens marked A consist of some larvse of a Noctues 
moth, the material being insufficient for precise identification. 

(2) Specimens marked B prove to be caterpillars not unlike the 
larvae of the Noctues moth Agrotis suffusa, Hubn., which has 
previously been recorded as attacking young opium plants and other 
agricultural crops in India. See Indian Museum Notes, Vol. I^ 
PP- 33^ 95j I03) 108, and 206. 

(3) Specimens in a match box consisted of a few chrysalids 
belonging to two different species of Noctues moths. 



4. Indigo pests. 
a. Agrotis segetiSy Schiff., and A, biconica, Koll. 

Some Lepidopterous larvse (alive) were received in March 1897 
from Messrs. Finlay, Muir & Co., as attacking indigo plants in one 
of their indigo estates. The caterpillars were reared in the Indian 
Museum, and by the end of March there emerged moths belonging 
to two distinct species of Noctuidae. One of these is Agrotis segetis^ 
Schiff. (three specimens), and the other species being Agrotis 
hicofiica, Koll. (one specimen). 

The insect A. segetis is well known both in Europe and in India, 
as a very destructive pest to agriculture, and according to Curtis. 



195 



Indian Museum Notes. [ Vol. IV. 



"Farm Insects of Europe, " it feeds on a great variety of plants, 
especially those of turnip and corn. In India, however, it has 
hitherto only been reported to attack coffee plants. 

Sir G. F. Hampson in his Fauna of British India moths ii, 
describes the species as whitish brown, pale brown or fuscous ; palpi 
darker at sides; collar with dark line; abdomen whitish. Fore- 
wing with double waved sub~basal ante- and postmedial lines ; an 
obscure waved sub-marginal line and marginal series of specks ; the 
orbicular and reniform with dark centres and edges ; the claviform 
small and black ; all these markings being much obscured in 
the dark specimens. Hind-wings iridescent white with dark margi- 
nal line, and in some specimens with dark suffusion on the margin. 

Hab. — Europe; and throughout India and Ceylon. Exp. 42-48 
millim. 

The second species A^rotis bicomca, Koll., reared from the batch 
of Indigo caterpillars has not previously been reported to attack crops 
in India, but as it is a species very closely allied to A. segetis, there 
is every probability of its becoming at any time a troublesome pest. 
In its description it differs from segeiis in having the sub-basal ante- 
and postmedial lines of the forewing almost or quite obsolete ; the 
submarginal line strongly dentate, with dark streaks on it ; the 
orbicular elongate, with a dark streak from it to the reniform ; the 
claviform very elongate and filled in with black. 

Hab. — S. Africa ; N.-W. Himalayas ; Panjab ; Sikkim ; throughout 
the Bombay and Madras Presidencies; Ceylon. Exp. 38 millim. 



b. Nociues caterpillar. — The following is a letter, dated 6th April 
1897, from Mr. H. Thorp, of Luchmipur Indigo Factory advising the 
despatch of specimens of caterpillars destructive to indigo : — 

" I am sending you by this post a small bottle containing specimens, pre- 
served in spirit, of the caterpillars that are now doing great damage to Indigo. 
There seem to be at least three distinct varieties of them. The most destructive 
of all, is, I think, the smallest in size : the little dark coloured one. As a preli- 
minary symptom there appears a little cobweb on the young indigo plant which 
binds the topmost shoots together, and on the leaves appear minute black specks, 
whether the excrement or eggs of the caterpillars I cannot say. On opening the 
^^g web I have mentioned a tiny caterpillar is found. They spread with amazing 
rapidity. One evening a field or 'chukia' as it is called, of many acres in extent 
may be fresh and healthy-looking!and next morning the whole of it will be blighted. 
The effect of this is more or less fatal to the plant according to circumstances. 
In strong lands, and if the plant attacked is fairly advanced though the leaver 
may be entirely withered and eaten up, the stem will shoot again, and, provided that 
the plant is not again attacked, will survive with only a small percentage of loss. 
But in a year like the present one with the moisture deficient to start with and on 
light lands, (which is the genera! character of indigo lands) the attack is generally 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 196 



fatal to the plant. East winds seem to be favourable and west winds unfavour- 
able to caterpillars. When the wind blows persistently from the East for days 
caterpillars will appear almost to a certainty. They generally appear when the 
plant is young, say a fortnight to a month old. I have known them, however, 
attack plant in all stages of its growth and at all seasons of the year. The cater- 
pillar, however, which appears on the matured plant during the manufacturing 
season, is, according to my experience, the green variety invariably. Though these 
do not kill the plant, they strip it of its leaves and render it practically unfit for 
manufacture. I have some live specimens of caterpillars, and as soon as I can send 
you their chrysalids I will do so, and also specimens of the resulting insect." 

The specimens received appeared to be the larvae of a Noctues 
moth, the material being insufficient for any identification. 

Mr. Thorp subsequently forwarded a living chrysalis, which, how- 
ever, arrived in the Museum in a dried state and dead that nothing 
could be made of it. 



5. Insects infesting vegetable plants. 
a. Plutella maculata, Curt. 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Tineidse.) 
Cauliflower Moth. 

Plate XV, fig. 2 — a, and b, larva dorsal and side views ; c, chrysalis ; 
d moth', e, piece of cauliflower attacked by larvae. 

Caterpillars of this Tineid moth have been received in the Indian 
Museum through the Entomological Artist Babu G. C. Chuckerburtty 
in the latter end of February, with a statement that they were found 
attacking- a cauliflower which had been purchased locally in the 

market. 

The caterpillars are of very small size like most of the family of 
Tineidse to which they belong, measuring little above one-half inch 
in length, very slender and more or less cylindrical, but gradually 
tapering both towards the head and the tail. They are of an olive- 
sreen colour of a transparency that permits the pulsation of the 
"heart" and the internal organs to be seen through the skin. 

The caterpillar spins a small oblong cocoon of very fine white 
silk in which pupation takes place, the moth emerging after four or 
five days. It is a tiny little insect of a grayish-brown colour 
measuring no more than ^1 ^^ ^" i"^^ ^" length across the twa 
fore-wings. 



197 Indian Museum Notes, [ Vol. IV.. 



Seven specimens were reared in the Museum, and Sir G. F. 
Hampson has been kind enough to determine the species as 
"Piutella maculata, Curt. = criiczferarum." 



b, It7iopalosex>Jium dianthi, Schrank. 

Infesting brinjal plant. 

In the latter part of December 1896, Babu Probod Chunder De 

forwarded to the Museum specimens of brinjal leaves attacked by 

insects, and reported that he was frequently being troubled with 

these pests who were carrying depredations in his kitchen garden in 

• the vicinity of Calcutta. 

On examining the samples of brinjal leaves they were found to be 
badly infested with Aphids of the well=known species Rhopalosephum 
dianthi^ Schrank. 

This insect appears to be a common pest in Europe where it is 
no doubt an indigene. It hns been reported by different authors as 
attacking numerous plants, and according to Mr. F, Walker's 
account it feeds on the following : — Thalidrum minus, Ranunculus 
bulbosus^ R. hirsutus, R. repens, R, acris, Aquitegia vulgaris 
Papaver rhseas, Fumaria officinalis, Nasturtium officinale 
Cochlearia armorac^a, Alliaria officinalis, Erysimum barbarea 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris, Cakile maritima Brassica oleracea B, 
rapa, B. campestris, B. naptts, Sinapis arvensis, S. alba S, 
nigra, Raphanus sativus, R. raphanistrum, Dtanthus, Euphorbia 
peplus, Crepis iectorum, Potentilla anserina^ Pyrethrum 
ino-dorum, Myosotis scorpioides, Inula dysenterica, Digitalis 
Sonchus, Leontodon taraxacum, plantago lanceolata, Mentha 
hirsuta, Heliotropium peruvianum, Beta vulgaris, B. maritima 
Calceolaria pinnafa, Callistemma, Tussilago, Geranium rober- 
tianum, Spergula arvensis^ Bunias kakile, Galium mollugo 
Crocus^ Dianthus caryophyllus, D. prolifer, Tulipa, Fuchsia 
coccinea, F. globosa, F. micrantha, Narcissus, Mesembryan~ 
themum, Hyacinthus, Verbina, Tropseolum tricolor, Solanum 
tuberosum, Polygonum persicaria, Pimelea sylvatica, Myrtus 
Citrus, Ruscus androgynus, and Cactus. 

In India this insect was first noticed in 1894 as injurious to rane 
crop in the district of Berhampur, see Indian Museujn Notes Vol. 
IV, No. I, p. 23. 

Now that the occurrence of this destructive pest has twice been 
recorded in India within such a short space of time as two years 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomologtcal Section. 198 



arid on two different kinds of plants, there is every reason to 
suppose that it will soon extend its ravages on other agricultural 
crops. 

As regards remedial measures, spraying the affected plants with 
a solution of kerosine emulsion would be the simplest means to get 
rid of the pest. 



c. Potato Aphis. — In January 1897, Dr. G. Watt, Reporter on 
Economic Products to the Government of India, furnished specimens 
to the Indian Museum of an Aphis said to be infesting potato plants 
in the vicinity of Calcutta. He reported that the stem of the plant 
gets withered near the ground, the very part on which the Aphis 
occurSj and that all the affected parts of the crop consisted of plants 
reared from cut seed potatoes j where whole potatoes were employed 
the disease had not appeared. 

Aphids are well known to be agricultural pests, but the few dried 
specimens that were sent for examination are insufficient for precise 
identification. 

Some specimens of a red ant were also forwarded as occurring 
along with the Aphis. These have been kindly identified by 
Dr. Forel as belonging to the species Dorylus oriantalis, Westw.= 
curtisii, Shnch.--^ o^erthuri and fuscus of Emery. 

With regard to the habits of this species he writes : — 

" All Dorylus species feed on animal food ( insect under the ground ), never 
plants. This ant is certainly not obnoxious to potatoes, but was hunting after 
worms and other insects in the same way as Dorylus fulvus worker hunts in 
Algeria.'* 



d. Kankrol fruit pests. — In September 1897, ^^^ Scientific 
Secretary to the Indian Gardening Association, Calcutta, forwarded to 
the Indian Museum specimens of insects found boring into *' Kankrol " 
fruits which he had bought in one of the Calcutta markets. 

The specimens consisted of two different kinds of insects, namely, 
small larvae of a Tineid moth, and some Dipterous grubs of an 
unknown species. 



199 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



The following report has been furnished by the Scientific 
Secretary : — 

"On Sunday, the I sth August last, I bought some specimens of the fruit 
•Kankrol,' what attracted me in buying them were the warty growths on the 
epicafp of the fruits. 1 subsequently found holes on the epicarp. The fruits were 
placed within a stoppered phial and allowed to remain in this condition for a 
week. After the expiration of the week I had to remove one finding it very rotten, 
and while removing it I marked two larvae come out of it. They were of brownish 
colour and possessed the power of leaping, which feat they accomplished by bring- 
ing the both ends of the body together. They leapt over spaces of i| feet. These 
specimens, however, were unfortunately lost. I dissected the remaining fruits and 
succeeded in securing one good specimen which is exhibited in the phial XXX 20, 
with the portion of the fruit where it was found. 

" Pushing the enquiry further and examining several specimens of the fruit 
from time to time, I have fortunately succeeded in securing some full-fed larvse, 
some immature ones and three eggs, all of which will be found in the phial 
XXX 21 

" Now a word about the disease itself. These fruits, as far as I can conclude 
from the existing data, were possibly diseased after the maturation of the ovary. 
In any case they were not diseased during the maturation of the ovary in which 
case the larvse would have bored their way from inside outwards ; while in the 
present instance, the structure of the holes show that the insects laid their eggs 
on the epicarp, and the larvae after coming out of the eggs ruptured the hypo- 
dernal vessels and found theijr way to the endocarp ; next, the placental regions 
were attacked. In this stage decomposition set in. The putrefaction is in part 
caused by some fungal element the conidia of which may be seen on the fruit. 

"The fruit itself has some economic importance. It is largely used by the 
poorer classes who deem it a delicacy. The local markets supply them in large 
quantity from which it can be inferred that the fruits at least are in moderate 
demand." 



6. Sugar-cane pest. — In October 1897, samples of sugar- 
cane said to be affected by insects were forv^arded to the Museum by 
the Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce, Cocanada, who re- 
ported : — 

" Although season favourable sugar-canes are dying largely from previously 
unknown cause. Dissection shows caterpillar and earwig in heart of canes. 
Can you send expert to advise." 

" This message speaks for itself, and contains, I regret to say, all the informa- 
ion I am able to give on the subject. 

" About three weeks ago I first learned that the canes in the Godavary Delta 
were 'withering' in a manner never before seen by the cultivators, and for which 
they could furnish no explanation. These cultivators are entirely natives, and 
the crop had, up till then, been reported to be thrivingf well. Within the last 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 200 



few days the reports of damage have become accentuated, and have been 
confirmed by European observation. 1 have had some of the canes dissected 
with the result mentioned in my telegram. The earwig is smaller and thinner 
than an English earwig. The caterpillar is about \\ inch in length, of a pale 
semi-transparent whitish grey colour, having thin longitudinal stripes of very 
pale brown, along which at intervals are largish spots of much darker brown. 

" I fear that the crop in the delta has already suffered severely, and shall 
be glad if you can assist the ryots in staying the progress of the ravage. In the 
uplands, where the canes are irrigated from wells, the scourge does not seem 
to have made its appearance." 

On examining the samples of cane, none of the caterpillars men- 
tioned in the report were discovered in them, but only a few earwigs 
which are not thought to be the real cause of the disease. 

It is well known that the sugar-cane in this country is subject to 
the attack of a borer moth Diatrsea sacharalis^ Fabr., the cater- 
pillar of which tunnels into and destroys the cane. Accounts of the 
insect may be found in Indian Museum Notes, Vol. 1, pp. 22-27. 



7. Thb Migratory locust of North-West India. 

Acridium peregrinuwi, Oliv. 

During the year 1897 the flights of the migratory locust 

{Acridium peregrinum, Olivr.) of North-Western India, appear to 

have been very prevalent and the injury done by them to crops, etc., 

very extensive both in India and the Baluchistan Agency^ and also 

in the Persian Gulf. In Baluchistan alone the damage done to 

cultivation by this insect is estimated at R6o,ooo or 670,000 to 

State revenue. On the 12th June they were reported to 




be in such swarms that the train from Quetta to Chaman was 



201 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

delayed 2\ hours on their account ; while in Toba almost all the 
barley crops were destroyed, and the owners in despair of saving 
their crops let their cattle, goats and sheep loose into their fields 
as they preferred to see their crops eaten by them rather than 
by locusts. 

Now that the judicious use of arsenic as a means of destroying 
locusts has been proved beyond doubt by actual experiments in the 
Victoria County, Natal (see Indian Museum Notes, Vol. IV, No. 3, 
pp. 137 — 139) to be a remedy of very great value, and assuredly 
superior to any other measures hitherto adopted as regard 
effectiveness and cheapness, it is to be hoped that this method 
may be tried in India. 

The following are the reports that have been forwarded to the 
Museum regarding the flights : — 

[a) From the Baluchistan Agency — 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending 31st 
May 1897: — 

" Dense swarms of young crawling locusts have come to Chaman from the 
Registan. About 400 men of the 29th Bombay Infantry, Railway gangs and 
other people are engaged with great vigour, in destroying them. 

" Lieutenant Webb Ware also reports that Nushki is swarming with these 
young locusts, and similar reports have been received from parts of Pishin." 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week endmg 8th June 
1897:- 

" Zhob. — Locusts have made their appearance in large numbers in the Lower 
Zhob sub-division. Numbers of young locusts have been hatched and great ap- 
prehensions are felt for the kkarif crops. 

" Chaman. — Young crawling locusts have also appeared in aense swarms in 
Chaman and destroyed the garden crops and vegetables in spite of the efforts 
made by the men of the Infantry regiment, the railway gangs, Levies and 
Police, to keep them out." 

Extract from the Diary of the Baluchistan Agency for the week ending 30th 
June 1897 : — 

" Locusts are said to have greatly decreased in Chaman, but reports from Toba 
state that myriads of young locusts are all over the country and have done very 
great damage to the crops. They are reported to be in such swarms that the 
train from Quetta to Chaman was delayed 2| hours on this account on the 

I2th." 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending Sih July 

I 897 ••- 

" Zhob. — Locusts still infest almost every part of the district, and, at places in 
the Hindubagh and Fort Sandeman tahsils, have done a considerable amount of 
damage to vegetables and trees. It will probably be necessary to suspend or 
remit some of the revenue demand in parts of Pishin and Toba. owing to the 
damage done." 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entontolo^ical Section, 202 



" Chaman. -^Locusts have destroyed almost all the barley crops in Toba. The 
owners have, therefore, let their cattle, goats and sheep loose into their fields as 
they prefer to do this, rather than see the locusts eat up the crops." 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending i6th July 
1897 :- 

" Reports from Toba show that locusts have destroyed nearly all the barley 
crops and have done considerable damage to fruit trees and to the autumn 
harvest. They have, moreover, eaten up all the green and dry grass both in 
the valley and on the mountain tops. There is likely in consequence to be serious 
distress among the Achakzais. The Revenue Commissioner has been asked 
to report on the subject." 

Extract from the Diary of the Baluchistan Agency for the week ending 
24th July 1897: — 

" Zhob, for week ending i6th. — Enormous flights of locusts have been seen in 
Ghosa and near Murgha, but they have as yet done no damage except to trees 
and grass. It is feared that if they do not leave before the kharif crops are 
above ground, they will do much harm. 

" At Mekhtar where the crops are more advanced, one sowing of China nung 
has been almost completely cleared off by them and the people have sown the 
lands again. 

" Reports from the Upper Zhob sub-division show that locusts are still very 
numerous in many parts and that great damage has been done by them in the 
western circle of Bori and in the hill villages near Hindubagh." 

Extract from the Diary of the Baluchistan Agency for the week ending 
8th September 1897 :— 

" Thai Choti all, —Z\ax3.i and the adjacent country has been again visited by 
an enormous flight of locusts. 

" They are still there and considerable damage has been done." 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending 24th 
September 1897 — 

" Zhoh,fGY the vieeh ending the i6th Sefitejnber.— The Assistant- Political Agent, 
Upper Zhob, reports that the crops of only 9 of the Mirzai and Shadozai Karezes 
near Killa SaifuUa, have escaped severe damage from locusts, the rest have been 
considerably damaged and in some cases completely destroyed. 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending 24th October 
1897:- 

" Southern Baluchistan , for the week ending the i6th October iSg'j. — During 
the week, daily reports have been received from Las Bela stating that great damage 
has been done to the crops by locusts, and it is feared that serious loss of 
revenue will be the result," 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending 31st Octo^ 
ber 1897 : — 

" Southern Baluchistan, for the week ending 24th October. — The damage 
done to cultivation by locusts is estimated at R6o,ooo or 870,000 to State 
revenue. 



203 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



•' Thai Chotiali, for the v/eek ending 2^th October iSg^. — The Tahsildar, 
Barkhan, reports that a flight of locusts appeared in the Barkhan tahsil and 
did much damage to the kharif cco-g^ 

The Extra Commissioner, Sibi, reports that a swarm of locusts also visited the 
Sibi tahsil and ate up a portion of the crop. 

Extract from the Baluchistan Agency Diary for the week ending the 30th No- 
vember 1897 : — 

" Southern Baluchistan, for the week ending i6th November.-^The 
Wazir's inspection of the cultivation shows that the major portion [of the crops 
have been destroyed by locusts, a fact which is telling on the people as they are 
contemplating leaving their homes and seeking employment elsewhere. Damage 
by locusts is being daily reported from all parts of the State." 

[b] From the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, Bushire— " 

Extract from the Uiary of the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, Bushire, 
for the week ending 12th June 1897 : — 

"Shiraz, June 5th. — Locusts have destroyed all the harvests at Kafrak and 
Marvdasht, and have now flown to the places round Shiraz, where they are des- 
troying the summer crops." 

Extract from the Diary of the Political Resident in the Persian Gulf for the 
week ending 26th June 1897 : — 

'* Shiraz, 12th jFune.— Large numbers of locusts have swarmed about Shiraz 
and after destroying the wheat and barley crops are now devouring the vegetables 
sown in the suburbs." 

{c) Through the Survey Commissioner and Director, Land Record 
and Agriculture, Bombay— 

(i) From the Collector of Karachi (7th June 1897) — 

'* To forward herewith a bottle containing specimens of locusts, preserved in 
country liquor. These locusts formed part of a large flight that arrived at Jarruck 
on the 5th instant. On the 4th and 5th also locusts came, but the main body 
appears to have come on the 5th instant. They came from the North-West and 
went ofi nearly due North. 

" The Mukhtyarkar of Tattahas not as yet reported whether damage has been 
Csused by them elsewhere, but at Jerruck rice seedlings have suffered." 

(2) From the Deputy Commissioner, Upper Sind Frontier 
(29th July 1897) 

••To inform you of the appearance on the 19th instant, of locusts ift the 
Shahdadpur taluka of this district. A large swarm is reported to have come from 
Garhi Khyra in the Jacobabad taluka and Kelat Territory to the North- 
West. It is reported that they have slightly damaged the young crops in nine 
tapas of the taluka. These locusts were seen going to Kamhar taluka in the 
Shikarpur district on the next day. A certain number of them, however, appeared 
again on the 22nd instant and went back to the Kamhar taluka. 

•' The specimens sent by the Mukhtyarkar, enclosed in a bottle, are herewith 
forwarded." 



No. 4.3 Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 204 



(3) From the Political Agent, Mahikantha (gth August 1897) — 

" I have forwarded to you by parcel post a specimen of locusts which were 
seen passing through the Godhawada thana limits on the 29th and 30th ultimo. 
The swarms came from North- West and passed towards Ha dol and Idar in the 
South-East laying eggs in some places. 

" The flight of the insects was further seen passing through the Idar and the 
Sobarkantha limits on the ist instant. They did not settle but passed towards 
the East from the Sobarkantha. 

" The damage done to the crops in Idar and Gadhawada was slight." 

(4) From the Political Agent, Mahikantha (20th October 1897) — 

"On the i8th instant at about 4 p.m. a flight of locusts was seen in the 
limits of Sadra coming from Oran under Prantij in the North, they halted for 
nigl.t covering over an area of about one mile. In the morning from 6 a.m. 
thev commenced to eat the jowari crop that was standing in the fields 
till II A.M. when they swarmed away in the southern direction towards Jakhora, 
a village under Baroda. 

" During their stay in the limits of Sadra the damage done by them to the 
jowari crop is estimated at about 25 maunds, i.e., R50. 

" As required in Government Resolution No. 14, dated the 3rd January i8go. 
Revenue Department, a specimen of the insect has been forwarded to the 
Director of Land Records and Agricultme, Bcmbay." 

(5) From the Mamlatdar of Olphad (19th November 1897)— 

" To report that this taluka is infected by a swarm of locusts. Some of the 
villages have been visited by them, but no considerable damage has been done. I 
am engaged at Ophad in plague work .... and have since deputed a 
Karkun and Havaldars to destroy them. Villagers try their utmost to clear off 
the villages of them. • . . The villages visited are as below :— 

" Mandroi, Bolav, Anita, Masma, Sefetawad, Sultanpur, Karamla, Isanpu 

and Umrachi." 



(6) From the Collector of Nasik (4th November 1897) — 

<( . . . to forward in a separate parcel a few specimens of locust 
preserved in country liquor received from the Mamlatdar of taluka Sinnar. 
The Mamlatdar has reported that great swarms of them visited Sinnar itself 
last evening (27th October) and have been there till this morning. 

" They have eaten up some bajri crop (a few specimen ears are sent in the 
parcel referred to\ but no great damage has yet been done as the locusts are 
reported to be paralyzed by the cold at Sinnar. They are reported to have come 
from the East " 

(7) From the Collector of Broach (6th November 1897),— 

" . . . .on the 19th of October flights of locusts were seen coming from 
the direction of Rajpipla Hills to the east of Breach taluka. They passed over 
several villages of the taluka and settled for a short time on trees of the West of 



205 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 



Broach, but did no damage to crops. They then went straight on to the westward 
and entered the Wagra taluka on 20th and 21st October where they caused only 
some slight damage to crops in the following villages. 

" Rahiad.'^TW crops damaged to the extent of 825, No injury to cotton 
andjowari crops. 

" Suva. — Slight damage to cotton leaves which, it is reported, will reappear- 
No damage was done to other crops. If, however, the cotton plants of which the 
leaves have been eaten up die, the damage would amount to about R75. 

" Jolwa. — Til and cotton damaged to a slight extent. 

" Kaliad. — No damage is reported. 

" On 2ist they appeared at Dehej and other villages around it, namely, 
L&khigam, Luvera Ambheta, Jageshwar, and then went over several other 
villages. The crops that were damaged are: — Bawata, Kodra, Kharif Jowari, 
Tur, Til and Cotton crops. Bhavta has suffered the most. Bhavta, Kharif 
Jowar and Til crops which fortunately were sold in a small area are expected 
to yield no outturn, but the outturn of Tur and Cotton crops is affected to a small 
extent only. Damage to cotton crop Is reported also in about 20 other villages 
but details have not yet been received. In the villages which the Mamledar, 
personally visited, namely, Jambusar, Magnad, Tugrelpur, Khajampur, 
Wavli, Dostpur and Khanpur Deh, he found that the damage done to the 
above mentioned crops was comparatively small, but that in Kajampur, 
Dostpur, and Khanpur Deh especially the cotton crops, which covered an area, 
of 20, 200, and 300 acres, respectively, have been seriously damaged. Cotton 
plants which had been sown early and so were well grown have not been 
damaged so as to render impossible the putting forth of new leaves, but 
the late crops which were not full grown have been damaged past all hopes. 
This strengthens the presumption that the locusts were not old enough to 
devour harder substance. 

" News has just reached me that vast swarms of locusts were again seen 
yesterday in the neighbourhood of Palej, so that I regret to say that our outlook 
which was exceedingly favourable is now clouded over." 

{d) Through the Under-Secretary to Government, Revenue 
Department, Bombay— 

(1) From the Political Agent, Mahikantha (26th August 1897) — 

" . . .to state for the information of Government that from a report 
received from the Gadhwada Thandar it appears that swarms of locusts appeared 
|n the villages of Khaski, Rao) pur a and Fudeda under Valasna taluka on the 
3rd, 4th, 5th, and 6th instant and flew away causing damage to the extent of about 
R 1,000. They had laid eggs in some places but there is no possibility of their 
being hatched, as they are destroyed by heavy rains falling there subsequently. 

(2) From the Political Superintendent, Palanpur (8th September 

1897)— 

" to report for the information of Government that a slight rise in 

the price of grain has lately taken place in these districts owing to the apprehension 
thatlocusts will damage the crops which are now standing. Great swarms of 
locusts visited these districts in the latter part of July flying from West to East 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 206 



They deposited eggs from which the young locusts which are so much dreaded 
have been hatched. 

" The Thanadar of Santalpur has lately reported locusts passing from Marwar 
towards the Ran of Cutch and leaving eggs in his district." 

(3) From the Co]Iector of Kaira (nth January 1898) 

" to submit the following report about the appearance of 

locusts in the district in October and November last. 

" Oh the 28th October a flight of locusts passed from North-East to South- 
West of the Borsad taluka going in the direction of Cambay. Another flight 
also passed on the ist November from North-East to South-West of that 
taluka. They caused slight damage to the crops of Tur and other pulses. 

"On the 30th October a flight appeared from the Modasa side and passed 
through several villages of the Kapadvanj taluka, and rested for the night in 
the villages of Dhudadra, Nes and Bhadrasar, causing damage to the extent 
of R200J R400, and Ri^ooo, respectively, to the crops of Math, Cholaand late Bajri. 
In the afternoon cf the following day (31st October) they left and were seen 
at about 5 p.m. at Nariad passing on their way through Umreth. They alighted 
o;i trees in Nariad, Piplata, Gutal and Keriam, but did little or no damage to 
crops. Next morning (ist November) they left in the direction of the Matar 
taluka, but do not seem to have appeared there. 

" On the 2nd November a flight appeared at Saudesar in the Anand taluka, 
and after going to the South re-appeared on the 3rd, and alighting in Saudesar 
and Velasan, did damage to the extent of Ri,ooo and R200. 

" On the 5th November, another flight passed through the Kapadvan taluka, 
but it did not alight. 

"The total amount of damage caused to crops is estimated at R2,20o." 

(4) From the Collector of Ahmednagar (30th October 1897) — 

" to inform you that the Mamlatdar of Kopergaon reports 

under date the 27th instant, that a flight of locusts arrived at Kopergaon that 
morning at 11 a.m. from the South-East and West. The trees on the Kopergaon 
Signapur roads were covered with them and they eventually alighted on the Bajr 
crops and did some damage. On being driven off, they next alighted in the 
fields of the villages of Dharangaon and Murshatpur. Hera too they were 
similarly treated and the Mamlatdar understands they have gone into the Sinar 
taluk of the Nasik district." 



(5) From the Deputy Commissioner of Mandia district (i ith 
December 1897) through the Commissioner of Settlements and Agri- 
culture, Central Provinces — 

" A flight of locusts entered this district at Patwari Circle No. 10 on the 
l6th October 1897, coming from the direction of Birgi in the Jubbulpur district. 
It passed through Kirhc, Piparia, Salaya, Maneri, Moldongri (in Circle No. 10), 
Cheolia, Dongaria, Maldha, Bhartipur, Sangwon, Pindrai and Sohajpuri (in 



207 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



Saledanda, Pondi, Thonda, Surajpur of 
Tircle No. 24; Babeha, Jujhari, Bacheragondi, 
Bakori, Umaria, Kosumdongri of Circle 
No. 32 ; Tikrakhespaui, Kanadongri, Kheri 
of Circle No. 18 ; Sudgaon of 55 ; Saliwara, 
Mohgaon of 56 ; Kumharra, Silghuli Cheola- 
tola of Circle No. 57 5 Khonda Khudra, 
Goriapondi and Chalin, Circle No. 60. 



Circle No. il), and then entered the Seoni district at the Kedarpur pargana 
It appeared again on the 20th October in Circle No. 24 and passed through the 

marginallv noted villages causing varying 
damage in its flight. It then 'passed over 
the hills on the boundary between the two 
tahsils and bore southward, returning into 
the Mandla tahsil in Patwari Circle No. 71 
and caused some damage in the villages of 
Kanhari, Guara, Kewa, etc., of Circle No. 50 
in the Dindori tahsil. It then travelled 
over;the jungles to the South of Bajag and was next met with in Kbamor 
Khudru, Sohajno, Chakmi, Gopalpur and Majhgaon in the very South of the 
Dindori tahsil. On about the 26th October the flight passed away over the hills 
in the direction of Amarkantak. 

" The principal damage was caused to the Kcdon Kutki, and Sarson crops 
but the ]uar crop was also damaged to some extent as the heads were in flower 
at the time. The area damaged in any single village does not exceed 50 acres 
except in the five villages of Kirhopiparia, Karhopiparia ryotwari in Circle No. 10, 
Thonda and Pondi in Circle No. 24., and Khondra Khudra in Circle No. 60, all in 
the Mandla tahsil. 

" With regard to these five villages the necessary enquiries under Revenue 
Book Circular 1-9 (Vol. II), are being made. 

«'A second flight appeared on 23rd November 1897 from the direction of 
Seoni. It passed through Circle Nos. 15 and 16 of the Mandla tahsil, and entered 
the Dindori tahsil near Peparin and Mewas and then passed northward into 
the Jubbulpur district. This flight caused very little damage, except in some 
places, to the wheat seedlings. 

" A third flight is reported to have appeared at Dindori on the 28th of 
November and to have gone southward towards Bajag, but it does not appear to 
have caused serious damage at any place in its course." 



(6) Through the Officiating Commissioner of Settlement and 
Agriculture, Central Provinces, Nagpur, from the Deputy Commis- 
sioner, Hoshangabad — 

" The first flight of locusts crossed the North-East corner of the Sohagpur 
tahsil on the gth October and did comparatively little damage, the village most 
affected was Ajera, where 60 acres of tilli, kutki, urad and mung were slightly 
injured. 

" On the 23rd, 24th, 25th, 28th, 2gth, 30th and 31st further flights entered 
this tahsil from Bhopal, some portion of them spending the night in different 
villages. All these flights appear to have come from a large flight in the Bhopal 
State across the Narbada, a flight which was still in evidence as late as the 
15th December. 

" In n^ost cases very little damage was done during the day time, the locusts 
on'y staying a short time and moving on then to other fields. 

'• In the villages where the locusts rested at night the damage is more 
strious. Their numbers were so great that branches of trees were broken by 
their weight, and the only reason why the crops did not suffer more than they 
did was, that much of the jawari was too young to be seriously damaged. Any 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 208 



head which was ripe and attacked by locusts presents the appearance of having 
passed through the threshing floor,' and hardly a grain hasibeen left'; luckily one 
of the largest swarms missed the cultivated fields and rested for the night in the 
jungle near Sukhakheri where the damage to the trees was of little moment. 

" In the Hoshangabad tahsil the flights of locusts appeared later than in 
Sohagpur, and on examination of the dates and places shows, that the swarm 
was moving East to West. The principal swarms were on the 31st October and 
the ist and 2nd November. 

" The damage done in the day time here also was comparatively small, but two 
villages suffered severely from the locusts on the night of the 31st October, viz>, 

Jhalsar and Satwasa, Taradonda Sankhera, Itarsi, Goar 

and Sona Saoni also suffered considerably. 

" The Seoni tahsil appears to have escaped almost entirely, the only village 
affected was Chapragrahan in which the damage was trifling and the people 
did not even complain about it when I visited it yesterday, though they made 
every imaginable excuse to show how difficult it was to pay rent this year. 

" In the Harda tahsil also the damage done was comparatively small and no 
proposals for suspension of revenue are required. 

*' Omitting all villages where the crops have turned out more than 80-8-0 in 
all fields, I submit a statement showing the area affected in each village, the total 
anna value of the produce and the estimate of the crop in the field which has 
suffered most : — , 



Tahsil. 



Sohagpur 



Hoshangabad 



Name of village. 



Malkajra 

Tantra . 

Purena . 

Semkhera 

Khera 

Gadroli . 

Budhni * 

Swula Khd. 

Kanthi . 

Mathni . 

Dhandya 

Mundyakhera 

Ranigohan 

Mohwakhera 

Jolsar 

Satwasa Mahal 

Tararonda 

Sankhera 

Itarsi 



No. 1 



Area 
affected. 



Acres. 

34871 
225-38 
367-23 
248-00 
193-24 
316-27 
352-10 
157-88 

345-51 
248-42 
221-04 

372-73 

339-60 

133-60 

403-18 

322-07 

99-46 

58-16 

59*98 



Anna 
value of 
produce. 



Acres, 

2,778*22 
I,5i9'68 
2,712-76 
1,65400 
1,489-92 
2,38i"i6 

2,414-35 
919-01 

2,452-85 
2,480-72 
1,735-60 
3.372 
3»53i 
1,137 
1,285 
2,360 

397 
232 

423'54- 



Anna esti« 
mate of 
crop in 

worst field. 



R. a, p, 

070 
040 
070 

o-3'4-8-o 



o 
•0 
o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 
o 



209 



Indian Museum, Notes, [Vol. IV. 



III.-INSECTS INFESTING FRUIT TREES. 

I. Psychid caterpillars destructive to vines. — Samples of grapes 
together with some leaves of the same were forwarded to the Indian 
Museum in January 1897 by Mr. N. R. Lester, Superintendent, 
Empress Botanical Gardens, Poona, as suffering from what appeared 
to him to be fungus growths on the fruits and leaves. 

On examining the vines they were found to be attacked by 
minute caterpillars of an unknown Psychid moth the like of which 
had not hitherto been recorded as destructive to grapes in India. 
From the caterpillars that had arrived in the Museum alive some 
moths were reared, but owing to their very minute size and the 
difficulty in obtaining good specimens the identity of the species 
could not be decided. 

To be quite certain that the vines were not also simultaneously 
attacked by fungus, the samples were submitted to Dr. D. Prain, 
of the Royal Botanic Garden, Sibpur, for examination, who wrote 
upon the subject: ''I have carefully examined the specimens of 
vines sent with your note of 22nd instant, and, so far as I can make 
out, there is no fungoid disease present. The pathological effects 
seem to be the result of some insect blight " 



2. Mango caterpillar. — The Superintendent, Empress Gardens, 
Poona, reported in August 1897 the appearance of a number of 
caterpillars with stinging bristles, which were destroying mango 
leaves in his gardens. 

The specimens forwarded by him, though they arrived in the 
Museum alive, soon died apparently from the effects of the long 
journey. They proved to be the caterpillars of a moth belonging to 
the family Limacodid^. 



3. Ceramhycid larvse destructive to apple tree. — Some 
Coleopterous larvae said to be tunnelling into the stems of an apple 
tree in Muktesar, were forwarded in the Indian Museum by 
Mr. M. K. Bamber, Superintendent, Government Nursery, Muktesar, 
in January 1897. 

The insects proved to be the immature forms of a Cerambycid 
beetle, which cannot be further identified without the examination 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 210 

of the imago. Mr. Bamber reports that he is using kerosine oil to 
kill the pest, by pouring small quantities into the holes in the stems. 
Pouring kerosine oil into the burrows would no doubt prove an 
effectual means of destroying the insects, provided it does not also 
injure the tree on which it is used. 



IV.-FOREST PESTS. 

I. Erioco ecus paradoxus. Mask., var. fw^ica. 

(Sub-ord. Homoptera, Fam. Coccidse.) 
Plate XV, fig. 3. 

From Mr. J. S. Gamble, Director of the Imperial Forest School, 
Dehra Dun, were received in January 1896 specimens of a Coccid 
found on stems of Helicteres isora at Mohand in the district of 
Saharanpur. 

The specimens appeared to be new to the Museum collection. 
Mr. W. M. Maskell who kindly examined the insect, wrote : "This 
is Eriococcus paradoxus. Mask., a variety which I shall name indica, 
differing from the type in the very slightly larger size and in the 
more numerous and large figure of 8 spinnerets. The type is from 
South Australia and is described by me in the Trans, of Roy. Soc. 
S. Australia, 1887-88." 

The following is Mr. MaskelFs description of the type :— 

Eriococcus paradoxus.^^^o. of adult female dark reddish brown^ 
circular, convex, aggregated in masses on the bark, and so thickly 
covering it sometimes as probably to smother the plant ; diameter 
about \ inch. 

The aggregated mass is so thick that on cutting a vertical 
section it appears like a honeycomb of cells each containing an 
insect. At the sum.mit of the convex sac is a very minute orifice 
(not apparent in every instance). This orifice is probably intended 
to give access to the male insect, specimens of which may some- 
times be found inside the cellular sacs with the females. The 
sac is so closely fitted that it has quite the appearance of being waxy 
instead of cottony, but a little pressure with the point of a pencil 
makes an impression in it as if it were leathery ; and on boiling in 
potash it becomes dissolved, which is not the case with any waxy 
Coccid test, as far as I know. The spinnerets and threads described 
below are also evidences that the sac is really felted, though very 
closely. 

The sac of the male is reddish-yellow, narrow, elongated, convex 
above and flat beneath ; after its last metamorphosis the male 
escapes by an orifice atone end. 



211 , Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV, 

Adult female somewhat peg-top-shaped, the cephalic region large 
and smooth, the abdomen small, segmented and tapering to the 
two anal tubercles, which are prominent, and bear each a long seta. 
Colour dark reddish-brown ; length, exclusive of the tubercles, 
about -^ inch. On maceration and boiling in potash the anatomical 
details can be made out. On the cephalic region, there are four 
bands of very small, circular spinneret orifices; these bands 
correspond with the position of the four stigmata of the body. On 
the abdominal segments there are rows of double, or figure-of-eight, 
spinnerets ; many of these also are scattered over the cephalic 
region. From these double spinnerets spring long white curling 
threads, which form the felted sac. The rostrum is conical, and the 
mentum is bi-articulate. The antennae are atrophied and very 
short ; the number of joints cannot be clearly made out, owing to 
compression, which confuses them ; but the normal number in the 
genus is six, and probably this is the case here also. The tip bears 
a few strong short hairs. The feet are entirely absent. 

The second stage of the insect has not been observed. 

The larva, just after leaving the &gg^ is of the normal shape of 
the genus — elongated, flattish, tapering slightly posteriorly ; exhibit- 
ing the anal tubercles. Colour reddish ; length about one-fortieth 
of an inch. Antennae of six sub-equal joints, all slightly dilated 
at the end except the last, which is irregular and pointed, and bears 
some hairs ; all the joints appear to be numerously ringed. Feet 
normal. On the body there are four longitudinal rows of figure of 
eight spinnerets. The anal tubercles bear long setse. 

Adult male red ; somewhat short and squat ; the thorax broad, and^ 
the abdominal segments compressed. Length of the body, about 
one-fortieth of an inch. The last segment of the abdomen bears on 
each side three longish setae. Antennae of ten joints, the first very 
short, the rest sub-equal, elliptical, except the second, which is 
dilated at the tip ; all the joints bear hairs. Feet slender; upper 
digitules long and slender, lower pair short ; fine hairs. Abdominal 
spike conical pointed. 

Hab.'-^On Pittosporum undulatum^ South Australia. 



Diaspis ealyptroideSf Costa, var. cacti, Comstk. 

Coccid on Prickly Pear. 
In March 1896, specimens of Prickly Pear infested by Coccids 
were forwarded to the Museum from Southern India through 



No. 4.3 Notes on Insect pests Jrom the Entomological Section. 2\2 

Dr. G, Watt, C. I. E., Reporter on Economic Products to the 
Government of India. 

The insect proved to be new to the Museum collection, but it 
was identified as belonging to the genus Diaspis, It was kindly 
examined by the late Mr. W. M. Maskell who considered it 3. Diaspis 
(^alyptroides, Costa, var. cacti. Com stock. He wrote : — 

" The species is found on Cactaceae in many countries. The type 
is described by Signoret, Ann. de La Soc. Entom. de France, March 
1868, p. 434: and the variety by Comstock, 2nd Report, Department 
of Entomology, Cornell University, 1883, p. 91. 

*' Comstock considered his insect as a distinct species : but 
the difference from the type is but slight, and I incline to look upon 
it as only a variety. Costa's original description {Faun. Nap., 1827, 
p. 6) is most incomplete, and chiefly concerns the male scale : but 
Signoret gives full details. 

'' This insect is almost always, where it occurs, very numerous 
on the plant (as in those you sent) : and must therefore be usually 
injurious. 

" There is another variety opunticola, Newstead, on Opuntia 
in Demerara {Ent. Mo, Mag., 1893, p. 1888), which has more pro- 
minent terminal lobes than your insect. I fancy all the varieties 
arise from climate or from a slightly different species of Cactus. "" 



3. Coccid on Prickly Pear.-— Mr. E, Thurston, Superintendent, 
Government Museum, Madras, forwarded specimens of a scale- 
insect infesting Prickly Pear in the Kurnool and Anantapur dis- 
tricts. 

The specimens were found to be unrepresented in the Museum 

collection, so were submitted to Mr. W. M. Maskell for examina,- 
tion. 

Mr. Maskell kindly furnished the following report regarding the 
insect : " The insect sent to. me ... . as infesting Prickly Pear in 
Kurnool and Anantapur is clearly a form which Mr. E. E. Green is 
proposing to name Coccus cacti, var. ceylonicus^ a variety of the 
Cochineal insect. It is identical with specimens sent to me some 
time ago by Mr. Green." 

I presume that a full description of this form will appear in 
Mr. Green's book on the Coccidse of Ceylon now in the press. Pend- 
ino- its publication I cannot well give you a detailed note for Indian 
Museum Notes, It is possible that Mr. Green may see fit to change 



213 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. V. 



the name ; and I am inclined rather to look on the insect as perhaps 
more than a mere variety. But you may be sure at least that you 
specimens are identical with those from Ceylon. 



4. Aleurodes sp. on heteUnut palm. — In May 1896, Dr. G. Watt, 
while on deputation to enquire into the cause of the disease affecting 
betel-nut palms in Backerganj, found a small black scale-insect 
with a white waxy border fairly abundant on diseased trees. 

The leaves forwarded by him to the Indian Museum were found 
to be thickly beset with scale-insects which appeared to belong to 
the sub-family Aleurodidds; the specimens being new to the Museum 
collection. 

In order to obtain the precise identification of the pest, specimens 
were submitted to Mr.- W. M, Maskell who kindly examined them 
and furnished a note upon the subject, Mr. Maskeli found that the 
leaves were covered with a species of Aleurodes, larvae, and pupae, 
which appear to be intermediate between A. barodensis and A- 
piperzs oi his paper of 1895. They have the strong black hairs of 
A. piperis with a thick white waxy fringe rather more solid than 
that of A. barodensis. They seem to be nearest to A. piperis^ but 
differ from it sufficiently for him to consider them distinct. 



5. Coelosterna 5^.— Specimens of a longicorn beetle were received 
in December 1897 from Mr. B. O. Coventry, Assistant Conservator 
of Forests, Lahore, with the information that they were causing much 
damage to the Mulberry trees in the Shahdera Plantation. 

, The insect appeared to be a Coelosterna and not unlike the 
species C. scabrata, Fabr., which does a good deal of damage to 
sal trees in Oudh. 

Mr. Coventry has furnished the following note regarding the 
insect: — 

" The presence of the larvse of this beetle is easily recognised by the red rusty 
colour on the stems of the mulberry trees, due to the sap trickling down from the 
holes made by the larvae in coming to the surface. The burrow usually commences 
high up the stem and often from a branch. From this point the larva burrows 
down the stem, in the heart-wood, making a tunnel which gradually increases 
in diameter, — at intervals it comes to the surface making a hole from which wood 
dust is thrown out and the sap trickles down staining the stem a rusly red colour. 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 214 



•' The perfect beetle appears at end of July and beginning of August, and can 
be found at the end of the burrows at this time of the year. 

" The larval stage evidently extends over several years, for larvK of all sizes are 
found at the same time of the year. 

"The forest in which this beetle occurs very extensively is a mixture of Shisham 
{Dalbergia sissoo) and Mulberry {Morus indica). It is worked on the coppice 
with Standards system. The standards being all Shisham. 

" The beetle does not attack Shisham. With exception of these standards the 
forest is worked for fuel with a rotation of 15 years. 

*' The damage is therefore not so very serious as far as this forest is concerned." 



6. Kyhlcea piiera, Cram, 

(Sub-ord. Heterocera, Fam. Noctuidae.) 
Teak pest. 

From Mr. C. C. Hatt, Deputy Conservator of Forests, Puri 
district, have been received in August 1897 specimens of a moth 
said to be causing much damage to teak trees in the forest of 
Khurda. 

The specimens were identified with Hyblsea puera, Cram., a 
common teak tree pest of India. It has previously been recorded 
in the pages of these Notes as attacking teak trees in Lower 
Burma, Dehra Dun, North- West Provinces and in the Kuisi planta- 
tion in Assam, etc. 

The following is the description of the species as given by Sir 
G. F. Hampson in Faun. Brit. Ind. Moths. ^ II, p. 371. 

Head and thorax greyish red-brown ; abdomen black-brown with 
orange segmental bands. Fore wing greyish red-brown, irrorated with 
a few dark specks. Hind wing black-brown, with curved orange band 
with scarlet edges from upper angle of cell to near anal angle ; a 
band on the margin from vein 2 to anal angle. Underside of fore 
wing black, with orange fascia in cell and far beyond it ; the costa 
and apex pale brownish with dark specks ; the inner margin yellow. 
Hind wing pale brownish with dark specks ; orange towards anal 
angle with two large black spots. 

Larva with a few short hairs ; dark purple-grey above, olive- 
green below, with dorsal and lateral white lines ; a subdorsal series 
of minute white dots and rings, a series of black dots on lateral 
line , head and ist somite black. 



2iS Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 

Hab. — W. Indies ; S. Africa ; throughout India, Burma and 
Ceylon ; Java ; New Guinea ; Cape York. Exp. 32-40 millim. 



7. Psychid caterpillar injurious to Chir. — Babu Sadanand Gai- 
rola, of the Forest Department, Chakrata, North-West Provinces, for- 
warded to the Indian Museum in June 1897 specimens of an insect 
said to attack Chir [Pinus longifolia) in the Jaunsar Forest division. 

The specimens consisted of larva-cases of a Psychid moth probably 
belonging to the genus Clania. Babu Sadanand Gairola wrote : — 

" I saw any number of them lying about or sticking to the stalks of grass. 
But by March the cases were observed to be generally empty, the insects having 
apparently transformed 

"It will be observed that the cases externally are made of pieces of the bark of 
Chir. But they were not seen attached to those trees and the specimens sent were 
indeed found attached to the stalks of grass." 



8. Poplar and Willow tree pest — \Chrysohothris sp'i\ — From 
Lieutenant C, O. Tanner have been received, through the Director, 
Land Records and Agriculture, Bengal, in July iSgS, speci- 
mens of an insect with the information that they have done great 
damage to forest trees in Chaman, Baluchistan. The insect is said to 
attack chiefly soft wood trees, namely, the white Poplars and Willows, 
and it rarely touches hard wood trees such as Mulberry, Almond and 
Apricot, etc., but those soft wood trees that get a plentiful supply of 
water seem to suffer less than others. 

The specimens proved to be the larvse of a Buprestid beetle 
probably belonging to the genus Chrysobothris. 

The following is an extract from Lieutenant C. 0. Tanner's letter 
dated loth August 1897 '- — 

" This pest attacks all soft-wood trees (such as Poplars and Willows) and eats 
away the wood fibre from the weather side principally. So far as I can ascertain 
it works upwards from the roots, as several young trees, which have died this 
year, do not appear to be affected above that point. In some cases it eats through 
the tree at half its height when the first strong wind breaks off the upper half. " 



g. Grasshoppers destructive to Chil and Bamboo.—ln September 
1897, specimens of grasshoppers belonging to the isLtnUy Ac ridid^ 
were forwarded to the Museum, through the Director of Imperial 
Forest School, Dera Dhun, from the Deputy Conservator 
of Forests, Kangra Division, as the locusts which had 



No. 4,] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section, 216 

been inflicting considerable damage to the young sowings of chil 
and bamboos, in the Kangra Division. 

The insects belong to two distinct species of Acrididse^ namely, 
Tryxalis turrita, Linn., and Oxya velox, Burm.. They have been 
previously recorded in the pages of these Notes as the species 
amongst other Acridid% in connection with the damage done to 
crop by so-called locusts in Ganjam both in the year i8go and 1891. 



10. Bamboo Coccid, — Planchonia sp. — Some blighted bamboo 
leaves were received in June 1898 from Mr. D. Hooper, Curator of 
Economic Museum, who wrote :— * 

" While exploring in North Bengal I was shown a clump of bamboos that 
were dying. I examined these and could find no fungus on them, but a minute 
insect was seen on the leavesi As this may be the cause of death, I send a 
tube to you in order to see if the insect can be recognised and, if possible, said 
whether or not it could be the cause of the destruction." 

The insects proved to be a Coccid, and new to the Museum 
collection, Mr. W. M. Maskell to whom specimens were submitted 
for examination, replied ; — 

" Your insect on bamboo in Northern Bengal is clearly a Plan- 
chonia : and is probably P. solenophoroides. Green, MS. But I must 
wait for Mr. Green's published description before I can definitely 
give you the species, 

'* I think you may be sure of i]\Q genera at least of the insect. " 



V.-DETERMI NATION OF SOME INSECT PESTS REFERRING TO 
PREVIOUS YEARS, etc. 

I. Specimens of a red-ant sent to the Indian Museum by Mr. A. E. 
Lourie, of the Forest Department, as infesting a house in Coorg. 
These have been determined by Dr. Forel as belonging to the species 
Dorylus fulvuSj Westw. var., labiatus, Shuck. 

2. In the case of a mite found infesting flour in one of the Calcutta 
Bazars, Mr. A. Michael wrote : — 

" This appears to be our common cheese mite, Tyroglyphus stro, 
which is quite as abundant in flour as in cheese, the specimens which 
you send are rather smaller than the English specimens, but I do 
not rely much on size, and moreover, contrary to what might be ex- 
pected, where a species of Acarus is common to both temperate and 



217 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

tropical countries, as is frequently the case, I have usually found the 
tropical specimens the smaller. I cannot find any structural differ- 
ence. " 

3. Mite (Tetranychus) injurious to palm tree in Calcutta, iden. 
tified by Mr. A. Michael as belonging to the genus Brevipalpus ? 

4. Moths reared in the Indian Museum from caterpillars found 
tunnelling into the pods of Cassia occidentalism Linn., in Hoogly, have 
been determined by Sir G. F. Hampson as belonging to the species 
Lamoria infumatelhy Hamps., Fam. Pyyalidse, Sub-fam, Gallerianse. 

5. Chrysomelid beetle (Sub-fam. Galerucidse ) injurious to 
Grewia asiatica in the Dun Forest, identified by Mr. Martin Jacoby 
as belonging to Mimastra cyanura, Hope. The specimens were 
received in the Indian Museum from Mr. C. J. Rogers, Instructor 
Dehra Dun Forest School, through the Director of the Imperial Forest 
School, Dehra Dun. 

6. Scarabaeid beetle ( Sub-fam. Melolonthini ) said to be destruc- 
tive to the young and tender leaves of Mallotus philippinensis in the 
Dun Forest has been determined by Herr Ernst Brenske as a new 
species Serica Alcocki, Brensk. The specimens were received in 
the Museum, through the Director, Forest School, Dehra Dun, from 
Mr. C. J. Rogers, Instructor, Dehra Dun Forest School. 

7. Pyralid moth injurious to juar, makai, etc., in Karachi, identi- 
fied by Sir G. F. Hampson as the same as Chilo simplex, ButIr, 



VI.— SOME BENEFICIAL INSECTS IN INDIA. 

The following letter from the Superintendent of the Indian 
?vluseum, to the Honorary Secretary to the Trustees, covers a valuable 
report from Mr. E. Barlow, the Assistant in charge of Entomology, on 
this subject: — 

With reference to your endorsement No. -^, dated 27th Sep- 
tember 1897, forwarding a letter No. gj:^^ dated i8th September 
1897, from the Officiating Under-Secretary to the Government of 
India, together with copies of correspondence from the Government 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 218 

of Madras, Nos. 634 and 635, dated 27th July 1897, relating to the 
very promising subject of utilizing Lady-birds and other natural 
enemies of the insect pests of the country, I have the honor to 
submit the following report by Mr. E. Barlow, the Assistant in charge 
of Entomology: — 

" In India there is already known a good number of indigenous insectivorous 
insects belonging to the three orders of Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (two-winged 
flies), and Hymenoptera ( Ichneumon flies, etc.), which have proved to be more 
or less beneficial to agriculture by keeping down insect pests. 

*'I.— SOME BEETLES KNOWN TO BE DESTRUCTIVE TO PESTS. 

" (rt) Among the Lady-birds I may mention — 

"(i) Chilocoriis circumdatus Schonh., which is said to prey upon the brown 
bug {Lecanium coffem) of coffee plants in Ceylon. 

'* (ii) Scymnus rotundaius, Motsch., which is parasitic upon the white bug 
{Pseudecoccus adonidum ) of coffee bushes in Ceylon. 

" (iii) Flatynaspis villosa, Mulsant, attacks the scale-insect ( Icerya csgyptia- 
cum ) in Calcutta. 

" (iv) Vedalia fumida, var. roseipennis, Muls., said to prey upon the Coccid 
Icerya cBgyptiacum in Calcutta. 

The last named was submitted to Mr. L. O. Howard, United States Entomolo- 
gist, for identification, who wrote regarding it (see Indian Museum Notes, Vol. 
IV, No. I, p. 28). ' It is interesting to find that this Coccinellid is not distantly 
related to the well-known Vedalia cardinalis, Mulsant, which Tvlr. Albert Koebele 
of this department, brought from Australia some years ago, and which destroyed 
Icerya purchasi on our Western coast. It is Mulsant's Rodolia roseipennis, which 
according to Crotch's revision of the Coleopterous family Coccinellidse, is a colour 
variety of R. fumida, Muls. Accepting the nomenclature given by Crotch, the 
name of the insect is therefore Vedalia fumida, var. roseipennis, Muls.' It may be 
mentioned that the Vedalia cardinalis here referred to is an Australian species of 
Lady-bird which on introduction into America is said to have at once cleared thou- 
sands of orange trees of destructive scale-insects of the species Icerya pv>rchasi. 

" (b) Among beetles other than Lady-birds are — 

" (v) A Tiger beetle of the species Cicindela sexptinctata,¥3.ht.,viKich de- 
vours the rice-sapper { Leptocorisa acuta) in Chumparun. 

" (vi) A Carabid beetle Calosoma orientale, Hope, which destroys the young 
'ocusts of the species Acridium peregrinum, Oliver. 



" IL^SOME DIPTERA (TWO-WINGED FLIES) KNOWN TO BE DESTRUC* 
TIVE TO INSECT-PESTS. 

" (vii-viii) Syrphus nietneri, Schinr., and S. splendens, Dolesch., the larvae of 
these two flies are said to prey on the coffee Aphis {Aphis coffece) in Ceylon. 



219 Indian Museum Notes* [Vol. IV. 



" (ix) Anthomyia peshaisoarensis^ Bigot, parasitic upon the eggs of the locusts 
{Acridium peregrinum) in India. 

"(x) i/rti^Veffl 5M6?i?V^a, Wulp., parasitic upon the larvsB of the moth Oletie 
mendosa, Hubn., which attack tea plants in Darjeeling. 

" (xi) Masicera castanea, Wulp,, said to prey upon caterpillars of the moth 
Leucania extranea, Guen., which attack the young paddy plants in Bengal. 

" (xii) Masicera dasychirce, Wulp., parasitic upon caterpillars of the moth 
Dasychira thwaitesii which does much damage to tea plant and sal tree in 
Assam. 

" (xiii-xiv) Demoticus strigipennis, Wulp., and Calodexia lasiocampcB, Wulp. 
The larvae of these two flies are parasitic upon a hairy Lasiocampid caterpillar 
destructive to rice in the Central Provinces. 

" (xv) Miltogramma i2-punctafa, Wulp., which preys upon the locust 
{Acridium pere§rinum) in India. 



III.— SOME HYMENOPTERA (FAMILY CHALCIDID^) KNOWN TO BE 
DESTRUCTIVE TO INSECT-PESTS. 

" (xvi) Chalets {Bra chymeria) euplisa, Westw., preys upon the Dooars tea 
and sal caterpillar {Dasychira ihixiaitesii). 

" (xvii) Cotesia flavipes, Cameron, parasitic upon the Sorghum-borer {Diatrcea 
saccharalis). 

" (xviii) Aphelinus thece, Cameron, a minute fly-like insect that attacks the tea 
scale bug {Chionaspis thece, Mask). 

" (xix-xxvi) Cirrhospilus coccivorus, Motsch., Encyrtus nietneri, Motsch. 
E. parodisicus, Motsch., Scutellisfa cyanea, Motsch., Marietta leopardina, 
Nietner, Cephaleta purpureiventris, Motsch., C. bunneiventris, Motsch., and 
C. fusciventris, Motsch., are said to be parasitic upon the Brown bug {Lecanium 
coffees) of coffee plant in Ceylon. 

" (xxvii) Chartocerus musciformis, Motsch., said to attack the white bug 
{Pseudococcus adonidum) of coffee plant in Ceylon. 

" (xxviii) Pteromalus oryzce, Cameron, a minute coppery green-coloured 
Ichneumon-fly beHeved to be parasitic upon the wheat and rice weevil {Calandra 
oryzce) in India." 

The above are some of the indigenous species of insect-parasites 
of insect-pests that have come to light without any special inquiry, 
and no doubt systematic research (which certainly ought at some 
day to be undertaken), would reveal many more. In the face of 
Mr. Barlow's report it can hardly be hoped that the introduction of 
a single foreign species of Lady-bird — even if that species be able 
to hold its own against the native species—will have any very 
marked effect. 



No. 4.] Notes on Insect pests from the Entomological Section. 220 



VII.— REPORTS OF RESULTS OF REMEDIES, etc., TRIED DURING 

THE YEAR 1897, 

I. Utilizing Firearms as a means of driving away locusts. 

The following is a report (dated i6th November 1897), received 
from Mr, R. P. Lambert, District Superintendent of Police, Panch 
Mahals, through the Survey Commissioner and Director, Land 
Records and Agriculture, Bombay, giving an instance of a very 
simple and successful method, adopted by the Police in Panch 
Mahals, in order to frighten away locusts from the fields. The 
apparently complete success of a means so handy ought to be more 
widely known : — 

" About 10-15 A.M. on Friday, the 5th instant, after my return to Bungalow 
from duty with the Inspector General of Police in the town, information was 
given to me that enormous flights of locusts were devastating the country round 
about Godhra. I immediately rode to the fields where the locusts were settling. 

"2. A Bora came up to me in a half frantic state and begged that the Armed 
Police with their guns and blank ammunition might be employed to get rid of 
these pests. The idea appeared to me both novel and sensible, and I at once 
galloped to the Bungalow (where the Inspector General of Police was staying 
during his visit in Godhra) and asked Mr. Kennedy to allow me to use the 
Government blank ammunition for the purpose, suggested by the Bora. 
Mr. Kennedy most kindly and readily gave the required permission and a sowar 
was at once sent to the head-quarters ordering every available man to be present 
at the scene of action. 

"3. It speaks greatly to the credit of the head-quarter Chief Constable that 
from 60 to 70 Armed Policemen each supplied with 10 rounds of blank ammuni- 
tion, joined me within 15 minutes after the alarm bugle had gone, I also 
collected all my servants and orderlies, who together with 40 or 50 ryots made 
up a total of 150 persons in all. I then had a long line formed extending some- 
times to 3 or 4 hundred yards, and where locusts were seen to be most thick, 
there our mimic skirmishing line was taken. I also sent into the town for aid, 
but was not disappointed when it did not arrive, as it is perhaps too much to 
expect that either the Ghauchis or Boras would assist Government officers 
in protecting other people's property. 

"4. Mr. Wallington arrived a few minutes after the commencement of our 
organized attack on the locusts, and shortly after his arrival sowars also appeared 
on the scene who greatly assisted me in keeping the long and unwieldy skir- 
mishing line in hand. 

"5. In some fields locusts could be seen covering every inch of ground 
waiting until their more lucky brethren had had their fill. Our skirmishing line 
must, however, have disturbed many thousands of expectant and hungry locusts 
who, as they rose in the air, received volleys and blank ammunition to hasten 
their ascension. Far away to the East could be seen heavy clouds cf smoke 
rising skywards through which enormous flights of locusts happily and uncon- 
cernedly winged their way. To the West masses of disappointed locusts 



221 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV, 



could be seen swiftly winding their way to a less noisy and sulphurous districts. 
The combined police and ryot attack on the intruders lasted until 1-30 p.m., and 
certainly in my opinion saved the surrounding country from much damage for 
which the Bora who suggested the idea, should receive every credit. 

" 6. My object in submitting this report is to show, that gun-powder appears 
to be more efficacious than any other suggestion or scheme that I have ever 
heard mooted for the prevention of locusts settling on crops, as after the com- 
mencement of the firing, the creatures flew up to a very great height and hovered 
for some time over head apparently dismayed by the extraordinary reception th sy 
had received." 



2. Easy method of compounding arsenical solution for the 
destruction of locusts. 

The following is an extract taken from a note by Mr. D. Hooper 
Curator, Economic Section, Indian Museum, on the preparation of an 
arsenical solution for the destruction of locusts : — 

" Arsenic is very insoluble in water, and an alkali, such as soda or potash, is 
always required to dissolve it freely. 

'• Lime is unsuitable as a solvent, as it is not very soluble in water itself and it 
forms unstable compounds with arsenic. 

" The ashes of wood and of plants are commonly met with in or near all native 
dwellings and a liquor made from the ashes would form a convenient solvent for 
the poison. 

*' From experiments made with ashes taken from a fire-place where wood was 
used as fuel, I find that one part of white arsenic is rendered soluble by 
boiling it with the liquid obtained from ten parts of the ash. One pound of the ashes 
is mixed with water and strained and washed with more water until the solution 
amounts to four gallons. The liquid is tnen heated in a vessel and the arsenic 
added and the heating continued until no residue is left. The solution when 
cold is preserved for use." 



No. 4.] Reprints 222 

3. REPRINTS. 
I. THE HORSE BOT-FLIES. 1 
Gastrophilus equi^ Fabr. 

Bots in horses have been a familiar form of parasite to farmers, 
stockmen, and veterinarians for we know not how long. Whether 
they were familiar to the ancients has been a matter of discussion 
among learned men, but the mention in ancient writings of the 
CEstrus and its habits is now generally considered as referable to 
some of the flies capable of piercing, such as the gad-flies or horse 
flies and not the bots. The occurrence of two or three similar 
species affecting the horse has led to some confusion in their names. 
Thus the CEstrus equi of Linnaeus appears to correspond with the 
CEstrus vituli of Fabricius, while the latter author includes in 
CEstrus equi the CEstrus nasalis, CEstrus hsemorrhoidalis, and 
CEstrus veterinus of Linnaeus. Without going into a discussion of 
this synonymy here, it will be seen that all of these forms were 
apparently familiar to scientific writers more than a century ago, as 
well as the more striking features of their life-history. Thus the 
statement made by Linnaeus (Turton^s translation, p. 582) reads as 
follows : '* Deposits eggs on the hairs of horses, and always on those 
parts which are most liable to be licked by the tongue ; these, either 
in the egg or larval state, are conveyed by the tongue into the 
stomach, and passing through the intestines with the food are dis- 
charged with the dung." These larvise are commonly known by the 
name of bots. In 18 15 Mr. Bracy Clark published his essay on bots 
of horses and other animals presenting the results of thorough 
investigation upon these interesting parasites, and subsequent in- 
vestigation has but confirmed in large part the conclusions reached 
by him. 

Nature and extent of injury. — Different writers have placed 
very different estimates upon the injury due to bots, and as great 
diversity, or perhaps greater, exists in the opinions of practical men 
and veterinarians, some holding that the presence of the bot in the 
horse's stomach does not interfere with its normal activities, while 
others look upon them as extremely dangerous and sometimes refer 
almost any serious disturbance of the digestive organs, or death from 
unknown cause, to bots. 

^ Extracts from a report by Herbert Osborn, published in Bulletin No. 5, United 
States, Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, 1896. 



223 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. Vf, 

The injury to the horse from the larvae may take four forms, (i) 
The attachment to the walls of the stomach causes an irritation 
which may interfere with the normal action of the glands or reduce 
the extent of glandular surface ; (2) the bots abstract some nutri. 
ment from the walls of the stomach, or by absorption, from the con- 
tents of the stomach itself ; (3) by collecting, particularly in the 
region of the pylorus, they serve as an obstruction to the free 
passage of food from the stomach to intestines ; (4) in passage through 
intestines they may attach themselves at times to walls or in rectum 
and cause great irritation. Some consider this as the source of 
most of the serious symptoms from presence of bots. In any of 
these methods the extent of injury depends in large degree upon 
the number of bots present, a few probably causing no appreciable 
damage, while large numbers (sufficient as we have seen them, to 
completely cover large patches of the stomach walls) must cause 
serious disturbance and loss of nutrition and would seem a sufficient 
cause to produce fatal results. From the nature of the case no 
definite statistics can be given for the losses incurred. It is 
probably safe to say that nine-tenths of all colts and horses that 
are pastured during summer, and a smaller proportion of driving an 
work horses, become infested with bots each year. Aside from the 
injuries inflicted by the larvae, we must consider the excitement 
produced by the flies when depositing the eggs as a source of loss 
and this in many cases is by no means insignificant. 

Life-history and habits. — Adults of this species are about three- 
fourths of an inch in length, the wings are transparent with dark 
spots, those near the centre forming an irregular, transverse band. 
The body is very hairy, the head brown with whitish front, thorax 
brown, abdomen brown, with three rows of blackish spots, which are 
subject to considerable variations. In the females the segments are 
often almost entirely brown with simply a marginal series of yellowish 
spots, while in males the abdomen may be almost entirely yellow or 
very light brown, with brown or dark spots very distinct. The males 
are rarely seen, for while it is one of the most common occurrences 
to witness the female around the horses depositing their eggs, the 
males evidently hold aloof. They are readily distinguished by the 
form of the abdomen, which lacks the two tubular segments at the 
end, and is provided on the under-side of the last segment with a 
pair of dark brown or black hooks, or clasping organs. Otherwise 
except the colour of the abdomen, already mentioned, they resemble 
very closely the females. The eggs are light yellow in colour and will 
be found attached to the hairs of the shoulders, forelegs, under-side 
of body, and sometimes even the mane and other parts of the body, 



Mo. 4.3 Rep r mis. 224 



most commonly, however, on the forelegs and shoulders. The 
method of deposition has been frequently observed. The female 
hovers near the horse in a position which appears to be nearly 
vertical, since the body is bent downward, and the extended 
abdomen is thrust forward under the body to its full extent. The 
fiy then darts toward the horse, the egg is glued to the hair in an 
instant and the fly retreats a yard or two to hover till another egg is 
ready to be deposited. The operation is repeated at very short 
intervals, so that hundreds of eggs may ba deposited upon a horse 
in a comparatively short time. The eggs are held by a sticky fluid, 
which quickly dries and thus glues them firmly to the hairs. They 
are about one-sixteenth of an inch in length, and taper a little 
toward each end, though the attached end is the smaller. The outer 
end is provided with a little cap (operculum), which is set quite 
obliquely to the axis of the &gg^ though some authors represent it as 
cutting the egg square off at the end. This cap or operculun 
breaks or is pushed off when the grub hatches. Bracy Clark wrote 
that the eggs do not hatch until twenty-five to thirty days old, while 
Joly found them to hatch in four or five days. Verrill says : — 

" The eggs contain more or less perfectly developed larvae when laid ; and when 
they are mature or have been a few days attached to the hair they burst open 
and allow the young to escape almost instantaneously, when moistened. Thus 
when the horse licks itself or its companions, the moisture hatches the eggs and 
the young larvae are transferred to the mouth by the tongue or lips, and thence 
to the stomach, where they fasten themselves to the lining membrane by their 
two hooks." 

Evidently some such condition is essential to the hatching of the 
eggs, as we have removed hairs containing eggs from the horse and 
keeping them, where not subject to moisture they failed entirely to 
hatch, and even after a year's time do not appear greatly shrivelled. 
Doubtless they must hatch in a comparative short time or lose their 
vitality, for moisture does not effect a hatching in those long kept 
away from the horse. The empty egg shells may cling to the horse 
for some time after the hatching of the larvs and give it the 
appearance of being coated with eggs. Examination, however, 
will readily disclose the absence of the operculum in the hatched 
eggs. 

In order to determine more certainly as to the exact condition 
of hatching and the time involved, I undertook in 1893 some obser- 
vations which were reported in Bulletin No. 32 of the Division of 
Entomology (pp. 46-49). Eggs collected from a horse while flies 
were depositing, and therefore probably not long laid, were opened 



225 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

at different times by rubbing them with a moistened finger, simu- 
lating as nearly as possible the action of the tongue in licking the 
body. While the larvae appeared to be fully formed during the 
first three or four days after deposition, the eggs hatched with 
difficulty and the larvae seem quite inactive, and all larvae that were 
freed in this manner up to the tenth day were hatched with difficulty, 
though the larvae at the end of this time were becoming fairly 
active. 

Four weeks after hatching the eggs opened with the slightest 
touch of a wet finger, and the larvae adhering to the finger were 
very active, though in some cases they were inactive and apparently 
dead. About five weeks after collecting the eggs nearly all gave 
only inactive or dead larvae, though opened with ease on being 
touched with the finger, and in forty days after collecting no living 
larvae could be found in the remaining eggs, except one which had 
succeeded in pushing off the cap of the egg and partially emerging. 

In view of these results, I conclude :— > 

(i) That the eggs of the horse bot-fly do not hatch, except by the assistance 
of the horse's tongue. 

(2) That hatching does not ordinarily occur within ten or twelve days and 
possibly longer, or if during this period, only on very continuous and active 
licking by the horse. 

(3) That the hatching of the larvse takes place most readily during the third 
to fifth week after deposition. 

(4) That the majority of the larvse lose their vitality after thirty-five to forty 
days. 

(5) That larvse may retain their vitality and show great activity upon 
hatching as late as thirty-nine days after the eggs were deposited. 

(6) That it is possible, though not normal, for eggs to hatch without moisture 
or friction. 

(7) That in view of these results, the scraping off of the eggs, or their removal 
of destruction by means of washes will be effective even if not used oftener than 
once in two weeks during the period of egg deposition, and, probably, that a 
single removal of the eggs after the period of egg deposition has passed,will prevent 
the great majority of bots from gaining access to the stomach, or at least so large 
a proportion that little injury is likely to occur. 

Wishing to know still more definitely the period of most ready 
hatching, and the effect of different washes for treatment, I suggested 
to a veterinary student, Mr. Harry Shanks, a careful series of 
observations, which were carried through during the summer of 1894. 

From this study, which was made under my direction, and so 
that I had frequent opportunity to note progress, a number of points 
were gained, which are worth adding to the above record. Three 
hundred eggs were collected from a horse which had been previously 



No. 4.] Reprints. 226 

freed from eggs, so that the exact date of deposition was assured. 
The eggs were tested every day. 

On the day of collection (first day) the eggs appeared immature. 
One day later eight eggs opened by picking the operculum off 
showed three larvae with slight movement, and five immovable. 
On the third day a half hour of friction failed to hatch eggs, 
but the larvae when freed by picking off the operculum showed 
two, slight movement ; one, no movement, and one sufficient move- 
ment to get out of the opened shell. 

On the fourth day the larvae in eleven eggs were all active, but 
had to be freed by picking off the operculum ; the same was true up 
to the seventh day, the only difference being noted in greater 
maturity and size of larvae. 

On the ninth day, or when the larvae were eight days from 
deposition, one larva was freed by seventeen minutes of rubbing 
with wet finger, another in twenty-two minutes ; on the tenth day 
two others, one in fourteen and the other in eight minutes ; and on 
the eleventh day several were hatched, the time varying from two to 
five minutes of subjection to the saliva and friction. On the twelfth 
day it required but one or two minutes, and on the thirteenth eggs 
would hatch in fifteen to thirty seconds. On the fourteenth day a 
number of eggs were tried, about one-third of which hatched almost 
immediately upon being touched with the moist finger, the others in 
from five to eight seconds. On the fifteenth day all eggs seemed 
fully mature, and probably nine-tenths would have hatched at once 
upon being touched by a horse's tongue in the ordinary motion of 
licking. From the sixteenth day to the twenty-second the eggs 
would open with a touch of the finger, but the larvae would not ad- 
here except with moisture. On the twenty-third day the first dead 
larva was noted, and a day later four out of eleven eggs opened had 
dead larvae. On the twenty-fourth day all of the eggs not previously 
opened were examined with a lens, and only one showed the cap re- 
moved, the larva being partly out, but dead. The hatching of but 
one egg out of three hundred seems to me to establish pretty fully 
my former opinion, that the eggs require moisture or friction for 
the release of the young. 

On the twenty-fifth day, out of ten eggs three contained dead larvae, 
five could move slightly, and two were quite active. On the twenty- 
sixth day caps were removed from thirty-five eggs, twenty-seven 
larvae being dead, seven were capable of slight movement, and one 
was active enough to escape from the shell. 



^227 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

On the twenty- seventh day out of forty-three eggs opened only 
one larva was alive, and on the twenty-eighth day only one out of 
sixty-five, and on the twenty-ninth day all the remaining eggs, one 
hundred and three, showed only dead larvae. 

The results of this study, it will be seen, confirm in the main the 
conclusion of the former observations, the principal ilifference lying 
in the fact that all the larvae were dead at a somewhat earlier period. 
Of course it could not be said that of the eggs opened in the earlier 
days none would have survived longer than four weeks, but consider- 
ing the number used and that one-third of them were kept the full 
four weeks, and two-thirds nearly that long before being opened, the 
presumption is strong that that is the full normal period of survival. 

It is safe, I think, to sum up the matter by saying that the eggs 
normally require friction and moisture to permit of their hatching and 
transfer to the horse's mouth, that hatching occurs with difficulty 
before the tenth day, and most readily after the fourteenth day, and 
that they lose vitality at a period varying between the twenty-eighth 
and fortieth days, the bulk not surviving more than four weeks. 
This gives a solid foundation upon which to base recommendations 
as to the time when eggs must be destroyed. 

The newly hatched larva is a slender, worm-like creature, so 
transparent that the internal organs are plainly visible. It grows 
rapidly at first, its food consisting probably of the mucous secretions 
of the mouth and oesophagus. ...... As soon as it 

reaches the stomach it fixes itself to the walls by the hooks next 
the mouth and soon undergoes considerable change in its form and 
appearance. The body becomes more conical, but instead of the head 
end being widest this becomes more slender, while the tail end 
broadens. The spiracles at first exposed in two flap-like projections 
from the last segment are drawn more within the body and are pro- 
tected by the development of a horny plate. The spines on the 
segments following the head become more pronounced. When full 
grown the larva is three-fourths of an inch to one inch in length 

At this time they occur in large clusters upon 

the walls of the stomach, generally more especially numerous at 
the pyloric portion, where they serve to retain the contents of the 
stomach. From the fact that the food of the horse does not become 
•completely reduced to fluid, this obstruction may be considerably 
greater than if only fluid matter had to pass the pylorus. This 
growth has occupied from late in the fall, through the winter, till 
late in the spring, and when fully developed the bots loosen their 



Ho. 4*] Reprints. 22^ 



hold and are carried through the intestines and, escaping with the 
excrement, burrow into the ground to pass the pupa stage. This 
lasts for several weeks, thirty to fourty days, according to some 
authors, when the fly, which has been already described, issues and 
is ready to proceed with the business of providing for another 
generation of bots. 

The larva of this species has been found in the stomach of the 
dog, though it cannot be considered a normal habitat for it, and it 
is very doubtful whether the young larvae could survive in the 
stomach of a carnivorous animal. Railliet (Comptes Bendus des seances 
de la Societe de Biologic, 1894) cites records by Colin and others of 
such occurrences, and details experiments which show the possibility 
of the survival of nearly mature larvae that are swallowed with 
fragments of the stomach walls attaching: to the stomach of the 
dog and remaining alive and healthy fifteen days after the ingestion. 

Prevention. — In dealing with bots in horses, by far the most 
important point is to prevent the introduction of the larvs, and 
while we have no opportunity, as in the case of the ox bot-fly, to 
completely exterminate the pest, it is certain that proper attention to 
preventive measures would in a few years greatly reduce the 
numbers of the insects and procure comparative freedom. The 
better care usually accorded horses makes it possible to deal with 
it in some respects more easily than the species infesting cattle. 
The most vulnerable point of attack lies in the conspicuous position 
of the eggs. No horseman probably can overlook these objects 
when occurring on the horse he is caring for, and colts in pasture 
sometimes become so covered with them as to give a decided change 
in colour to the parts most affected. It is evident that removing 
or destroying these eggs previous to hatching is all that is necessary 
to prevent "bots" in the horse. With horses kept in stables or 
used daily there is little trouble ; the flies have less opportunity to 
deposit eggs upon them, and the ordinary grooming of the animal 
serves to remove some of the eggs, or being constantly under observa- 
tion the eggs attract the attention of the person in charge and 
he removes them, if not to prevent bots at least to avoid the unsightly 
or ill-kept appearance they give the animal. With colts or horses 
in pasture, however, the case is very different. Not knowing the 
curry-comb or card through the whole summer, and perhaps hardly 
seen from one week's end to the other, the eggs deposited on 
them by hundreds have every possible chance to transmit larvae 
to the alimentary canal where they commence their growth. During 



229 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

July, August, and September, or as late as eggs appear on the horses, 
those kept in pastures should be examined once every two or three 
weeks and the eggs destroyed or removed. This can be accom- 
plished in several ways. By using washes of dilute carbolic acid, 
about one part carbolic acid to thirty parts water or, rubbing the 
affected parts over lightly with kerosene, by clipping the hair or 
by shaving the eggs off with a sharp knife or razor. Our own 
experience leads us to prefer the last. With a very sharp knife or 
razor ( a dull one will glide over the eggs) the affected parts can 
be very quickly run over without removing much, if any, of the hair. 
This method leaves no doubt as to whether or not the eggs have 
been touched, as in washes, and subsequent examinations are not 
complicated by a lot of dead eggs or shells. Perform once every 
two weeks, and there can be very few of the larvae which gain 
entrance to the stomach. Will it pay may naturally be asked by 
the man who has, say, from twenty-five to a hundred colts in the 
pasture. Possibly not, if but a single season is considered, but the loss 
of a single horse, or the poor condition of a number, resultino- from 
bots, or the fretting of the whole number in pasture, would more than 
equal all the cost of removing the eggs from the entire lot. But when 
the presence on the farm of the pest year after year is considered with 
all its attendant evils, we believe most emphatically that it will 
pay. 

Quite frequently the flies will be observed at work depositing 
eggs on the legs or body of a horse at work or in carriage. If not 
noticed at once, the nervous stamping, biting, or often greater 
excitement of the horse will apprise the driver of their presence. 
Although the flies are pretty wary and dart away when approached, 
a few seconds' watching will enable one, by striking them down to 
the ground with hand or hat, to capture and kill the fly and thus 
stop the deposition of eggs and annoyance to the horse. 
Whether the larvae of this species can mature except upon gaining 
access to earth seems not to have been determined, and for all 
the time the horses are in the field or on the road they have ready 
access to earth. But as some other forms can pupate successfully 
in the dung heap, it would seem worth while to subject the drop- 
pings of horses known to contain bots to some process that would 
destroy them and thus prevent maturity of the fly. 

Remedies for bots. — The prescription of drugs for the removal of bots 
from the stomach when their presence is known or suspected belongs 
rather to the veterinarian than to the entomologist, but it may not be out 
of place here to call attention to a few of them. It is of course not 



No. 4.] Reprints. 23<> 

an easy matter to determine during the life of the horse whether any 
particular disturbance of the digestive organs or lack of nutrition is 
due to the presence of bots or to some other agency producing 
similar symptoms, and even a competent veterinarian may be 
puzzled, in diagnosis. If occasional bots are noticed in the excre- 
ments of the animal together with poor condition, their presence in 
numbers may be inferred. It must be remembered that the bots are 
capable of withstanding almost any substance that the walls of the 
stomach can endure, and the safest plan, if intending to dose for 
them is to employ a veterinarian. Turpentine is perhaps most 
generally given, but must be used with care. 

THE HiEMORRHOIDAL BOT-FLY. 

GastropJiilus JiwniorrJioidalis, Linn. 

While it is common to speak of the horse bot-fly, it should not 
be inferred that there is but one kind parasitic upon the horse. 
Take the world over, there are at least six well-defined species 
occurring on the horse, ass, or mule, and any of these are liable to 
be introduced into this country with imported animals. The above- 
named species is probably next to egui, the most generally distri- 
buted in this country. With the other allied species it was well 
known in Europe during the last century and received mention or 
more elaborate description from Linnaeus, DeGeer, Fabricius, and 
other leading writers on entomology. 

Extent of injury.— -The losses to be referred to this species are 
similar to those of the other species, but from the accounts of vari- 
ous authors and what we have heard from persons who were plainly 
describing the actions of this particular form, it is evident that the 
excitement and consequent loss due to the attacks of the adult fly 
are much worse with this species than the common one. This is 
described by Clark as follows :— 

At the sight of this flv the horse appears much agitated, and moves his head 
backward and forward in the air to balk its touch and prevent its darting on 
the lips ; but the fly, waiting for a favourable opportunity, continues to repeat 
the operation from time to time ; till at length, finding this mode of defence insuffi- 
cient, the enraged animal endeavours to avoid it by galloping away to a distant 
part of the field, if it still continues to follow and tease him, his last resource is in 
the water where the CEstrus is never observed to follow hira. At other times this 
CEstrus gets between the forelegs of the horse whilst he is grazing, and thus 
makes its attack on the lower lip. The titillation occasions the horse to stamp 
violently with his forefoot against the ground, and often strikes with his foot, as 



231 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV* 



if aiming a blow at the fly. They also sometimes hide themselves in the grass, 
and as the horse stoops to graze, they dart on the mouth or lips and are always 
observed to poise themselves during a few seconds in the air, while the egg is 
preparing on the point of the abdomen, 

Lije-history and habits. — Having discussed pretty fully the 
habits of the common species, it will be unnecessary to go into 
details that are similar in other species, but simply call attention to 
distinguishing characters and such differences in habit as maybe of 
economic importance. 

Professor A. E, Verrill (Report on External and Internal Para- 
sites of Man and Domestic Animals, p. 29) gives the following con- 
densed statement of its life-history and habits : — 

The Gastrophilus hcBmorrhoidalis or red-tailed bot-fly, is a small species 
easily distinguished by the bright orange-red tip of the abdomen. The thorax 
above is olive gray and hairy with a black band behind and suture. The base 
of the abdomen is whitish and the middle blackish, in strange contrast with the 
orange -red of the end. The larvse have the same habits and are found in the 
same situations with those of the common bot-fly, which they much resemble, 
except that they are whiter and smaller, their length not exceeding one-half or 
five-eighths of an inch. They change to pupse within two days after leaving 
the horse, and the pupse are deep red. They remain in the pupa state about 
two months, and the flies appear from the last of June till the cool weather of 
autumn. In depositing the eggs the female differs in habit from the common 
bot-fly, for she selects the lips and nose of the horse as the most suitable place 
for this purpose. The fggs are darker coloured (some authors say black) than 
those of the common bot-fly, and contain a nearly developed embryo, bo that 
thev very soon hatch, and the young larvse are transferred to the mouth by the 
tongue, and thence get into the stomach. 

Remedies. — On account of the shorter time between deposition 
of eggs and hatching of larvae, it is evident that the removal of eggs 
as for that species would be less successful. For horses in use, imme- 
diate attention when they give signs of the presence of the fly, the 
capture of the insect and the removal of eggs already attached would 
be but the natural method suggested by a knowledge of the insect. 
For horses in pasture, if exhibiting signs of molestation by this insect, 
the same attention would be advisable whenever the nature of the 
case will permit. It would be worth while to try the application of 
some oil or tar to the hairs of the lips as a prevention to the fasten- 
ing of the eggs to them. 



3. Gastrophilus pecoruitiy Fabr. 

We are not aware that this species has been encountered in 
the United States, and, if so, it is evidently rather rare. The follow- 



No. 4.J Rep tints. 232 

ing paragraph from Professor Verrill's report would seem to indicate 
an acquaintance with specimens collected in this country: — 

The Gastrophilus pecorum is densely covered with yellow hairs, with a band 
of black hairs on the thorax behind the suture in the male. The female is yellow* 
ish brown, the abdomen black, with yellowish hairs at its base, as well as on 
t^-e thorax. The wings are grayish or light brownish, clouded with yellowish 
brown. The larvae are similar to those of the more common G. equi, and have 
■similar habits. The flies appear at the same time. 

Ostan Sacken's List of American Diptera records it only from 
Jamaica on the authority of Walker, 



4. HORSE BOT-FLY OR "CHIN FLY." 

(Gastrophilus nasalis, Linn.) ■ 

As already stated, this species has been more or less confused 
with equi in scientific writings, and doubtless still more so in general 
observation, 

It was described as Qlslrus nasalis by Linnaeus {Fauna Suec ) 
and it was also given the name of veteriniis by Clark, It was included 
by Fabricius with hasmorrhoidalis under Gistrus equi. The descrip- 
tion in Systema Naturae (Turton's translation) is as follows : — 

Wings immaculate, body ferruginous, sides of the thorax and base of the 
abdomen with white hairs. Deposits its eggs on horses and cattle, the larvae 
probably pass through the stomach like the former one- 
Less than OEstrtis equi Insertion of the wings and base of the abdomen 
covered with whitish hairs ; second segment of the abdomen with two hairy 
tubercles. Beneath and legs rusty brown. Female with sometimes a blackish 
abdomen. 

Of this species Verriil writes .(Ext. and Int. Parasites, p, 28) : — 
The Gastrophilus nasalis is a smaller species, dense'y hairy, with the 
thorax \ellowish red or rust - coloured. The abdomen is cither whitish at base 
with the middle black and the apex yellowish brown and hairy; or the base is 
whitish and all the rest brown ; or the middle is black, r-jith the base ard apex 
whitish, with grayish hairs.. The wings are unspotted. The larv^ are much 
like those of the preceding (hsmorrhoidalis), except that they are smaller, and 
also live in the stomach of horses. They change to pupae beneath the manure 
and the flies appear from June to September. It also infests the ass and mule 
and some authors say that it lives even in cattle. 

Zuru^ ascribes this parasite to horses, asses, mules and goats, and 
says the eggs, i mm. long, are laid on the lips and margin of nostrils. 
He describes the full-grown larva as 13 to 14 mm. long, deep yellow 



* Die tierischeu Parasiten, p, 100, 



233 Indian Museum Notes. Reprints. [Vol. IV. No. 4.] 



or yellow brown, thicker behind than before, and the segments 2 to 
9 above and 2 to 10 below with a single row of yellowish, brown- 
tipped spines. 

The pupa he described as dark-brown or black, the segments 
with only a single series of horny spines, its length of life in this 
stage from thirty to forty-two days. 

Professor Garman^ in a recent paper on the subject gives a 
record of the occurrence of this species in Kentucky. 

From this record it would appear that the species is somewhat 
common and troublesome in that region, and as the species has 
been recorded from many places in this country, it may be looked 
upon as having quite a general distribution. 

The most essential point in habit of this species is the fact that 
the eggs are laid on the lips or nostrils, within easy reach of the 
tongue, and as it is quite probable that they hatch more promptly 
than those of equt^ it is more difficult to adopt measures of 
prevention. Measures must consist in preventing as far as possible 
the deposition of eggs, for which purpose the application of a 
little tar and fish oil to the hairs of the under-lip may be of 
service, and where eggs are suspected, the use of a wash of car- 
bolic acid to the lips and margin of nostrils. 

According to German, the eggs are white, and are attached 
to the hairs of the lip and throat by the greater part of one side. 
The species occurs in Europe and has been observed in New 
England, New York, Ohio, Kentucky, Kansas, Utah, and probably 
elsewhere in this country. 

Professor Garman gives the following key by which the different 
species of bot-flies may be distinguished :— 

1. (6) Discoidal cell closed by cross vein. 

2. (3) Wings marked with brown . . • , G. equi. 

3. (2) Wings not marked with brown. 

4. (5) Anterior basal cell nearly or quite equal to the 

discoidal cell in length . . . . G. nasalis. 

5. (4.) Anterior basal cell markedly shorter than the 

discoidal cell . . , , . .« G, hsemorrhoidalls. 

6. (l) Discoidal cell open , . . . . G. pecorum, 

^ The Bot-flies of the Horse, Seventh An. Rep. Ky. Ag. Exp. Sta., p. xxvii. 



G, I. C. P. O.-No. 269 R. & A.— 12-8-99.- i,ooo.~H, R. 



<o.. 



INDIAN MUSEUM NOTES. 

FEB r^ 1900 

ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES. 

Volume IV.~No. 5. 




fJublishtb bg ^uthoritg of the fcbcmmsnt of Ittbk, 
■ icpartmcnt of ^ebettu^ attb ^qxkultnxz. 



CALCUTTA: 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA, 

1899. 



sice ^wpee One* 



a^; 



FEB 8 1900 



CONTENTS. 

Paob. 

1. List of the Melolonthini contained in the collection 

or THE Indian Museum : by Edward Barlow, Assistant in 
charge of Entomology 234 

2. Description of a new Pbar-treb Aphis from Ceylon : by 

G. B. Buckton, F.R.S., etc., with introductory note by E. E. 
Green, F.E.S 274 



3. Notes on two mew species of Aphids from India : by G. B. 

Buckton, F.R.S., etc • 277 



4. Description op a new Parasitic Tachinid fly from Ceylon t 

by D. W. Coquillett . .279 



EXPLANATION OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Plate XVI— 



Fig. I. LaChnus pyri. Buck. n. sp. a, half-grown larva ; b, winged 
female, March brood j c, antenna j d, winged female, June brood j 
em Apterous adult, June brood (all enlarged). 



Plaie XVII— 



Fig. I. Chaitophorus maculatus, Buck. n. sp. «, Apterous female ; 
b, head ; c, wings; d, nectary ; e, hind femur (all enlarged). 

„ 2. Rhizobius jujube. Buck. n. sp. a. Apterous adult ; b, young 
insect j c, part of the head and antenna ; d, Tarsus with single claw. 



Plate XVIII— 



Fig. I. ExoRiSTA HETERUsiiE, Coquillett n. sp. a, fly ; 6 and c, front and 
side views of the face ; d, puparium. 

„ 2. HeteRusia cingala, Moore, a and b, moths ^ and $ ; c, larva ; 
a, cocoon. 



Vol. IV.] [No. 5. 

LIST OF THE MELOLONTHINI CONTAINED IN 
THE COLLECTION OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM. 

By EDWARD BARLOW, 

Assistant in charge of Entomology. 



The following list comprises all the named Melolonthini in 
the collection of the Indian Museum. The collection is not a com- 
plete one, and many known species of the Indian Region are want- 
ing : still it is worthy of attention as it contains numerous type 
specimens, of which a good number are unique. 

The total number of species included in the list amounts to 213 
of which 140 are Indian, while 73 are exotic. 

The synonymy and references have been worked out as far as is 
practicable from the literature contained in the Indian Museum 
Library, but the compiler's thanks are particularly due to Herr Ernst 
Brenske for his unremitting kindness and assistance in identifying 
almost all the species referred to. 



Genus; AN ISDN YX, Latreille. 
I. Anlsonyx longipes, Linn. 

Anisonyx longipes, Linn., Syst. Nat. I., 2, p. 555. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 100. 
„ crinitus, Fabr., Mani. Ins. \., p. 24.— Blanch. Cuv. Mgn. Am'm. 
Atl. t. 44,/. 12. — Burm. ^a«^5. IV, i, p. 42. 

Reg. No.^, Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brensk 
26lh March 1892. -^ 



235 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

2. Anisonyx ursus, Fabr. 

Anisonyx ursus, Yabi., Syst. Eni. App., p. i^^. -'Enxra.. Handb.lY , i,p. 
41. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. iioo. 

Reg. No. Y~, Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 



Genus: PERITRICHIA, Burm. 
3. Peritrichia capicola, Fabr. 

Peritrichia capicola, Fabr,, S^st. El. II, p, 179. — Burm. Handb.lY, \, p. 
48. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. iioo. 

Reg. No'2^, Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 



4. Peritrichia nigrita, Blanch. 

Peritrichia nigrita, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850,^. 60— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. iioi. 

„ ursus, Oliv., Ent. I, 5, /. 58, /. 8,/. 88. 

Reg. No.2g^' Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 



Genus : LEPITRIX, Serville. 
5- Lepitrix bilateral is, Thunb. 

Lepitrix bilateralis, Thunb., Mem, Ac. Petr. 181 8, VI, p. 446. — Burm. 
Handb. IV, i, p. 39. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 

IV, p. IIOI, 

„ abbreviaia, Guer., Jc. Regn. Anim. Ins. i. 25, bis. f. 7. 

Reg. No. ^% Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 



6. Lepitrix lineata, Fabr. 

Lepitrix lineata^ Fabr., Syst. Ent. App., p. 820.— Oliv. Ent. I, 6, p. 66. /, 
7. /. 63,— Burm. Handb. IV, \,p. 38.— Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 10 1. 

„ quadrata, DeGeer. Mem. Ins. VII, p. 645, /. 48, /. 10, 

„ ihoracica, Thunb., Mim. Ac. Petr., 1818, VI, /. 444. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 236 

Reg. No.^, Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 

7. Lepitrix stigma, DeGeer. 

Lepitrix stigma, DeGeer., Mim. Ins. VII, ^,645, /. 84,/! 9. — Bohem, 
Ins. Caffr. II, p. 142. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. IIOI. 

„ fuscipei, Thunb., Mint. Ac. Petr., 1818, VI, /». 445. 

„ nigripes, Fabr., Spec. Ins. I, p. 49. — Oliv. I^nt. I, 6, p. 67, /. 9,/. 
85. — Burm. Handb. IV, 1, p. 38. 

Reg. No. ^^ Cape of Good Hope,' Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 



Genus: ERIESTHIS, Burm. 

8. Eriesthis vestita, Burm. 

Eriesthis veslita, Burm., Handb. IV, i, p. 51.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1 102. 

Reg. No. ^^ Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 



Genus: PACHYCNEMA, Serville. 

9. Pachycnema alternans, Burm. 

Pachycnema alternans, Burm., Handb. IV, i, p. 61. — Gem. Har. Cat. ColeoP. 
IV, p. 1 102. 

„ flaviventris, Sturm., Cat., 1843, p. 128. 

Reg. No. 21^ , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 

10. Pachycnema crassipes, Fabr. 

Pachvcnema crassipes, Fabr., Syst. Ent. App., p. 818.— Burm. Handb. IV, i, 
p. 60. — ^Lacord. Atl. 3, /. 29,/. i. — Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. lY, p. 1 102. 

a/3i>/«7a, Sturm,, Ca/., 1843, ^. 128. 

Reg. No. ^-g^ , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 



337 Indian Museum Notes. LVol. IV, 



Genus: DICHELUS, Serville. 

II. Dichelus gonager, Fabr. 

Dichelus gonager, Fabr., Spec Ins. I, p. 45 — Olivr, Ent. I, 5,/. 74, /. 6,/. 
68. — Burm. Handh. IV, i, p. 97. — Gem. Har, Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 105. 

Reg. No. ^' , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 

12. Dichelus podagricus, Fabr. 

Dichelus podagricus, Fabr,, Spec. Ins. I, p. 44. — Oliv. Eni. I, 5, p. 73, /. 
5. /. 51. — Burm. Handb. IV, i, p. 91. — Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. lY, p. iioi. 

Reg. No. ^ , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 

13- Dichelus villosus, Burm. 

Dichelus villosus, Burm., Handb. IV, i, p. 109. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1 106. 

Reg. No. 5i|i , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske, 
26th March 1892. 



Genus : MONOCHELUS, Serville. 
14. Monochelus squamulatus, Casteln. 

Monochelussguamulatus, CustQln., Hist. nat. 11, p. 145. — Dej. Cat., 3 ed. 
p. 184.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. no8. 

Reg. No. ^ , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske. 

Genus: GONIASPIDIUS, Burm. 
15. Goniaspidius variabilis, Burm. 

Goniaspidhn variabilis, Burm., Handb. IV, i, p. 128.— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 109. 

„ bidem, ^cldqn,, C<^t. nr, "m. 

„, bideniaius, Ecklon,, Ccit, nr. 378, 

„ relhanioE, Ecklon., Cat. nr. 376, 

}, tridentatus, Dej. Cat., i,ed.,p. 184, a. 

Reg. No. ^- , Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske 
26th March 1892. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln- of Indian Museum. 238 



Genus: LEPISIA, Serville. 

16. Lepisia ruplcola, Fabr. 

Lepisia rupicola, Fabr., SysL EnU App., p. 818 — Gxxix Jc, regn, anim, Ins., /. 
25,/. 5.— Burm. ^a«J3. IV, i.p. 167. — Gem, Har, 
Cat. Coleop. lY.p, iiii. 

Reg. No. 2^3?, Cape of Good Hope, Herr E. Brenske 
26th March 1892. 



Genus: ECTINOHOPLIA, Redten. 
17. Ectinohoplia nigrai Brsk. 

Ectinohoplia nigra, Brensk. n. sp, Ms. 

Reg. No. — ^ N. Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 

18. Ectinohoplia rufipes, Brsk. 

Ectinohoplia rufipes, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. 2il7, Ij^(Jj jjerr E. Brenske. 

19- Ectinohoplia variolosa, Waterh. 

Ectinohoplia variolosa, "^zXtx^ Trans, Ent. Soc, London, 1875, /. 9y, 
Nonf., Berl., Ent, Zeits,, XXXVII, 1892,/. 254. 

Reg. No- — ', locality unknown, probably frona India* 
Genus: HOPLIA, HUger. 

20. Hopliaadvena, Brsk. 

Hoplia advena, Brensk., Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg., II, 1894,/. 35. 

Reg. No. If, Shillong, Colonel G. Austin. 
One unregistered spec, India. 

21. Hoplia bill neat a, Fabi. 

Hoplia bilineata, Fabr., Syst. El. II, p. 178.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. lY, 
p. 1112. 

Reg. No. *-~, Algeria, Mons. T. Bouvier, 30th 
December 1884. 
„ Nos- 'i^t£, ditto ditto. 



239 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV, 



22. Hoplia coerulea, Drury. 

Hoplia coerulea, Drury, ///. Exot. Ins. 1773, II, p. 59, /, 32,/. 4. — Muls. 
Col. Lamell, p. 514. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV. 
p. 1112. 

„ argentea, Fourcroy, Ent Par. I, p. 8. 

„ farinosa, Fabr., Sysi. Ent., /. 38. — Guer./r. Regn. anim. t. 25. 

„ formosa, Latreille, Gen. Crust. 11, p. 116. 

„ squamosa, Oliv., Ent. I, 5,/. 66, /. 2,/. 14, <?.-f. 

Reg. Nos. ^^', Europe, Herr E. Brenske. 26th 
March 1892, 

23. Hoplia concolor, Shp. 

Hoplia concolor, Sharp, Journ., Asia. Soc, Beng., XLVII, 1878, p. 171.— 
Scient. Resw., 2nd, Vark Mis. Coleop. 1879, p. 47. — 
Nonfr., Berl. Ent. Zeits., XXXVII, 1892,/. 254. 

Reg. No- ^S Kogyar, Dr. F. Stoliczka (Yarkand Expd.) 

24. Hoplia farinosa, Linn. 

Hoplia farinosa, Linn., 5^^/. Nat. 1, 2, p. 555. — Oliv. Ent. I., 5, p. 
65. A 2, /. 14. — Erichs. Nat. Ins. Ill, p. 710. — 
Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 12. 

„ argentea, VodA., Mus. GrcBc, p. 20. — Herbst. Kdp. Ill, p. 122, 
t. 25,/. 6. — Muls. Col. Lamell, ^.511. 

„ squamosa, Fabr., Syst. El. IT, p. 177. — Burm. Handb. IV, i, 

/. 187. 

Reg. Nos. ?153:£i, Europe, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 
„ -!^% ditto ditto. 

25. Hoplia graminicola, Fabr. 

Hoplia graminicola,YBhr., Syst. El. II, p. 179. — Ratzeb. Forstins. I, 

/*• ^3 ; A 3,/. 16.— Erichs. iVa/. Ins. Ill, 
^- 713-— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
/. 1113. 
„ argentea. Marsh., Ent Brit. 1, p. 45. 
^ ochracea, Stum., Ca/., 1843, p. 127. 

„ pulverulenta, Herbst., Edf. Ill, /», 124, /. 25, /. 7, — Fabr., Syst. 

El. 11, p. 181. 

Reg. No. 34«?, Europe, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 



No. 5,] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 240 



26. Hoplia philanthus, Sulz. 

HopUa philanihus, ^v\z., Abgeh. Gesch. Ins., p. 18. — Herbst. Fiissl. 

Arch. IV, p 17. — Erichs. Nat. Ins. Ill, 
p. 707.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1 1 14. 
„ argentea, Ollv. Ent. I, 5, p. 67, /, 3, /. 22, a.-d. — Fabr. 

Ent. Syst. II, p. 174.— Burm. Handb. IV, 
i,p. 184. 
„ pulverulenta, IlHg., il^ag'. II, />. 229. — Muls. Col. Lamell, p. 506. 
Reg. Nos. ~^9, Europe, HerrE. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 
'If ditto ditto. 

27. Hoplia pollinosa, Krynick. 

Hoplia pollinosa, Krynick., Bull. Most. V, 1832, p. i27.»-Gem. Har. 

Cat. Coleop. VJ,p. 1 1 14. 

„ pilicollis, Erichs., Nat, Ins. Ill, p, 711. — Burm. Handb. IV, 

2,^.485. 

Four specimens, Reg. Nos. &!', Caucasus, 

Prof. K. L. Bramson, 20th March 1884. 

28. Hoplia retusa, Kiug. 

Hoplia retusa, Klug., Abhandl. Berl. Ac, 1832, p. 170, /. 3, f. g. — 

Burm. Handb. IV, i, p. 199. — Gem. 
Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 14. 
„ orientalis, De]., Cat. 3, ed., /. 185. 

Reg. No. ^, Madagascar, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 



29. Hoplia viridissima, Brsk. 

Hoplia viridissima, Brensk. JHem. Soc. Ent., Belg., II, p. 34,— 

Ann. Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, p. 151. 

Reg. No. ^^ Kurseong, Herr E. Brenske. 

30. Hoplia viridula, Brsk. 

Hoplia viridula, Brensk. Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, No. IV, p. 177. 

Reg. Nos. 2^, and 1^ Types, from Khasi Hills, speci- 
mens lent to Herr E. Brenske. 



241 Indian Mussum Notes. [Vol. IV- 



Genus: OTOCLINIUS, Brenske. 
31. Otoclinius gracilipes, Brsk. 

0/och'nius gracilipes, Bxensk. Berl. Ent. Zeits. XLI, 1896, p. 320., 

Reg. No. Z^, Type $, Baluchistan, Dr. F. P. 
Maynard, 1896. 

Genus: PHYLLOTOCUS, Fischer. 
32. Phyllotocus erythropterus, Blanch. 

P hyllotocus erylhropterus, "StX^irvch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, /». 97.— Gem. 

Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 16. 

Four unregistered specs., Adelaide, C. Wilson, Esq. 

33- Phyllotocus macleayi, Fischer. 

Phyllotocus macleayi, Fischer, Mem. Mosc. VT, 1823, p. 255, /. 22, 

/. 2 a-e. — Burm. Handb, IV, 2, p. 183. 
— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1116. 

„ prceustus, "Bolsd.^ Voy. Astrol. Col., p. 210. — MacLeay, DeJ. 
Cat,, 3 ed., p. 181. 

Reg. No. ^, Europe, Herr E. Brenske. 

Two unregistered specs., Adelaide, C. Wilson, Esq. 



34. Phyllotocus ruflpennis, Boisd. 

tennis, Boisd., Voy. Astrol. Col., p. 210.—'. 
IV, 2,/>. 184.— Dej. Cat., ■ 

Reg. No. ^, Australia, Herr E. Brenske. 



Phyllotocus ruflpennis, Boisd., Voy. Astrol. Col,, p. 210.— Burm. Handb, 

IV, 2, p. 184.— Dej. Cat., 3 ed., p. 182. 



Genus : LASIOSERICA, Brensk. 
35: Lasioserica braeti, Brsk. 

Lasioserica brcBti, Brensk, Ann. Soc.Ent., Belg.,XL, iSg6, p. 155, 

Reg. No. ^^, Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq., September 1896. 

36. Lasioserica calva, Brsk. 

Lasioserica calva, Brensk. Ann. Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896,^. 155. 

Reg. No. ^S Sikkim, A. V. Knyvett, Esq., 1891. 



No. 5.] Melolonf hint contained in colln, of Indian Museum. 242 



37 Lasioserica pilosella, Brsk. 

Lasioserica pilosella, Brensk. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XL, 1896, p. 155. 
Reg. No. ^", Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq., 1896. 



Genus: OPHTHALIVIOSERICA,Brenske n.gen. 
38 Ophthalmoserica unbrinella, Brsk. 

Ophihalmosenca unhrinella, Brensk, n. sp, Ms. 

Nine specs., Reg. Nos. -^^^ and Hio:^ {^^^ Sikkim, 

'3 13 

A. V. Knyvett, Esq., 1891. 
Genus : SERICA, MacLeay. , 

39' Sericaadnexa, Brsk. 

Serica idnexa, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos. Z±^^ Khasi Hills, Major G. Austin. 
„ No. 1^, Naga Hills, ditto. 

40. Serica alcocki, Brsk. 

Serica alcocki, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. Ind. Mus. Noies,Vo\. IV, 4. p. 217. 

Reg. Nos.^-?Z^, Co-types, DehraDun, Director, Forest 

School, Dehra Dun. 

Defoliates the leaves of Mallotus phiiippinensis in the 
Dehra Dun Forests. 

41. Serica andamana, Brsk. 

Serica andamana, Brensk . n. sp, Ms. 

Reg. No. Z123,Type, Andaman Is., unknown. 
J, Nos. ^*5Zz2S, ditto ditto. 



42. Serica assamensis, Brsk. 

Serica assamensis, Brensk. Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. IV, 4, p. 17^» pU 
XIII, f. 4. 
Reg. No. ^, Type, Duars, Assam, Dr. G. Watt. 
^, Nos. I^li^, Co-types, ditto ditto. 

Destructive to tea plants in Assam. 



243 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



43. Sericacalcuttse, Brsk. 

Serica calcutice, Brensk,, Ind. Mus. Notes. IV, 4,^. 176, pi, XIII, f. 3. 

Reg, No. ^i, Type, Calcutta, Surgn.-Col. G. S. Ranking. 
» " ^' Co-type, ditto ditto. 

„ „ ^^ Calcutta, Museum Collector. 

44. Serica clypeata, Brsk. 

Serica clypeata, Brensk. n. sp, Ms. 

Reg. No. ^, Darjeeling, C. H. Dreyer, Esq., i8th July 
1885. 
„ ,, — , Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 26th May 
1886. 

45- Serica ferruginea, Redtenb. 

Serica ferruginea, Redtenb., Hugel Kaschm., 1848, IV, 2, p. 525.— Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV,/>. m8. 

Reg. No. ^> Maldah, W, H. Irvine, Esq., 26th June 
1885. 
,, No. ^\ Gilgit, Dr. G. M. Giles. 
One unregistered spec, Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 
Ditto Ceylon, unknown. 

46. Serica festina, Brsk. 

Serica festina, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. 2^, Co-type, Maldah, W. H. Irvine, Esq. 

47. Serica fumosa, Brsk. 

Serica fumosa, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos. ^-g? and I^', Types, Dehra Dun, Director, 
Forest School, Dehra Dun. 

48. Serica gigantea, Brsk. 

Serica gigantea,'QxQxi&\i.n.s^. Ms, 

Reg. No. ~, Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 

49- Serica himalyica, Brsk. 

Serica himalayica, Brensk. Ann. Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, p. 152. 

Reg. Nos. ^5Zlfl,Sikkim,E. Barlow, Esq., 1896. 



No. 6,] M elolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 244 



50. Serica immutabilis, Schonh. 

Serica immutabilis, Schonh., Syn, Ins. I, 3, p. 181. — Burin. Handb. IV, 2 
p. 165.— Gem. Har, Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1119. 

„ muiabilis, Oliv., -£"«/. I, ^, p. 51, /. 3, /. 24. 

Reg. No. -—-, Dunsiri, unknown. 

Two unregistered specs., locality unknown. 

51. Serica indica, Blanch. 

Serica indica, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent„ 1850,/. 77.— Gem, Har, Cat. Coleop, 
IV, p. HI 9. 

Reg. No. — ^ , Srinagar, unknown. 

Two unregistered specs, locality unknown, 

52. Serica inornata, Brsk. 

Serica inornata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. Y^ , Java, Captain Downes, 22nd September 



53- Serica insularis, Brsk, 

Serica insularfs, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. 7j- , Type, Andaman Is., unknown. 
One unregistered spec, ditto, ditto. 

54. Serica laeticula, Shp. 

Senca IcBticula, Shaxp, your. Asia. Soc. Ben^., XLVII, 1878, p. 1^2 . — 

Scient.Res., Second Forh., Mis. Colep, 1879, *. 47.— 
Nonfr. Berl. Lnt. Zeits., XXXVII, 1892,/. 257. 

Reg. No. ^ , Type, Murree, Dr. F. Stoliczka, 1874. 

55. Serica lugubris, Brsk. 

Serica luguhris, Brensk. Ann. Soc. JEnt,, Belg., XL, 1896, p. 152. 

Reg. Nos. '-2f and ^' , Ranchi, W. H. Irvine, Esq., 
1890. 
„ No. ^, Calcutta, Museum Collector, 1896. 

„ „ T"', Murshidabad, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 1888. 



245 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV 

56. Serica maculosa, Brsk. 

Serica maculoia, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos.^^c?, ^c?, ^c? and '^ ^ , Naga 
Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 
No. ^-^ , N.-E. Frontier, Colonel G. Austin . 
One unregistered spec, locality unknown. 

57. Serica margrinella, Hope. 

Serica marginella, Hope, Gray.Zool. Misc., 1831,/. 24. — Blanch. Cat. Coll. 
Ent., 1850,/. 78.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. lY, p. 1119. 

Reg. No. ^, Andaman Island, unknown. 

One unregistered spec, S.-E. Frontier, Colonel G. Austin. 

58. Serica marmorata, Blanch. 

Serica marmorata, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., iS_o,p. 77. — Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 11 19. 

Reg. No. ~, Sibsagar, S. E. Peal, Esq. 

59. Serica mutabilis, Fabr. 

Serica mutadilis, Fa.hr., Syst. Ent.,p. 39.--Burm. Handb.W, 2,/. 169.— 
Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. lY,p. 11 19. 

Reg. No. ^, N.-E. Frontier, Colonel G. Austin. 
One un-registered spec, ditto. ditto. 

60. Serica penangica, Brsk. 

Serica penangica, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. ~, Co-type, Penang, Captain Downes. 

61. Serica pruinosa, Burm. 

Serica pruinosa, Burm., Handb., IV, 2, p- i6g.. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1120.— Cotes, Jnd. Mus. Notes, III, 3,^.117; 
in, 6, p. 3. 

Reg. No. — - — , Devikulam (6,000 feet ), A. W. Turner, 
Esq., 29th June 1892. 
„ Nos. ^^— ^, Trevandrum, Lieutenant H. S. Ferguson 
2nd June 1892. 
Two unregistered specs., Harmutti, unknown. 
This species is said to attack coffee plants in the 
Madras Presidency. 



No. 5.] Melolonthmi contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 246 

62. Serica rufocuprea, Blanch. 

Serica rufocuprea, Blanch., Cat, Coll. Eni„ 1850, p. "jj. — Gem. Har. Cal. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1120. 

Reg. No. ~^, Shillong, Colonel G. Austin. 



63. Serica sempiterna, Brsk. 

Serica sempiterna, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos. '^ and ^, Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 

64. Serica severini, Brsk. 

Serica sever ini, Brensk. Ann. Soc. Ent„ Belg., XL, 1896, p. 153. 
Reg. Nos. "i^, ^^ ^^°, and ^^ Bangalore, J. Came- 
ron, Esq., 18(^0. 

65. Serica sikkimensls, Brsk. 

Serica sikkimensis, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. '■^, Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 28th 
December 1888. 

„ „ ■^, Darjeeling, C. H. Dreyer, Esq. 

66. Serica sphaerica, Burm. 

Serica sphcerica, Bmm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 172.— Gem, Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, /. 1 1 20. 

Reg. No. ^ TavQ-y, l^useum Collector. 

67. Serica tridens, Brsk. 

Serita tridens, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos. ^,'-f and Naga Hills, Colonel G. 

Austin. 

68. Serica truncata, Brsk. 

Serica truncata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. ^^ Sikkim, E. T.Atkinson, Esq. 
-, Nos. ^-^-^' Calcutta, Museum Collector. 
„ „ 5251, 55£3 ^^^ 5^^ Mungphu. E. T. Atkinson. 
Esq. 



247 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



69. Serica umbrin a, Blanch. 

5(fma «/w3n«a, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p. 77,— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 12 1. 

Reg. No. ^', Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 



Genus: HO MA LOP LI A, Stephens, 

70. Homaloplia limbata. Krynick. 

Homaloplia limiata, Krynick., Bull, Mosc, V, 1832, p, 126.— Megerie. 
Sturm. Cat., 1843,/*. 126. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop, 
IV, ^.1123. 

Reg. No. ^' S. Russia, K. L. Bramson, Esq., 24th 
December 1885. 

„ „ -7 ditto ditto. 

71. Homaloplia ruricola, Fabr. 

Homaloplia ruricola, Fabr., Syst, Ent„ py 38, — Ratzeb., Forstins, i, p. 80. 
^- 3. /• 13.— Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. i54._Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 23. 

„ fioricola, Laichart, Verz, Ins. Tyrol, i, p. 41. 

„ marginata, Fuessl., Verz. p. 3. — Fourer., Ent. Par. i, p. 9. 

,, nigromarginata, Herbst., Arch., p. 155, /. 43,/". 7. 

Reg. No. ~, Europe, Herr E. Brenske. 

72. Homaloplia spiraeae, Gebler. 

Homaloplia spircecs, Gebler, Bull. Mosc, 1847, IV, ^ 465.— Gem, Har,. Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1123. 

Reg. No. ^■^' Sahibgunge, C. A. Wilson, Esq. 



Genus: TRIODONTA, Mulsant. 
73- Triodonta aquila, Castein. 

Triodontaaguila,Ca.ste\n, Hist, nat., 1840, 11, p. 148. — Muls , Col. Fr* 
Lamell, p. 468.— Jacq., Duv. Gen. Col. Ill, /. 13* 
/. 63.~Dej, C«/., 3 ed., p. 183— Gem. Har. Cat- 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 123. 

Reg. No. ^^ Europe., Herr E. Brenske. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln, of Indian Museuni. 248 
Genus : DIPHUCEPHALA, Serville. 

74- Diphucephala edwardsi, Waterh. 

Diphucephala edwardsi, Waterh., Mon., p. 220.— Burm. Handh. IV, 2, 
p, 121. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop.lY, p. 1128. 

One unreg. specimen, Adelaide, S. Australia, C. Wilson, 
Esq. 



Genus : STETHASPIS, Hope. 
75. Stethaspis suturalis, Fabr. 

Steihaspis suturalis, Fabr., Syst. Ent, p. 34. — White, Voy. Ereb. Terr, Zool. 
Ins., p. II, /. 2, /. 7. — Burm. Handb. IV, 2, 
p. 222. 

Reg. No. ^, N. Zealand, Captain T. Brown, ist 
August 1884. 



Genus: PYRONOTA, Boisduval. 

76. Pyronota f estiva, Fabr. 

Pyronota f estiva, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 36. — Oliv., Ent. I, 5,/. 47, /. 5,/. 48 
a-b. — Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 219. — Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1 1 30. 

Three specs., Reg. Nos. ^^-^^^ , N. Zealand, Captain T. 
Brown, ist August 1884. 



Genus: LIPARETRUS, Guerin. 

77' Liparetrus discipennis, Guer. 

Liparetrus discipennis, Gubr., Voy. Coquille, 1830, Col., p. ()Q,t. 3,/". 10.— » 
Burm,;^(2«^(5. IV, 2, j>. 195. — Durville Dej. Cat., 
3 ed., p. 18 r. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1131- 
One unregistered spec, Adelaide, C. Wilson, Esq. 



78. Liparetrus hirsutus, Burm. 

Burm., Handh. IV, z, p. 197. — Gem, ] 
IV, /. 1131. 

One unregistered spec, Adelaide, C. Wilson, Esq. 



Liparetrus hirsvtus, Burm., Handb. lY, 2, p. 197. — Gem, Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1131. 



249 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

79- Liparetrus xanthotrichus, Blanch. 

Liparetrus xanthotnchus,'^\dir\c}\.., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850,/. 103. — Gem. 
Har. Cat. Coleop. IV , p. 1132. 

Two unregistered specs., Adelaide, C. Wilson, Esq, 



Genus: HAPLONYCHA, Blanch. 

80. Haplonycha crinita, Burm. 

Haplonycha crinita, Burm., Handl. IV", 2, p. 229. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop, 
lY,p. 1133. 

One unregistered spec, Adelaide, S. Australia, 
C. Wilson, Esq. 



Genus : HETERONYX, Gubrin. 

81. Heteronyx obesus, Burm. 

Heteronyx olesus, Burm. Handh, IV, 2,p, 236. — 'Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1134. 

One unregistered spec, from Adelaide, S. Australia, C. 
Wilson, Esq. 

82. Heteronyx oblongus, Blanch. 

Heteronyx oblongus, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, />. no. — Gem. Har. Ca/. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 134. 

Reg. No. -~, Australia, unknown. 



Genus: ODONTRIA, White 

83. Odontria striata, White. 

Odovtria striata, White, Voy. Ereb. Terr. Ins., p. 10, /. 2,f. 5.-^Blanch, Voy. 
Pole. Sud. Zool, IV, p. 125, t. a,/. 5.— Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 36. 

Reg. No. ^ , New Zealand, Captain T, Brown. 
84. Odontria zelandica, Whit. 

Odontria eelandica, White, Voy. Ereb. Terr. Ins., p. 10.— Lacord., Gen. Atl., 
/. 30, /". 3. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 36. 

Reg. No. --' N. Zealand, Captain T. Brown. 



Ho. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln, of Indian Museum. 250 



Genus : RHINASPIS, Perty. 
85. Rhinaspis schranki, Perty. 

JRhinaspis schranki, Perty., Del. anim., p. 47, /. 10, /. i.— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop, IV, p. 1 1 50. 

Reg. No. —' Brasilia, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 



Genus : DEJEAN I A, Blanch. 

86. Dejeania alsiosia, Blanch. 

Djijeania alstosia, Blanch., Cat. Coll, Ent., i%<^o, p. 96. — Lacord., Gen. Ail, 
^- 30. f' 5' — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop, IV, p. 1 1 54. 

Reg. No. -~~, Tavoy,, Museum Collector, 27th Febru- 
ary 1885. 

Genus: ANCISTROSOMA, Curtis. 

87. Ancistrosoma farinosum, Salle, 

Ancistroioma farinosiim, SalM, Ann. Fr., 1849, P- 30°' ^' 8. /. 3, a,-d. — 
Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p. 124.—- Burm. 
Handh, IV, 2, p, 104. — Gem. Har, Cat, Coleop. 
IN, p. 1155. 

Reg. No. ^, Columbia, Herr E. Brenske, 2Dth March 
1892. 



Genus : AP O G O N 1 A, Kii by . 

88, Apogonia andamana, Brsk, 

Apogonia andamana, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 



7412 J 7413 
— and—, 

One unregistered spec, ditto. 



Ree. Nos. ~ and ~, Andaman Island. 



89. Apogonia angustata, Brsk. 

Apogonia angustata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. ^^, Berhampur, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 1890. 



251 Indian Museum Notes [Vol. IV. 



90- Apogonia brunnea, Hope. 

Apogonia brunnea, Hoipe, Gray. Zool. Misc., 1831,/. 23, — Blanch. Cai. Coll. 
Ent., 1850, p. 228.— Gem. Her. Cat. Coleop. IV. 
p. 1156. — Waterh. Cist. Ent. II, 1877,/. 227. — 
Ritz. Tijds. voor. Ent., XXXIV, p. xcii. 

Reg. No. ^, Calcutta, Museum Collector, 1889. 

91. Apogonia carinata, Brsk. 

Apogonia carinata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. Nos. ^* and ^, Berhampur, E. T. Atkinson, 
Esq. 
„ „ ^ and ^^, Murshidabad, ditto. 

92. Apogonia cribricollis, Burm. 

Apogonia cribricollis, Burm., Handb. IV, 2, p. 256. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop, 
IV, p. 1 1 56. 

Reg. Nos. -^' and ^, Sibsagar, S. E. Peal, Esq. 



93- Apogonia destructor. Bos. 

Apogonia destructor. Bos., Tijdskr. V. Ent., KXXIII, 1890, p. 336, /. 14, 
f. 16.— Nonfr., Berl. Ent. Zeits., XXXVII, 1892, 
p. 271.— Rits., Tijd. V. Ent., XXXIV, p. xciv. 

Reg. Nos. ^' and '-7^, East Java, Mons. C. Ritsema, 
3rd July 1890. 

This species has been reported as attacking sugar-cane 
in Java. 

94 Apogonia ferruginea, Fabr. 

Apogonia ferruginea, Fabr., Spec. Ins., I, p. 41. — Oliv., Ent., I, 5, p. 44, /. 7, 
/: 82.— Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 258.— Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 11 56. 

Reg. No. —■' Maldah, W. H. Irvine, Esq., 1885. 

7640 r-. 1 . J • 

„ ,, -^.Ranchi, ditto. 

Two unregistered specs., Calcutta, E. T, Atkinson, Esq. 

95. Apogonia kombirana, Brsk. 

Apogonia kombirana, Brensk. Ann. Soc. Enio., Belg., XL, 1896, p. 155. 
Reg. No. 3-Konkir, Bengal, Herr E. Brenske. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 252 
96. Apogonia laevicollis, Lansb. 

Apogonia Icevicollis, Lansb., C. R Soc. EnL, Belg., 1879, p- cxVix.—Beri, 
Ent. Zeiis, XXXVII, 1892,/*. 271. 

Reg. Nos. ~f and '-^3*, Java. Mons. C. Ritsema, 3rd 
July 1890. 

97. Apogfonia metasternalis, Rits. 

Apogonia metasiernalis, Rits., Notes Ley den Mus., XVII, /. 207. 

Reg. No. ^^ Pegu, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 8th May 
1889. 

98. Apogonia moesta, Burm, 

Apogonia mcesta, Burm., Handb. IV, z, p. 257. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1156. 

Reg. Nos. —^ and —-, Berhampur, E. T. Atkinson, 
Esq. 

99- Apogonia proxima, Waterh. 

Apogonia proxima, Waterh., Cisiul. Ent., II, p. 223. — Nonfr., Berl, Ent. 
Zeits., XXXVII, 1892,/. 272. 

•n M_ S'33 8136 8130 8137 4995 4996 J 4997 . j 

Reg. Nos. -7,-7, — , 7 ' 5 ' ~T ^"^ s , Andaman 
Island, unknown. 
» 5> ^-f-' and ^, Andaman Island, Revd. Warne- 
fords. 

100. Apogonia splendida, Bohem. 

Apogonia splendida, Bohem., Res. Eugen., 1858, p. 55. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 156. 

Reg. Nos. ^ and ^, Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 
28th August 1888. 

loi. Apogonia uniformis, Blanch. 

Apogonia uniformis, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p. 229. — Lacord., Gen. 
III,/. 277, not. I. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV. 
p. 1156. 

Reg. Nos. 1^', '-7J and ^, Ranchi, W. H. Irvine, Esq. 

loth September 1889. 
>, j> - ^''°i3^'*° '. Bangalore, J. Cameron, Esq., i8th 

December 1889. 
„ No. ^, Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 28th 

August 1888. 



2 53 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV, 



102. Apogronia vicina, Burm. 

Apogonia vicina, Burm., Handb. IV, 2, p. 256. — Dej. Cat., 3 ed., p. 179. — 
Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop., IV, />. 1156. 

Reg. No. ~, Maldah, W. H. Irvine, Esq. 

'—, Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 30th July 



il 



103. Apogonia villosella, Blanch. 

Apogonia villosella, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Enl., 1850, p. 229. — Lacord. Gen. 
Ill, p. 277, not. I.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1156. 

Reg. No. ^^, Calcutta, E. T. Atkinson, Esq. 



Genus: HEPTOPHYLLA, Motsch. 
104. Heptophylla picea, Motsch. 

Heptophylla picea, Motsch., Etud. Ent., 1857, p. 33.— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. lY,p. 1 1 58. 

Reg. No. ■—, Formosa, Surgn.-General R. Hungerford, 
17th March 1883. 
„ ,, ^, ditto ditto. 



Genus: SCHIZONYCH A, Blanch. 

105. Schizonycha crenata,Gyilen. 

Schizonycha crenaia, Gyllenh., Schonh, Syn. ln&. I, 3, App. , p. 78,— Burm. 

Handb. IV, 2, p. 26S.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1 1 59. 

Reg. No. -^^ , Siberia, Dr. Dohrn, 9th January 1882. 

106. Schizonycha fuscescens, Blanch. 

Schizonycha fuscescens, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., i%^o, p. i^o.- — Gem. Har. 

Cat. Coleop, IV.) p. 1 1 59. 
One unregistered spec, Trevandrum. 
Ditto ditto, India. 

107. Schizonycha rhizOtrogoides, Brsk. 

Schizonycha rhizotrogoides, Brensk. n. sp., 2nd. Mus. Notes, IV, 4, p. 177. 

One unregistered spec, Senife (7,000 feet) 
Abysenia, lent to Herr E. Brenske. 



No. 5.] Melolonthiiii contained in colln. of Indian Museum, 254 



Genus: EUCIRRUS, Melly. 
108. Eucirrus mellyi, Melly. 

Eucirrus mellyi, Melly, Mag, ZooL, 1832. CI. IX, /. 47— Burm. Handb. IV. 
2,p, 293.— Gem, Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, /. 1163. 
One unregistered spec, from Ceylon. 



Genus: LEPIDIOTA, Hope. 
109. Lepidiota bimaculata, Saund. 

Lepidiota bimaculata, Saund, Trans. Ent. Soc. II, 1839,/. 176,/. 16, /. 2,— 

Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 294. — Gem, Har. Cat. 
Coleop, IV, p. 1 163. 

" gfiffit^i^ Hope, Trans, Ent. Soc. Ill, 1841,/. 62. 

Reg. NO. ?^ ,Ladak,E. I. Go's Museum, 27th Septem- 
ber 1894. 
„ „ ?567 Sikkim, ditto ditto. 

„ „ i£L8 , Assam, A. J. Mein, Esq., 1884. 

4 
„ „ -12£4 , Shillong, Shillong Museum, 1892. 

13 
,, „ iZ5s ^ Cherra, Abyssinian Collection, 27th 

October 1884. 
One unregistered spec, Naga Hills, Captain Butler. 

Ditto ditto , Khyokphow, Mr, Davidson, 

Two ditto specs, Sikkira, unknown. 

110. Lepidiota crenulata, Burm. 

Lepidiota crenulata, Burm., Handb. lY, 2, p. 297.— Gem. Har. Cat, Col. IV, 
p. 1163. 

Reg. No- -^ , South India, unknown. 

111. Lepidiota luctuosa, Blanch. 

Lepidiota luctuosa, Blanch., Cat, Coll. Ent., 1850, />. 157.— Gem. Har, Cat. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 163. 

One unregistered spec, from Kallig. 

112. Lepidiota punctatipennis, Blanch. 

Lepidiota punctaiipennis, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent,, 1850,/, 157. — Gem, Har. 

Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1 163. 

4__ One unregistered spec, from Sikkim. 



255 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV- 



113. Lepidiota rugosa, Shp. 

Letidiota rugosa, Sharp, Coleop. Hefte. XV, /. 72.— Nonfr, BerL Ent, Zeils, 
XXXVII, 1892,/. 275. 

One unregistered spec. Jahore, J. Meldrum, Esq. 

114. Lepidiota rugosipennis, Blanch, 

Lepidiota rugosipennis, Blanch., Cat. Coll , Ent., 1850,/. 157, — Gem. Har. 

Cat. Coleop. \V,p, 1 163. 

Two unregistered specs, from Kallig. 

115. Lepidiota stigma. Fabr. 

Lepidiota stigma, Fabr., Syst. EL II, p. 160. i. -Burm. Handl. IV, 2. p. 
295, — Gem, Har. Cat, Coleop. IV, />. 11 63. 
jj alha, Fabr., byst. El. II, p. 160. 2. 

Reg, No, ~~ , Perak, unknown. 
Two unregistered specs. ^ and ? locality unknown. 



Genus : ASACTOPHOLIS, Brenske. 

116. Asactopholis bicolor, Shp. 

AsactophoUs hicolor, Sharp, Coleop. Hefte. XV, p. 78. 

Reg. Nos. '^ , -^,and -^^ Tavoy, Museum Collector, 
1884. 
„ No. -^ , Pegu, E.T.Atkinson, Esq., i2th;Decem- 
ber 1888. 



Genus: CYPHOCHILUS, Waterhouse. 
117. Cyphoclnilus candidus, Olivr. 

Cyphochilus candidus, Olivr., Ent. I. 5, j). 15, /. 8,/. 98. — Burm. Handb. IV, 

2, p. 301.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IN. p. 1164. 

Reg. No. ^ , Sibsagar, Assam, S. E. Peal, Esq., 21st 

June 1882. 
„ Nos, '-^' and ^ , Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 

i2ih December 1888. 
,, „ i^ and ^^ Shillong, Shillong Museum, 1892. 

One unregistered spec, Mungphu, E. T. Atkinson, 
Esq, 
Ditto ditto Naga Hills, Captain Butler. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 256 



118. Cyphochilus proximus, shp- 

Cyphochilus proximtis,^h.kx^, Coleop, Keft^XSf, p, 81, — Nonfr, Berl. Enf, 

Z«V. XXXVII, 1892,^, 275. 

Reg, No. ''-J- y Tavoy, Museum Collector. 

119. Cyphochilus pygldialis, Nonfr. 

Cyphochilus pfgidtalis, Nonfr,, JBerL Ent. Zeits, XXXVIII, 1893,/. 332. 

Reg, Nos, -^' and ^ , Shillong, Museum Collector, 

November 1889. 

>, ^^^*and ^ Shillong, Shillong Museum. 
One unregistered spec-, Shillong, ditto, 

120. Cyphochilus sikkimensis, Brsk. 

Cy ph'/chilus sikkimensis, Brensk. n. sp. 3h. 

Reg. Nos.'-^^g=^,Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq., September 1896. 

121. Cyphochilus waterhousi, Brsk. 

Cyphochilus waterhousi, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. ^ , Trichinopoly, Father Honor^, 2nd 
March 1885, 

Genus : LEUCOPHOLIS, Blanchard. 

122. Leucopholis crassa, Brsk. 

Leucopholis crassa, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, ;>. 58. 

Reg. No. ~ , Shillong, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 
9th August i88q. 

One unregistered spec, Assam, Asia. Soc Bengal, 
1864. 
Ditto ditto, Darjeeling, unknown. 
Ditto ditto, locality unknown. 

123. Leucopholis irrorata, Chevr, 

Leucopholis irrorata, Chevrol., Rev. ZooL, 1841,/. 222. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop, IV, p. 1 164. 

„ pollinosa, Burm., Handb, IV, 2,^.304. — Dej. Cat., 3 ed., p. 177, 

Reg. No. 2£ii ^ Philippine Is., Herr E. Brenske. 

^^ ,^ £563^ (jitjQ^ Est^ Ind. Co.'s Museum. 



257 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



124. Leucopholis plagiata, Blanch. 

Leucoi)hoHs plag!ata,'S>\Q.nch., Caf. Coll. Ent., \%^o, p. 158.— Gem. Har. 
Cat, Coleop. TV, p. 1164. 

Reg. No. -^ , Penang, Dr. Cantoi. 
Three specs., Reg. Nos. ^ » ^ and Up , Perak, 
unknown. 

J25. Leucopholis tetaranus, Brsk, 

Leucopholis tetaranus, Brensk., var. Ann. Soc, Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, j>. 157. 
Reg. No, — J- > Deccan, Colonel Sykes. 



Genus: TRICHOLEPIS, Blanchard. 
126. Tricholepis grandis, Castel. 

Tricholepis grandis, Castel., Hist. nat. II, 1840, p. 133.— Gem. Har. Cat. 
Coleop. TV, p. 1 165. 

„ pubera, Burm., Handb. IV, 2, p. 307.^-Dej. Cat., 3 ed., /». 177. 

„ puberina, Blanch., Cat, Coll. Ent., 1850,^. 138. 

Reg. No. -^y^ , Perak, unknown, 9th June 1884. 

127. Tricholepis niveopilosa, Blanch. 

Tricholepis niveopilosa, 'BlB.nch., Cat. Coll. Ent., \S^o, p. 156. — Burm. Handb. 
TV, 2, p. 307. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop.W, p. 1165. 

Reg. No. -^j^ , Madagascar, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 

March 1892. 



Genus: LACHNOSTERNA, Hope. 

(Ancylonycha, Blanch. — Holotrichia, Hope.) 

128. Lachnosterna andamana, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna andamana, Brensk, Ind. Mus. Notes, IV No. 4,/. 178. 

Reg. No. — °— ' Type, And. Is., lent to Herr Brenske. 

129. Lachnosterna atkinsoni, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna atkinsoni,Bxtn^\., Bert. Ent. Zeits.XXKVU., 1892,^.191. 

Reg. No. ^^ S, Type (unique), S. India, Father 
Honor^j nth July 1885. 



No. 5»] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum, 258 
130- Lachnosterna aurosericea, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna aurosericea, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeils. XXXVII, />. 172. — Ann, 

Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, jf>. 160. 

Reg, No. ~^ ? , Type, Tenasserim, Museum 

Collector. . 

131. Lachnosterna bldentata, Burm. 

Lachnosterna bidenta/a, Burm., Handb. IV, 2, p. 316. — Gem. Har. Cai. 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 1 66. 

One unregistered spec, Jahore, J. Meldrum, Esq. 
132. Lachnosterna biehli, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna biehli, BxQXi&k., Berl. Ent. Zeits., 1892, XXXVII, p. ijo.—Ann. 
Soc. Ent., Belg., 1896, XL, p. 151. 

Reg. No- -^Y^ , Type, Darjeeling, Captain Pemberton. 

.. „ -^, ditto ditto. 

,, „ i|ZJ_ , Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq., 1896. 

133. Lachnosterna brevicollis, Burm. 

Lachnosterna brevicollis, Burm. Handb. IV, 2, /. 314,— Gem. Har. Cat. 

Coleop. IV, p. 1 1 70- 

Reg. No. -^ , N.-W. Himalayas, Captain Pemberton. 



134. Lachnosterna cavifrons, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna cavifrons, Brensk., var. Berl. Ent. Zeits., XXXVII, /. 167. 
One unregistered spec, from India. 

135. Lachnosterna clypealis, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna clypealis, 'BxQXii'k, Ann. Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, /. 159. 
Reg. No. ''—, Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq. 
One unregistered spec, Sikkim. 



136. Lachnosterna consanguinea, Blanch. 

Lachnosterna consanguinea.^\-6X^c\i., Cat. Coll. Ent.,\^^o,p. 139.— Gem. 
Har. Cat. Coleop. Vsf, p. ii66. 

Reg. No. ^°, Amoy (China), Dr. Hungerford, 19th 
April 1 88 1. 

„ „ 5i^, ditto ditto. 



259 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



137- Lachnosterna cotesi, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna cotesi, Bx&m'k., Berl, Eni. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892,^, 185, and 
XLI, 1896, />. 348. 

Reg. No.'-P, Type, Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 
1 2th December 1888. 

„ „ ^, , Kurseiong, E. Barlow, Esq., 

1896. 

138. Lachnosterna flavosericea, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna flavosericea, Brensk., Berl. Eni. Zeits. XLI, 1896, 
A 348. 

Reg. No~, Type, Sikkim, E. Barlow, Esq., 1896. 

139- Lachnosterna fusca, Froh. 

Lachnosterna fusca, Frohlich., Naturf., 26, p. ^().^-Lec. Journ. Ac.^ 
Phil, 1856,/. 244. — Candeze. iJ/e'OT., Liege., XVI, 
1861,^.347,/. 2, f. 3. — Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop, 
lY,p. 1 167. 

,y fervens, Gyllenh,, Schonh., Syn. Ins., I, 3, App., /, 74. 

„ fervida, Oliv., Ent., I, 5,/. 24, /. 9,/", 109. 

,, quercina, Knoch., Beitr., I, p. 74, /. i, /, 27. — Burm. 

Handh.^ IV, 2, p. 319, 

Reg. No. ^, America, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March, 
1892. 

140. Lachnosterna lata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna lata, Brensk. Berl. Ent, Zeits, XXXVII, /. 163. 

Reg. No. ~, Tavoy, Museum Collector, 1885. 
„ „ ^, ditto ditto. 

i4t- Lachnosterna longicarinata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna longicarinata, Brensk. Berl. Ent, Zeits. XXXVil. 
/. 181. 

One unregistered spec, from Kallig. 

142. Lachnosterna nigropunctata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna nigropunctata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No. ^, Type (unique), from Assam 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 260 



143- Lachnosterna obscura, Brsk. 

Lachnosierna ohsciira, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, />. 162. 
One unregistered spec, from Assam. 



144. Lachnosterna pagana, Burm. 

Lachnosterna pagana, Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 312. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. l^, p. 1 1 69. 

Two specs., Keg. Nos. '^, and '-^, India. 



145- Lachnosterna pilosa, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna pilosa, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XLI, 1896,/. 350. 

Reg. No. '-f^, Type, Upper Tenasserim, J. Wood- 
Mason, Esq. 
One unregistered spec, (J ditto ditto. 

146. Lachnosterna plagiata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna plagiata, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII />. 185. 
Reg. No. '-g^, Type from India. 

147. Lachnosterna problematica, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna prohlematica, Brensk, Ind. Mus. Notes, IV,4, />. 178. 

One Type spec, from Srinagar lent to Herr E. Brenske. 

148. Lachnosterna glabriclypeata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna glahriclypeata, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892,/. 161. 

One unregistered spec, from India. 

149. Lachnosterna glabrifrons, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna glair if rons, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, ;>. 190. 

Reg. No_ --J3^-, Type, Khasi Hills, unknown, 

150. Lachnosterna imitatrix, Brsk. 
Lachnosterna imitatrix, Brensk. n. sp., Ind. Mus. Notes, Vol. IV, No. 4./. 178. 
Reg. No. -^^, Co-type, Sikkim, C. Dreyer, Esq. 



26 1 Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



151- Lachnosterna impressa, Burm. 

Lachnosterna impressa, Burm., Handb. IV, 2, /. 314. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. IV, p. 1 1 68. -Cotes' Ind. Mus. Notes', 
I, p. 59; Tea insects, p. 5. 

Reg. No. -^, Sikkim, Messrs. Devenport & Co., 

3rd October 1891. 
u „ -~- , Sikkim, D. King, Esq., 14th February 

1883. 
„ ,> ~^, clitto ditto. 

This species attacks tea plants in Sikkim. 

152. Lachnosterna intermedia, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna intermedia, Brensk, Mem. Soc. E?it., Belg., II, 1894,/. 64. 
Two unregistered specs, from India. 

153- Lachnosterna iridipennis, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna iridipennis, '^xtxi^'k, Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892,/, 177. 

Reg. No. -—-, Type, Sibsagar, Assam, S. E. Peal, 
Esq. 
^^^, Calcutta, Museum Collector. 
One unregistered spec. Khasi Hills, Colonel 
G. Austin. 

154' Lachnosterna rustica, Burm. 

Lachnosterna rustica, Burm., Handh. IV, 2, p. 313. — Gem. Har. Cat, 
Coleop. IV, /. 1 169, 

One unregistered spec, from Bangalore. 

155. Lachnosterna scabrifrons, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna scabrifrons, Brensk. Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, p. 164, 

Reg. No. —^-^ Type, Ceylon, unknown. 

156. Lachnosterna scrobiculata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna scrobiculata, Brensk, Berl. Ent. Zeits, XXXVII, 1892, />. 174. 

Rq%, No. -^151^ Type ? , Sikkim, unknown. 

157. Lachnosterna scutellata, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna scutellata, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

One unregistered spec, from India. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 262 



158, Lachnosterna sericata, Brsk. 

Ldchnosterna sericata, Brensk. Berh Ent. Zf//^, XXXVII, 1892,/). 168, 

Reg. No. ^, Type ? , Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 

159- Lachnosterna serrata, Fabr. 

Lachnosterna serrata, Fabr., Spec. Ins, I, /►, 35, — Oliv, Ent. I, 5,/-. 11, 
/.I,/. 5, — Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 310.- Gem, 
Har. Cat. Coleop. \Y,p. 1170. 

Reg. No. —-, Berhampur, E, T. Atkinson, Esq., 
1 2th December 1888. 
>, M ~T^' Sikkim, ditto ditto. 

„ ^1^, Maldah, W H. Irvine, Esq., 31st 
July 1885. 

160. Lachnosterna sikkimensis, Brsk 

Lachnosterna sikkimensis, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, p. 169. 

Reg. No. -^ , Type ? , Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson, Esq., 
25th July 1887. 

161. Lachnosterna sinensis, Hope. 

Lachnosterna sinensis, Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. IV, 1845, p. 8. — Burm. 
Handh. IV, 2, p. 316.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
IV, p. 1 1 70. 

,, sijicB, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p. 139. 

Reg. No. ~, China, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 



March 1892. 
13 



„ ~^, ditto ditto. 



162. Lachnosterna standf ussi, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna standfussi, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Ztits. XXXVII, 1892,^. 182. 

Reg. No. ^~^ Tavoy, Museum Collector, 25th 
June 1885. 

163. Lachnosterna staudingeri, Brsk. 

Lachnoiterna standingeri, Brensk., V2lX. Berl. Ent. Zeils. XXXMll, 1892 

p. 166. 

Reg. No.^^ Calcutta, Museum Collector, 1896. 

„ „ '-^^ Shillong, Mr, Giles, 



263 Indian Museum Notes. [7ol. IV. 



164. Lachnosterna stoliczkae Shp. 

Lachnosterna stoUczlcR, Sharp, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XLVII, 1878, 
p. 172. — Scieni. Res. Sec. Vark.Miss. Coleop., 1879, 
p. Ar(). Nonfr. Berl. Ent. Zeits, XXXVII, 1892, 
p. 278. 

Reg. No. ^^, Type, Murree, Dr. F. Stoliczka, 1874. 
„ ,, ^-^Type, ditto ditto. 



165. Lachnosterna stridulans, Shp. 

Lachnosterna stridulans, Sharp, Journ. As. Soc. Beng. XLVH, 1878,/. 173 
— Scient. Res. Sec. Yark. Mis. Coleop., 1879, p. 
48.— Nonfr. Berl. Ent. Zeils. XXXVII, 1892, 
p. 278. 

Reg. No. '^, Type, Murree, Dr. F. Stoliczka, 
1874. 

166. Lachnosterna tenasserima, Brsk. 

Lachnosterna tenasserima, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XLI, 1896,/. 349. 

Reg. No, ^^ Typec?, Upper Tenasserim, J. 
Wood-Mason, 2nd March 1889. 



Genus : HOLOMELIA, Brenske. 
167. Holomelia mirabilis, Brsk. 

Holomelia mirabilis, Brensk., Ent. I^achr. XVII, 1891,/. 314. 

Reg. No. ^^ Type, Jahore, Jas. Meldrum, Esq. 

Genus: BRAHMIN A, Blanch. 

168. Brahmina calva, Blanch. 

Brahmina calva, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850./. 140.— Burm. Handb. IV, 
2, p. 365, «p/<3;.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1173. 

Reg. No. '^^ Murree, Dr. F. Stoliczka (Yarkand Expdn.) 

,, „ ~, N.-W. Himalayas, East. Ind. Co.'s Museum. 
8547 



3 ' 
8549 



^0 
3 



ditto ditto, 

ditto ditto, 

ditto ditto. 



Ko. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum, 264 
169. Brahmina cardoni, Brsk. 

Brahmina cardoni, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, p. 108. 
Reg. No. "— , Kurseong, Herr E. Brenske. 
„ „ '-^, ditto E. Barlow, Esq. 

170' Brahmina comata, Blanch. 

Brahmina comata, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent„ 1850, />. 140. — Burm.Zra«i<5. IV, 
2, p. 364. — Gem. Uax.Cat. Coleop.lY, p. 1173. 

One unregistered spec, Calcutta, Museum Collector. 

171. Brahmina cotesi, Brsk. 
Brahmina cotesi, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, />. 100. 

Reg. No. '-—, Type ? , Sikkim, E. T. Atkinson. 
I2th December 1888. 
„ „ ~^, Type ?, ditto ditto. 

„ Nos. '■^, ^, ditto ditto. 



8 
[ 2 

' 8 



„ „ % '-^and 2^', ditto ditto. 



„ No. ^-g", ? , Kurseong, E. Barlow, Esq. 

172. Brahmina flabellata, Brsk. 

Brahmina flahellata, Brensk., Berl. Ent, Zeits. XXXVII, 1892,/. 104. 
Reg. No.^, Type S> Sikkim, unknown. 

173- Brahmina obscura, Brsk. ^ 

Brahmina ohscura, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, iSq?,^- 105. 
Reg. No,^\ Type S, Khasi p^is, unknown. 

174. Brahmina siamensis, Brsk. 

Brahmina siamensis, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, p. 103. 

Reg. No. ^-^, Assam, Asiatic Soc. Bengal, 1864. 

175. Brahmina sikkimensis, Brsk. 

Brahmina sikkimensis, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, /. 112. 
Reg. No. ^ Type <J, Sikkim, unknown. 



s65 Indian Museum Notes, [Vol. IV. 



176. Brahmina tavoyensis, Brsk. 

Brahmina tavoyensis, Brensk., Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, />. 104. 

Reg. No. ^, Type ? (unique), Amiah, East of Tavoy. 
Museum Collector. 

177. Brahmina thoracica, Brsk. 

Brahmina ihoracica,'^itXi%\.., Berl. Ent Zeits.XKXNll,p. 109. 

Reg. No. ^, Type S, Khasi Hills, Colonel G. Austin. 

„ „ IIH, Type ?, ditto ditto. 

13 

One unregd. spec. ditto ditto. 

Genus : BRACHYLLUS, Brenske. 

178. Brachyllus ulcerosus, Brsk. 

Brachyllus ulcerosus, Brensk. Ann, Soc. Ent., Belg., XL, 1896, p. 162. 

Reg. No. 2|5?, Sikkim, £. T. Atkinson, Esq., 12th 
December i888« 

Genus : EMPELATIRA, Brenske. n. gen. 

179. Empelatira fairmairei, Brsk. 

Empelatira fairmairei, Brensk. n. sp, Ms. 

Reg. No. ^, Type (unique), Jahore,Museum Collector. 

Genus : CLYTIA, Brenske n. gen. 

180. Clytia pilosa, Brsk. 

Clytia pilosa, Brensk. n. sp. Ms. 

Reg. No.^^s South India, Father Honors, 1885. 
„ „5Zi9 ditto ditto. 

Genus: RHIZOTROGUS, Latreille. 
{^Amphimallus, Muls. — Pseudotrematodes, Jacq. Duv.) 

i8i. Rhizotrogus aestivus, Oliv. 

Rhizotrogus astivus, Oliv., Ent, I, 5,/. 17, /. 2, /. 11. — Burm. Handb, IV, 
2, p. 379. — Gem. Hav. Ca/. Coleop.l^,p. 11 73. 



No. 5.] Melolonthtni contained in colln. of Indian Museum- 266 

Rhizoirogus himaculaius, Herb<5t., Klif. Ill, p, 80,/. 23,/, 10. 

„ gracilis, Frohl., Natur. f. 26, p. 96, 

„ inanis, Brahm. /;/j. Kol., 1, p. 85, 

,, maculicollis, Zubkoff, Bull. Mosc. VI, 1833, p. 322. — Falderm. 

Dej. Cat., 3 ed., /. 178. 

Reg. No. ?gi, Germany, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 

182. Rhizotrogus assimilis, Herbst. 

Rhizoirogus assimilis, Herbst,, Kaf. Ill, p. 83, /. 23, /. 12. — Burm. 
Bandb.lY , 2, p. 393. — Gem. Har, Ca/. Coleop. IV, 
/». 1174. 

„ aprilinus, Duft., Faun. Austr. I, ^. 190.— Heeger, Sit, 

Zungsb. Vien. Ac. XIV, 1854,/). 35. 

Reg. No. 211', Germany, Herr E, Brenske. 

„ 7£lij ditto ditto. 

183. Rhizotrogus ater, Gebl. 

Rhizoirogus akr, Gobi., Bull. Mosc, 1847, IV, p. 463. — 'Gem. Har. Cai, 
Coleop., V^ , p. 1 174. 

Four specs., Reg. Nos- M?, 3i!^^ ^ and ?g?, Germany, 

Herr E. Brenske, 

184. Rhizotrogfus beludschistanus, Brsk. 

Rhizoirogus beludschisianus , Bxensk,, Berl. Ent.Zeiis. XLI, \%^^,p. 318, 

Reg, No, ^^, Type, Baluchistan, Dr. F. P. Maynard. 
. ?3I3, ditto . ditto ditto. 

„ Nos. -H^^, Co-types, ditto ditto, 

185. Rhizotrogus bilobus, Shp. 

Rhizoirogus hilohus, Sharp, Journ, Asia, ^^oc.mng. XL VII, 1878,/. 173.- 
::icien. Res., 2nd Yark. Mis. Coleop., 1079, p. 49.— 
Nonfr. Bell. Ent. Zeiis, XXXVIJ, V?>q2, p. 281. 

Re"-. No. -^^^— Type, Yangihissar, Dr, F Stoliczkaf 

Seven specs., Reg 

Nos. 2-^ 

2156 2T^9 2iM_^ ^ Co-types, ditto ditto. 

10 ' 10 J 10 

3l6S J 2166 

— --, and — — , 



267 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV- 

186. Rhizotrogus frivaldszkyi, Men6tr. 

Mhizoirogus frtvaldszkyi, M^netr, Bull Ac. Petr. I., 18^6, />, 150 ; T^Um. Ac, 

Peir.Y,i^2>'^,p. 24.— Jacq. Duv. (J^w. CoL,llly 
16,/, 79.— Gem. Har, CaL Coleop, IV, /. 1175. 
„ carhonarius, Blanch,, Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p, 148. — Burm. 

Haudb. W,2,p. 366.— Dej. Cat., sed.,^. 178. 
„ ■ tenelrioides, Frivaldszk, A'magyar tudbs. Tars., 1835, p. 259^ 

Reg. No. -^, Asia Minor, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 
March 1892. 

187. Rhizotrogus rufescens, Latr, 

Rhizotrogus rufescens,'L?A.T„ Hist. Crust, et Ins., 1802, X, p. 180. — Burm. 
Handb. IV, 2,p, 394.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, 
p. 1 1 78. 

„ " semirufm, Gyllenh, Schonk. Syn. Ins. 1, 3, App., /. 91. 

Reg. No. -^, Germany, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 
March 1892. 

188, Rhizotrogus ruficornis, Fabr, 

Hhizotroqus ruficornis, Fabr., Syst. Enl,, p. 33. — Ratzeb. Forst. Ins. J, p. 79? 
/. 3, /". 6. — Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p. 391. — Germ- 
Bej. Cat., 3 ed., p. 178. — Gem. Har, Cat. Coleop. 
lY,p. 1178. 

„ marginatus, HQrhst, Filssl. Arch., IV, p. 14, t. ig, f, zz.—Muls. 

Col- Lamell., p. 454. 

„ paganus, 0\\v.,Ent.\, ^,p. 82, /. 10, f. 116. 

Reg, No. ~^, Gallia, Her-r E. Brenske. 

189. Rhizotrogus solstitialis, Linn. 

Rhizotrogus solstitialis, Linn., Faun. Suec, p, 137, — Ratzeb. Forst. Ins.,. 
/. 78, /. 3,/. 5.— Burm, Handb. IV, 2,/, 385.— 
Gem. Har, Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1178. 

s, autumnalis, Fourer., Ent. Par. I, p. 6. — Frisch. Beschr. Ins, 

IX, p. 30,/. IS, r. 1-5. 

Reg. Nos. _Mr!£^, Germany, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 
March 1892. 

190. Rhizotrogus tauricus, Blanch. 

Rhi7.oiroifus tauricus, Blanch., Cat. Coll. Ent., 1850, p. 146.— Burm, Handb^ 
IV, 2. p. 379. — Steven. Dej. Cat., 3 ed., /. 178. 
— Gem. Har, Cat. Coleop. W,p. 1178. 

Three specs., Reg. Nos. -^^^21:^^ , Crimea, unknown. 



No. 6.] Melolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 263 



Genus: ANOXIA, Casteln. 

{Cyphonotiis, Fischr.) 

191. Anoxia orientalis, Kryn. 

Anoxia orienialis, K-xymcV, Bull. Mosc.YV, 1832, />. 123.— Casteln. Hisi. 
naL 11, p, T32. — Burm. liandh. IV, 2, p. 398. — 
Ziegler Dej. Cat., 3 ed., p. 176, — Gem. Har. Cat^ 
Coleop, iy,p. 1 1 80. 

Reg. No. ~-, Syria, Herr E. Brenske, 26th March 
1892. 

192. Anoxia pilosa, Fabr. 

Anoxia pilosa, Fabr., Syst EL II, p. 162. —Burm. Handb. IV, 2, p, 401. — 
Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1180. 
„ deserfi, LQTpech., Tageb. I, p. ■^X'^,/. ig, f. 17 (forte). 

Reg. Nos. -^, -^ and ^ , Europe, Herr E. 
Brenske, 26th March 1892. 

193, Anoxia testacea, Pallas. 

Anoxia fesfacea, Va\]a.s, Jc. Ins. Ross. I, p. 19, /. B, /". A. 22.— Burm. 
Handb. IV, 2, p. 402.^Jacq. Duv, Gen. Col. Ill, i. 1 5, 
/. 72. -Gem, Har. CaL Coleop. IV, p. 1180. 
„ ankeleri, Herbst., Kdf. Ill, p. 43, t. 22, / 4.— Fisch. Ent. Russ, II, 
p. 212, t. 28, f. 4. 

Reg. No. -^, Baluchistan, Dr. F. Maynard, 1896. 
194. Anoxia villosa, Fabr. 

Anoxia villosa, Fabr., Spec. Ins. App., ^ 496.-01iv. ^«/. I, 5,/. 13. ^- i. 
/. 4, a-c — Burm. Handb. IV, 2, /. 400.— Gem. Har. 
Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1180. 
„ cerealis, Scopol., Del. Ins. insiibr. 1, p. 49, /. 21,/. B, 
„ glaiica, Linn., Syst. Nat. Ed. Gmel.l, 4,/. 1583. 
„ pilosa, Muls., Co/. Lamell, p. 25. 

Reg. Nos. ^, ^^ -^ and -^, Europe, Herr 
E. Brenske. 

195. Anoxia zemindar, Shp. 

Anoxia zemindar, Sharp, Coleop. Heft. XV, p, 85.— Nonfr. Berl. Ent„ Zeiti. 
XXXVII, \%gt,p. ^. 

Re^'.-No. ^-^' Bangalore, unknown. 

„ „ ^ , Bushire, W. D. Gumming, Esq., 29th 
October 1897. 



269 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. lY. 



Genus: POLYPHYLLA, Harris. 
196. Polyphylla fullo, Linn. 

Polyphylla fullo, Linn., Faun. Suec, p. i37.-Herbst. Kaf. Ill, p. 36, /. 22, 
f. 1-2., — Erichs Nat. lifs,, III, p, 660.— De Haan. 
Mem. Met. Col., p, 1%, /. 2, /". 5 ; /. 5, /: 4; /. 6, 
f^ 4.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1181. 

Reg. Nos. ^ and ?, Germany, Herr B. Winde, 5th 

December 1885. 
„ No. ^> Europe, ditto ditto. 

„ Nos. ^^77^^, Germany, Herr F. Brenske. 



i97» Polyphylla pulverea, Ballion. 

Ballion, Bull, Soc. Ent. Mosc, 1870, j. 
Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, p. 

Reg. No. ^', Baluchistan, Dr. F. P. Maynard. 



Polyphylla pulverea, Ballion, ^z///, Soc. Ent. Mosc., 1870, p. 342.— Nonfr. 
Berl. Ent. Zeits. XXXVII, 1892, p. 285. 



Genus: Hoplosternus, Guerin. 
198. Hoplosternus bifurcatus, Brsk. 

Hoplosternus hifurcatus, Brensk., Soc. Ent., Belg,, 1896,/. 164. 
Reg. No. -7-, N.-E. Frontier, unknown. 

199, Hoplosternus chinensis, Gudr. 

Hoplosternus chinensis, Gu^r., Voy. Favor., p. 63, /. 232, f, 3. — Burm. Handh. 
IV, 2, p. 40. — Hope, Trans. Ent. Soc. IV, 1895, 
p. i3.~Gen. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p, 1182. 

Reg. No. ^^ China, Dr. Cantor, East-Ind. Co.'s 

Museum, 22nd September 1884. 
Two unregistered specs, from unknown locality. 

200. Hoplosternus flabellata, Shp. 

Hoplosternus flahellaia. Sharp, Hefte. Coleop.yLV, p. 86, — Nonfr. Ber. Ent. 
Zei/s.XXXWM, i^gz, p. 285. -Brensk. Ami. Soc. 
Ent., Belg., XL, 1896,/. 164. 

Reg. No. —'-' $ Darjeeling, C. H. Dreyer, Esq., 2nd 
March 1885. 



No. 5.] Melolonthini contained in colln, of Indian Museum. 270 



201. Hoplosternus furcicandus, Ancey. 

'Eoplosiernus furcicandus, Ancey, Le Natural, 1881, />. 412, — Nonfr. Bcr, 
Ent. Z.z'A.XXXVIi, 1892, ;>. 286— Brensk. Atm, 
Soc. Ent„ Belg., XL, 1896, p. 163, 

Reg. No. —J, Darjeeling, unknown. 

„ „ ^^, ? N. India, ditto. 

„ 7, ^^ Bunu, Gilgit (5,000 feet), Dr. G. M. 
Giles, Gilgit Exiiedition. 
One unregistered spec. ? Sikkim, K. Skalsky, Esq. 

202. Hoplosternus japonica, Harold. 

Hoplosternus japonica, Uaxold, Ahk. Miss. ver. Bremen. W, p. 291. — Nonfr. 
Berl. Ent. Zeifs. XXXVII, 1892,/. 285. 

Reg, No, -^, Formosa, Surgn.-General R. Hungerford, 
1 6th March 1882. 
One unregistered spec, from Japan. 

203. Hoplosternus leevipennis, Blanch. 

Hoplosternus loevipennis, Blanch., Cat, ColL Ent., 1850, />, 158. Gem, Har, 
Cat, Coleop, IV, p. 1182. 

One unregistered spec, China ? 

204. Hoplosternus shillongensis, Brsk, 

Hoplosternus shillongensis, Brensk. n. sp. Mss. 

Reg, No. ^~, Shillong, Shillong Museum. 



Genus: MELOLONTHA, Fabr. 
205. Melolontha argus, Burm. 

Melolontha argus, Buxm., Bandb. IV, 2, p. ^ig. Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. 
V\,p. 1182. 

Reg. No. '-^^ India, unknown. 

One unregistered spec, Jahore, J. Meldrum, Esq, 

2c6. Melolontha gruttigera, Shp. 

Melolontha guttigera, Sharp, Coleop. Heft. XV (Munchen), /. 87. 

Reg. No. ~, Jalpaiguri, G. Shillingford, Esq., 1885. 

„ „ 5i^» Kurseong, E. Barlow, Esq., 20th October 
1889'. 



» 



2'ji Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 



207. Melolontha hippocastani, Fabr, 

Meloloniha hippocasianiyYshr., Sysl. El. 11, p. 162. — Ratzeb. Forsiins. I, 
p. 76. /. 3, f. 3. — Erichs, Nat. Ins., Ill, p. 673. — 
Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop., lY,p. 1182. 
„ pectoralis, Megerle, Bemerk, zw. lllig., 1812, />. 21. 

Reg. Nos. ~j^, Europe, Herr E. Brenske, 26th 
March 1892. 

208. Melolontha pennata, Shp. 

Melolontha pennata, Sharp, Coleop. Heft, (Munchen), p. 88. 
One unregistered spec, Sikkim. 

209. Melolontha rangunensis,Brsk. 

Melolontha rangunensis, Brensk. n, sp., Ind. Mus. Notes, IV, 4,^. 179. 

Reg. No. ~-, Type (unique), Kangoon, spec, lent 
to Herr E. Brenske. 

210. Melolontha serrulata, Gyll. 

M*.loloniha serrulata, Gyllenh., Schonh. Syn. Ins. I, 3, App., ^. 73. — Burm. 
Handb. IV, 2, p. 418.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop.VJ , 
^1183. 
„ difficilis, Dej., Cat. 3 ed.,/. 177. 
,, OT««z7/ar«OT, Blanch., Cat., Coll. Ent., 1850,^. 160. 

Reg. No. 5^. Amoy, China, Dr. Hungerford, 19th April 

1881. 

211. Melolontha sulcipennis, Casteln. 

Melolontha sukt'penm's, Casteln., Hist. Nat, 11, p. 131.— Burm. Handb. IV, 2, 
p. 418. — Eschsch. Dej, Cat., 3 ed.,/. 176. 

Reg. Nns. '-^ and ^, Philippine Is., East-Ind. Co., 
Museum, 

212. Melolontha vulgraris, Fabr. 

Melolontha vulgaris, Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 32.— Ratzeb. Forstins, I, p 6? 
A 3, f. 1-2.— Erichs. Nat, Ins. Ill, A 671 ; larva 1 c 



9 



p. 669.— Gem. Har. Cat. Coleop. IV, p. 1183. 
maialisj lAoW., nat. Brief.l, p. lyg. 

melolontha, Linne., Faun. Suec, p, 136. — DeGeer, Mem IV 
p,i']l,t.\o,f.i\. 

Reg. Nos. ^^ and 'i34^ France, Mons. F. Bouvier, 
30th December 1884. 

" " tF ^"^ ^' Europe, Herr E. Brenske, 
36th March 1893. 



No. 6.] Milolonthini contained in colln. of Indian Museum. 272 
Genus : TRINOXIA, Brenske. 

213. Trinoxia cyphonotoides, Brsk. 

Trinoxia cyphonotoides, Brensk., Mem. Soc. Ent., Belg., II, 1894,^. 81. 
Reg. No. —-, ? , N.-E. Frontier, unknown. 



273 



Indian Museum Notes. 



[Vol. IV. 



LIST OF GENERA. 



Ampkimallus, Muls, 
Ancistrosoma, Curtis. 
Ancylonycha, Blanch, 
Anisonyx, Latreille. 
Anoxia^ Casteln. 
Apogonia, Kirby. 
Asactopholis, Brensk. 

Brachyllus, Brensk, 
Brahmina, Blanch, 

Clytia, Brensk. 
Cyphochilus, Waterh, 
Cyphonotus, Fischr. 

Dejeania, Blanch, 
Dichelus, Serville. 
Diphucephala, Serville. 

Ectinohoplia, Redten. 
Empelatira, Brensk. n. g. 
Eriesthis, Burm. 
Eucirrus, Melly. 

Goniaspidius, Burm. 

Haplonycha, Blanch, 
Heptophylla, Motsch, 
Heteronyx, Guerin, 
Holomelia, Brensk. 
Hololrichiij, Hope. 
Homaloplia, Stephens. 
Hoplia, Illiger, 
Hoplosternus, Guerin. 



Lachnosterna, Hope. 

Lasioserica, Brensk, 
Lepidiota, Hope, 
Lepisia, Serville. 
Lepitrix, Serville, 
Leucopholis, Blanch. 
Liparetrus, Guerin, 

Melolontha, Fabr. 
Monochelus, Serville, 

Odontria, White. 
Ophthalmoserica, Brensk. n. g. 
Otoclinius, Brensk. 

Pachycnema, Serville. 
Peritrichia, Burm. 
Phyllotocus, Fischer. 
Polyphylla, Harris. 
Pseudotrematodes, Jacq. Duv. 
Pyronota, Boisduval. 

Rhinaspis, Perty. . 
Rhizotrogus, Latreille. 

Schizonycha, Blanch. 
Sevica, Mac Leay. 
Stethaspis, Hope. 

Tricholepis, Blanch. 
Trinoxia, Brensk. 
Triodonta, Llulsant. 



No. 5.] De&cfiptwn of a new Pear-tree Aphis from Ceylon. 2'j !^ 

THE PEAR-TREE APHIS, 

LacJinus pyri, Buckton. 

By G. B. buckton, F.R.S., etc. ; with introductory note by 

E. E. GREEN, F.E.S., Honorary Comuliing 

Entomologist to the Government of Ceylon. 

Plate No* XVI. 

In March of the present year (1898) I was requested to examine and 
report upon specimens of a blight that was said to be attacking cultivated 
Pear-trees in the Muvara Eliya district of Ceylon. I was subsequently able 
to observe the insect in sitA. It proved to be a large species of Aphis 
occurring in large groups upon the stems and branches of the trees,— always, 
apparently, upon the ripe wood. Where possible, the insects were massed 
upon the lower or sheltered side ; but they were present in such large numbers 
that they frequently covered the whole surface of the stem. They secreted 
an abundant supply of ' honey-dew ' ; so much, that it collected into large 
drops which ran down the stems and covered the adjacent leaves, attracting 
numerous flies and other insects. I did not, however, notice any ants in 
attendance upon this species. Nor were there any larvae of Syrphiis flies 
preying upon them at the time. In places where the pest had taken complete 
possession, they seemed to have cut off the supply of sap, with the result 
that the ends of such branches presented a very sickly appearance, and in 
some cases died back. 

Female insects in all stages were present, though the winged adults were 
comparatively scarce. No males could be found. No eggs were observed 
though the young larvae were very abundant. It is therefore probable that 
the insect is viviparous. 

If left unchecked this pest is likely to considerably weaken the trees. 
But, being confined to the stems and branches, it can be very easily destroyed 
by the use of any insecticide, such as one of the soapy emulsions, applied 
with a large brush. Plain soap and water, applied very hot, is almost equally 
effective, and would not injure the tree unless applied to the more tender 
shoots. The pest may also be kept in check by crushing them with the 
hand — or a piece of coarse sacking — on the first appearance of the colonies. 



2«5 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

In general appearance this insect approaches Lachnus plafanicola, Riley» 
a species that affects plane trees in North America. But as the pattern of 
spots on the body differs to some extent, I sent specimens to Mr. G. B. Buck- 
ton, for determination. It proves to be a new species of Lachnus. From 
the material submitted, Mr. Buckton has kindly prepared the appended 
description. • 



. Ziachmis pyri n. sp. 

Some interest attaches to this hitherto unobserved insect, inasmuch as it 
forms another exception to the usual observation, that the Lachninse mostly 
infest the conifer of a country. Its habit is to encrust the smaller branches 
of the cultivated pear-trees at Muvara Eliya, Ceylon, much in the same 
manner as the species Lachnus viminalis encrusts the bark of the willows of 
Europe. 

In Ceylon it appears to leave the foliage unattacked, but nevertheless 
causes them to wither from exhaustioij or probably by their occurrence in 
thousands altering the character of the sap. 

Apterous Larva (fig. <z). 

Somewhat oval, constricted below the thorax, abdomen globose : vertex, 
rather pointed, eyes large, antenna with two small vasal joints, followed by 
two longer and obscurely jointed articulations. The terminal joints are as in 
the genus Lachnus. 

The whole body is rugose and furrowed, brown, with dark spots, showing 
also distinct stomata. There is a slight swelling or protuberance on the dor- 
sum. Nectaries large and tuberculose, from which a secretion is poured, 
much appreciated by ants and flies. Tail rounded, hirsute, as also are the 
legs. These are stout, particularly the hind part. Rostrum long and reach- 
ing nearly to the caseda. 

General colour umber brown, more or less covered by a slaty-coloured 
mealy coat. Femora ferruginous red. Tarsi black. Size = 3-5 x 2-5 mille- 
metres. 

Winged female (fig. h). 

Much larger than the above, with much the same colour, however, on the 
upper-side. The under-side rather downy, and of a rusty red. Head small, 
thorax and stirnum black. Antennae fine and short. 



No. 5.] Description of a new Pear-tree Aphis from Ceylon. 276 

Wings smoky with cubital vein twice forked. Sligma lengthened. Ab- 
domen obscurely dotted wilh black. 

This insect gives a fine crimson stain to Canada balsum and other resins- 
Size of body 4-0 millemetres. Expanse 12-5 millemetres. 

Note, — The above descriptions and measurements were made from exam- 
ples that had become partly shrivelled in alcohol. I find that dimensions of 
the living insect are sliglitly greater. The body, in both the apterous and 
winged female adult, measures from 4-50 to 5-0 mm. The expanded wings 
in a well developed example, cover nearly 16*0 mm. 

Examples of the winged females collected in June (fig. d) seem to be 
more brightly coloured than those of the March brood. 

The bases of both wings are thickly clouded with black : there is a small 
yellow patch at the base of the costa on the fore-wing; and the elongate 
stigma is almost jet black. 

Mr. Buckton does not appear to have described the apterous adult. It 
differs from the larva chiefly in size, the length of the body being about 
4-50 mm. The abdomen is swollen and smoothly rounded, showing no seg- 
mental divisions ; though the position and number of the segments is plainly 
indicated by the series of large round black spots (fig. e). The cornicles 
are abruptly truncate, with a not very prominent median papilla. Antennae 
with six joints; the first and second shortest; the third very long; the fourth 
to sixth sub-equal, together scarcely exceeding the third. 



fig. a. Half-grown larva ") drawings from shrivelled specimens 

„ b. Winged female, March brood) by Mr. G: B. Buckton. 

„ c. antenna, 

„ d. Winged female, June brood ) drawn from living specimens by 

5, e. Apterous adult, „ „ \ Mr. E. Ernest Gieen. 

{fig, e is drawn to a larger scale \hz.nfig. d). 



377 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

NOTES ON TWO NEW SPECIES OF APHIDS. • 
BY G. B. BUCKTON, f.r.s., etc. 
I. Chaitophoriis maculatus^ n. sp. 

Plate No, XVII {fig. i). 

Head and pronotum honey-yellow ; front broad between the eyes and 
bristly, eyes large and red. Body pink or yellowish, tuberculose, and 
furnished with capitate hairs. Nectaries short and hardly visible, tail blunt. 
The upper-side garnished with numerous brown spots disposed in vertical rows 
down the dorsum. Antennae about the length of the body. Legs honey- 
yellow, hind and front femora rather dilated. The sides of the thorax in some 
specimens are swollen. 

The wings are short, rounded at the tips, and veined as in Chaitophorus, 
The stigma is large and punctured, nervures slightly clouded at their termi- 
nations. 

Size of apterous female z'o millemetres. 
Infests Medicago saliva in Jodhpur, India. 



2. A NEW ROOT-FEEDING APHIS. 
Uliifiobius jujuhce n. sp. 

Plate No. XVII {Jig. 2). 

Burmeister formed the genus Rhizobius to include certain aphides having 
subterranean habits, and amongst other characteristics seemed to be apterous 
in all their metamorphoses. Since his day Lechtenstein and others have 
conclusively shown that many insects of this family have both serial and 
under-ground habits as illustrated by Aphis subterranea and the destructive 
Phylloxera vasialrix of Europe and America. 



1 Specimens were forwarded to the Indian Museum in March 1897 by the Superintendent 
of Forests, Marwar, as destructive to lucerne grass {Idedicago saliva) in Jodhpur, E. B. 



No. 5.] Note on two new species of Aphids from India. 278 

But the life-history of these Rhizobiinj© is still obscure, and for a time it 
will be well to retain the genus, as Kaltenbach has done. I now describe 
an Aphis feeding in plenty on the roots of Zigyphiis jujubcB in the 
neighbourhood of Kaladhugbi, India. They were collected some two or 
three years ago by Mr. Octavius Greig. 

Rhizolius jujuboe n. sp. — Long, oval, hirsute, and of a rich brown 

colour; the smaller individuals being paler. Antennas very short, with 

five joints, the terminal joint being somewhat clavale and ending with two 
setae. 

Eyes close to the insertion of the antennse, very small and not faceted. 
Nectaries absent. Legs stout and short, tarsi with one claw only. Rostrum 
reaching to the second coxae. 

The young are much smaller and are much more aphis-like in general 
form. 

The companies were attended by ants, but for what purpose it is not clear, 
since the Aphides do not possess nectaries to pour out " honey dew." 

Size 16 X 7 millemetres. 



279 Indian Museum Notes. [Vol. IV. 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW PARASITIC TACHINID 
FLY FROM CEYLON. 

BY D. W. COQUILLETT. 

COMMUNICATED BY E. E. GREEN, f.e.s. 

Plate No. XV12I {fig. i). 

JExorista heterusice,'^ Coquillett, new species. 

^ ? black, the spical two-thirds of the palpi and a spot on sides of the 
second and third abdominal segments, yellowish. Front in the male two= 
fifths, in the female three-fifths, as wide as either eye, the sides gray polli- 
nose, orbital bristles present in the female, wanting in the male, frontal 
bristles descending to base of third antennal joint, face whitish pollinose, 
vibrissas on a level with the front edge of the oral margin, four or nve bristles 
above each, cheeks one- seventh as broad as the eye-height ; antennas nearly 
as long as the face, the third joint two and one-half times as long as the 
second, arista thickened on the basal third, its penultimate joint scarcely 
longer than broad, palpi greatly thickened apically. Thorax gray pollinose, 
marked with four black vittse ; four postsutural and three sternopleural 
macrochaetge, but the lowest of the latter sometimes very small; scutellum 
bearing four marginal pairs, of which the hindmost pair is cruciate and 
directed obliquely backward. Abdomen subshining, broadly whitish pollinose 
on the bases of the last three segments, except a black dorsal vitta, macro- 
chsetse of the first three segments only marginal. Hind tibige outwardly 
ciliate, middle tibiae each bearing a single macrochseta on the front side near 
the middle, front pulvilli oE male as long as the last tarsal jomt. Wings 
hyaline, slightly gray at the base, third vein bearing two or three bristles 
at its base, bend of fourth vein destitute of an appendage; calypteres whitish. 
Length 6 to 9 mm. One male and three females. Pussellawa, Ceylon^ 
Bred from He/eruna cingala? Moore, by Mr. E. E. Green, F.E.S. , Honorary 
Government Entomologist, Ceylon. 

1 This I achinid fly is said to hive done good service in checking the ravages of the tea 
pest Htterusia cingaXn, Moore, in Ceylon. !5pecimens received hern ihe Pussellawa district, 
were found to be so thoioughly intestsd by it that from over one hundred of the caterpillars not 
more than half a dozen moths were reared by Mr. Green. In some cases as many as ten pupae 
of the fly were found in the dead cocoons. 

' The catei pillar of this moth periodically occurs in very large numbers, and sometimes 
completely defo'iates the tea bushes over a large acreage in Ceylon (for an illusttation of tha 
pest. See Plate XVl:l,fig. 2.) 

G I. C. P. O.— No. 291 R. & A- T3-10-99.— D. R.— 1,000 



PLATE I 







G. C Cbiickraburtty, del. 



ASSAMIA DENTATA, N. Sp. 

Photo-etobinii ft-omtlie ori^.inal drawinSs-Stirvey of ladia Offices, Calcutta, July 1S95. 



Plate II. 




G. C. Cbuckraburtty, de3. 



1. MARUCA TESTULALIS, GETER. 3. THIACIDAS POSTICA, WALK. 

3. PEEINA NUDA, PABR. 4. HYPSA ALCIPHRON, CRAM. 

5. HYMENIA RRCURVALIS. PABR. 

Photo-etching from the original drawmjs -Su.r\;ey of ladiu. OHiouJ, Calcutta, July ISflS. 



Plate III. 





'2r. C. Chuckraburtty, del. 



1. MAHA.SENA GRAMINIVORA, N. Sp. 

2. EUMETA CRAMBRI, WESTW. 



3: RHOPALOSIPHUM DIANTHI, SGHR. 
4. MILLEPEDE. 



Plioto.etchmg from the original 



Survey of India Offices, Calcutta, July 1895. 



]^LAT>: IV. 








V 



li 



G.CCliuckraburtly, del. Fkotoetchina - Survey of India Ofiices.CsLLcutta. November 1 

1. PEMPHIGUS NAP^US N. Sp. 2. PEMPHIGUS IMMUNIS N. Sp. 



PLATE V. 




G. C. Chuckraburtty, del 



Fhoto-etchino' Survey of India Offices. Calcutta, Novemter 



1, THOSEA RECTA.HAMPS 3, CARTERIA DECORELLA.MASK. 

f Id, ICHNEUMONID PARASITE OF THOSEA RECTA. 4. SYNCLERA MULTILINE ALIS.GUEN. 

2. XYLOBORUS FORNICATUS.EICHHOF 5. DACTYLOPIUS LONGIFILIS.COMSTOCK. 



PLATE VI. 





cl K' 




f \ 











G.C.Cbackraburttv, del. 



Photo-etdiin?" Survey of India Offices. Calcutta.Novemter 1896. 



1. PODONTIA 14- PUNCTATA, LINN. 2. ASPIDIOTUS FICUS, (RILEY) COMSTOCK. 

3. ARGAS REFLEXUS. FABR. 



PLATE VH. 




G. C. Ckuokrabiirtcy; iel. 



Ptotc-etrJimg, Survey of India Offices, Calcutta, Majr, 1898. 



1. CKYPTOPHLEBLA CAHPOPHAGA, WLSM..N. Sp. 

2. EREUNETIS? SEMINIVORA,WLSM,A^. Sp. 



PLATE \Tn^ 




G. C. dtuckraiurtty, del. 



Photo -etcLing, Survej of India Offices. Calcutta.May; 1898 . 



1. MYLLOCERUS MACULOSUS. He. d.Log^N. Sp. 

2. , MYLLOCERUS SETJJLlFER.JJ&.dj.Zog N. Sp. 

3. LEUCOMIGUS AJSITENNALIS . FAUST. 



PLATE K. 




G. C, CiLUckraburtty, del. 



1, STRAWSON'S "CORONETTE' 

2. VERMOREL'S "TORPILLE" 
3 D° :'E CLAIR" 



Plioto-etcliin^, Survey of India Offices, Calcutta.May 1898. 



4. STRAWSON'S "NOTUS" 

5 'D° 'J\1TTIPEST" 

6. CHISWICK GO'S SPRAYER. 



PLATE X 




PLATE XI 



WW 







;-j^^ 




G. C. diuckriburtty, del. 



Photo -etahmg, Survey of India Offices, Calc-atta,May,189f 



1. acat:tthopsyche (BRACHYCYTTATIUS) subteralbata.hmps. 

.2. LEPTISPAPYGMAEA.BALY. 

3. ARAEOCERUSPASCICULATUS.DEGEER: 

4. . ADORETUS CARDONI.BRENSKE ■ 



PLATE XH 




G-. C. Chuckraburlty, del. 



Plioto-etching, Siorvey of India- Offices, Calcutta, May, ] 



1. ALEURODES BARODENSIS MASKELL, . 

2 D° EUGENIAE MASKELL. VAR, AURANTII, 

3 D° COTESII, MASKELL . 



PLATE XDI. 







G.C .dmckraburtty. del. 



Plioto-etchiii^-S'uivey of India Oifices.CaLLcutta.Mardi 1893. 



1. HOLOTRICHIiV IMITATRK, BRSi. N. Sp. 

2. HOLOTRICHIA ANDAMANA.BRSK. N. Sp. 



3. SERICA CALCUTTAE, BRSK. N. Sp.. 

4. SERICA ASSAMENSIS,BRSK. N. Sp. 



PLATE XIV. 




;v 



JMI 










G.C.Criuckrabiartty.del. 



Piioto-etcliin^ - Siirvey of India OfB.ces,Calcutta3i3i-i^- "S99. 



1. EUPROCTIS LATIFAS CIA, WALK. 
2 TIIOSEA CERVINA, MOORE. 



3. THOSEA DIVE RGEN S.MOORE. 

4. BELIPPA LOHOR. MOORE . 



PLATE W. 




G. C .Ciiuckrabur tty, del . 



Photo-etch.in§" Survey of India.Offi.ces.Calcatta.January 1833. 



1. CREMASTOGASTER ROGENHOEERI.MAYR. 

2. FLUTELLA MAC UL ATA, CURT. 

3. ERIOCOCCUS PARADOXUS, VAP^.INDICA, MASK. 



PLA.TE Xy 






G. C . Chuckr aburtty , del . 



Photo-elcTiin§"S"urvey of India Offices. Calcutta, Febriaaiy 189S 



LACHNUS PYRI BUCKTON, N. Sp. 



PLATE XVE. 







X 



cb. 





G. C . Chuckraburtty, del. 



Piioto-etdiiiig " Survey of India Offices, Calcutta, FelDruary 1899. 



1. CHAITOPHORUS MACULATUS BUCKTOK W. Sp. 
2. K.HIZOBIUS JUJUBAE.- BUCKTO¥. K Sp. 



PLATE XVm. 






G.C.CliuckrabTirtty, del. 



Photo-etching- Qurvej of India Office s, Calcntta^Febrasury 1833. 



1. EXORISTA HETEPtUSIAE COQUILLETT K Sp. 
2. HETEEUSIA C IN GALA MOORE. 



•r 

V 



o 



JUN l!2 1903 



I^mIAN MUSEUM Notes. 



ISSUED BY THE TRUSTEES. 



EDITED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT. 



Volume IV.— No. 6. 



CONTAINING THE TITLE PAGE, TABLE OF CONTENTS, 
AND INDEX TO THE VOLUME. 







CALCUTTA: 

OFFICE OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF GOVERNMENT PRINTING, INDIA. 

1900. 



^'VlcC ^OUt ^ItVHO*, 



Indian Museum Publications relating to Economic Entomology 
issued by the Government of India in the Department of Revenue 

and Agriculture. 

S a. 
II Indian Museum Notes, Vol. 1,1889101891 . .44 
„ „ II, 1891 and 1893 • .712 
„ „ „ „ III, 189310 1896 . .30 

„ „ „ „ IV, 1896 to 1900 . .54 

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